utility changes the user ID and/or the group ID of the specified files.
Symbolic links named by arguments are silently left unchanged unless
The options are as follows:
option is specified, symbolic links on the command line are followed.
(Symbolic links encountered in the tree traversal are not followed.)
option is specified, all symbolic links are followed.
option is specified, no symbolic links are followed.
This is the default.
Change the user ID and/or the group ID of the specified directory trees
(recursively, including their contents) and files.
Beware of unintentionally matching the
hard link to the parent directory when using wildcards like
Do not report any failure to change file owner or group, nor modify
the exit status to reflect such failures.
If the file is a symbolic link, change the user ID and/or the
group ID of the link itself.
to be verbose, showing files as the owner is modified.
flag is specified more than once,
will print the filename, followed by the old and new numeric user/group ID.
options are ignored unless the
option is specified.
In addition, these options override each other and the
command's actions are determined by the last one specified.
operands are both optional, however, one must be specified.
operand is specified, it must be preceded by a colon (``:'') character.
may be either a numeric user ID or a user name.
If a user name is also a numeric user ID, the operand is used as a
may be either a numeric group ID or a group name.
If a group name is also a numeric group ID, the operand is used as a
The ownership of a file may only be altered by a super-user for
obvious security reasons.
Previous versions of the
utility used the dot (``.'') character to distinguish the group name.
This has been changed to be a colon (``:'') character so that user and
group names may contain the dot character.
On previous versions of this system, symbolic links did not have
option is non-standard and its use in scripts is not recommended.