utility reports certain kernel statistics kept about process, virtual memory,
disk, trap and cpu activity.
option is not specified, information is obtained from
the currently running kernel via the
Otherwise, information is read from the specified core file,
using the name list from the specified kernel image (or from
the default image).
The options are as follows:
When used with
include statistics about interrupts that have never been generated.
Repeat the display
The first display is for the time since a reboot and each subsequent
report is for the time period since the last display.
If no repeat
is specified, and
is specified, the default is infinity, otherwise the default is one.
Report on the number
system calls since system startup, and the number of pages of virtual memory
involved in each.
Changes memory columns into more easily human readable form. Default if
standard output is a terminal device.
Changes memory columns into straight numbers. Default if standard output
is not a terminal device (such as a script).
Report on the number of interrupts taken by each device since system
Extract values associated with the name list from the specified
is also specified,
extract the name list from the specified
instead of the default,
which is the kernel image the system has booted from.
Report on the usage of kernel dynamic memory allocated using
Change the maximum number of disks to display from the default of 2.
Report per-cpu system/user/idle cpu statistics.
Specify which types of devices to display.
There are three different
categories of devices:
Direct Access devices
Sequential Access devices
Write Once Read Multiple devices
Optical Memory devices
Medium Changer devices
Storage Array devices
Enclosure Services devices
Integrated Drive Electronics devices
Small Computer System Interface devices
Any other device interface
The user must specify at least one device type, and may specify at most
one device type from each category.
Multiple device types in a single
device type statement must be separated by commas.
Any number of
arguments may be specified on the command line.
arguments are ORed together to form a matching expression against which
all devices in the system are compared.
Any device that fully matches
argument will be included in the
output, up to two devices, or the maximum number of devices specified
by the user.
Display the contents of the
structure, giving the total number of several kinds of paging related
events which have occurred since system startup.
seconds between each display.
If no repeat
interval is specified, the default is 1 second.
Report on memory used by the kernel zone allocator,
displays the following information:
Information about the numbers of processes in various states.
in run queue
blocked for resources (i/o, paging, etc.)
runnable or short sleeper (< 20 secs) but swapped
Information about the usage of virtual and real memory.
Virtual pages (reported in units of 1024 bytes) are considered active if
they belong to processes which are running or have run in the last 20
active virtual pages
size of the free list
Information about page faults and paging activity.
These are averaged each five seconds, and given in units per second.
total number of page faults
page reclaims (simulating reference bits)
pages paged in
pages paged out
pages freed per second
pages scanned by clock algorithm, per-second
Disk operations per second (this field is system dependent).
Typically paging will be split across the available drives.
The header of the field is the first two characters of the disk name and
the unit number.
If more than two disk drives are configured in the system,
displays only the first two drives, unless the user specifies the
argument to increase the number of drives displayed.
This will probably
cause the display to exceed 80 columns, however.
to display specific drives, their names may be supplied on the command line.
defaults to show disks first, and then various other random devices in the
system to add up to two devices, if there are that many devices in the
If devices are specified on the command line, or if a device type
matching pattern is specified (see above),
will only display the given devices or the devices matching the pattern,
and will not randomly select other devices in the system.
Trap/interrupt rate averages per second over last 5 seconds.
device interrupts per interval (including clock interrupts)
system calls per interval
cpu context switch rate (switches/interval)
Breakdown of percentage usage of CPU time.
user time for normal and low priority processes
default kernel namelist
default memory file
vmstat -w 5
will print what the system is doing every five
seconds; this is a good choice of printing interval since this is how often
some of the statistics are sampled in the system.
Others vary every second and running the output for a while will make it
apparent which are recomputed every second.
vmstat -p da -p cd -w 1
will tell vmstat to select the first two direct access or CDROM devices
and display statistics on those devices, as well as other systems
statistics every second.