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xauth (1)
  • >> xauth (1) ( Solaris man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • xauth (1) ( Linux man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • 
    NAME
         xauth - X authority file utility
    
    SYNOPSIS
         xauth [ -f authfile ] [ -vqib ] [ command arg ... ]
    
    DESCRIPTION
         The xauth program is used to edit and display the authoriza-
         tion  information  used in connecting to the X server.  This
         program is usually used  to  extract  authorization  records
         from  one  machine  and  merge them in on another (as is the
         case when using remote logins or granting  access  to  other
         users).   Commands (described below) may be entered interac-
         tively, on the xauth command line, or in scripts.  Note that
         this  program  does not contact the X server except when the
         generate command is used.  Normally xauth  is  not  used  to
         create the authority file entry in the first place; xdm does
         that.
    
    OPTIONS
         The following options may be used with xauth.  They  may  be
         given  individually  (e.g.,  -q  -i)  or may combined (e.g.,
         -qi).
    
         -f authfile
                 This option specifies the name of the authority file
                 to  use.  By default, xauth will use the file speci-
                 fied by the XAUTHORITY environment variable or .Xau-
                 thority in the user's home directory.
    
         -q      This option  indicates  that  xauth  should  operate
                 quietly  and  not print unsolicited status messages.
                 This is the default if an xauth command is is  given
                 on the command line or if the standard output is not
                 directed to a terminal.
    
         -v      This option indicates that xauth should operate ver-
                 bosely  and  print  status  messages  indicating the
                 results  of  various  operations  (e.g.,  how   many
                 records  have been read in or written out).  This is
                 the default if xauth is reading  commands  from  its
                 standard  input  and its standard output is directed
                 to a terminal.
    
         -i      This option indicates that xauth should  ignore  any
                 authority  file  locks.  Normally, xauth will refuse
                 to read or edit any authority files that  have  been
                 locked  by  other  programs  (usually xdm or another
                 xauth).
    
         -b      This option indicates that xauth should  attempt  to
                 break  any  authority  file locks before proceeding.
                 Use this option only to clean up stale locks.
    
    COMMANDS
         The following commands may be used to  manipulate  authority
         files:
    
         add displayname protocolname hexkey
                 An authorization entry  for  the  indicated  display
                 using  the  given  protocol and key data is added to
                 the authorization file.  The data is specified as an
                 even-lengthed  string  of  hexadecimal  digits, each
                 pair representing one octet.   The  first  digit  of
                 each  pair  gives the most significant 4 bits of the
                 octet, and the second digit of the  pair  gives  the
                 least significant 4 bits.  For example, a 32 charac-
                 ter hexkey would represent a 128-bit value.  A  pro-
                 tocol  name  consisting  of  just a single period is
                 treated as an abbreviation for MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1.
    
    
         generate displayname protocolname [trusted|untrusted]
                 [timeout seconds] [group group-id] [data hexdata]
    
                 This command is similar to add.  The main difference
                 is  that instead of requiring the user to supply the
                 key data, it connects to  the  server  specified  in
                 displayname and uses the SECURITY extension in order
                 to get the key data to store  in  the  authorization
                 file.   If  the  server cannot be contacted or if it
                 does not support the SECURITY extension, the command
                 fails.   Otherwise,  an  authorization entry for the
                 indicated display using the given protocol is  added
                 to the authorization file.  A protocol name consist-
                 ing of just a single period is treated as an  abbre-
                 viation for MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1.
    
                 If the trusted option is used, clients that  connect
                 using  this  authorization will have full run of the
                 display, as usual.  If untrusted  is  used,  clients
                 that  connect  using this authorization will be con-
                 sidered untrusted and  prevented  from  stealing  or
                 tampering  with  data  belonging to trusted clients.
                 See the SECURITY extension  specification  for  full
                 details  on  the  restrictions  imposed on untrusted
                 clients.  The default is untrusted.
    
                 The timeout option specifies  how  long  in  seconds
                 this authorization will be valid.  If the authoriza-
                 tion remains unused (no clients are  connected  with
                 it)  for  longer  than  this time period, the server
                 purges the authorization,  and  future  attempts  to
                 connect  using  it will fail.  Note that the purging
                 done by the server does not delete the authorization
                 entry  from  the  authorization  file.   The default
                 timeout is 60 seconds.
    
                 The group option  specifies  the  application  group
                 that  clients  connecting  with  this  authorization
                 should belong to.  See the application group  exten-
                 sion specification for more details.  The default is
                 to not belong to an application group.
    
                 The data  option  specifies  data  that  the  server
                 should use to generate the authorization.  Note that
                 this is not the same data that gets written  to  the
                 authorization file.  The interpretation of this data
                 depends on the authorization protocol.  The  hexdata
                 is in the same format as the hexkey described in the
                 add command.  The default is to send no data.
    
    
         [n]extract filename displayname...
                 Authorization entries  for  each  of  the  specified
                 displays  are written to the indicated file.  If the
                 nextract command is used, the entries are written in
                 a  numeric  format suitable for non-binary transmis-
                 sion  (such  as  secure   electronic   mail).    The
                 extracted  entries  can  be  read  back in using the
                 merge and nmerge commands.  If the filename consists
                 of  just  a single dash, the entries will be written
                 to the standard output.
    
         [n]list [displayname...]
                 Authorization entries  for  each  of  the  specified
                 displays  (or  all  if  no  displays  are named) are
                 printed on the standard output.  If the  nlist  com-
                 mand  is  used, entries will be shown in the numeric
                 format used by the nextract command; otherwise, they
                 are  shown  in a textual format.  Key data is always
                 displayed in the hexadecimal  format  given  in  the
                 description of the add command.
    
         [n]merge [filename...]
                 Authorization entries are read  from  the  specified
                 files  and  are  merged into the authorization data-
                 base, superceding any matching existing entries.  If
                 the nmerge command is used, the numeric format given
                 in the description of the extract command  is  used.
                 If  a  filename  consists of just a single dash, the
                 standard input will be read if it hasn't  been  read
                 before.
    
         remove displayname...
                 Authorization   entries   matching   the   specified
                 displays are removed from the authority file.
    
         source filename
                 The specified file is treated as a script containing
                 xauth  commands  to  execute.  Blank lines and lines
                 beginning with a sharp sign (#) are ignored.  A sin-
                 gle dash may be used to indicate the standard input,
                 if it hasn't already been read.
    
         info    Information  describing  the   authorization   file,
                 whether  or not any changes have been made, and from
                 where xauth commands are being read  is  printed  on
                 the standard output.
    
         exit    If any modifications have been made,  the  authority
                 file  is  written  out (if allowed), and the program
                 exits.  An end of file is  treated  as  an  implicit
                 exit command.
    
         quit    The program exits, ignoring any modifications.  This
                 may  also  be accomplished by pressing the interrupt
                 character.
    
         help [string]
                 A description of all commands that  begin  with  the
                 given string (or all commands if no string is given)
                 is printed on the standard output.
    
         ?       A short list of the valid commands is printed on the
                 standard output.
    
    DISPLAY NAMES
         Display names for the add,  [n]extract,  [n]list,  [n]merge,
         and  remove  commands  use  the  same  format as the DISPLAY
         environment variable and the common  -display  command  line
         argument.   Display-specific information (such as the screen
         number) is unnecessary and will  be  ignored.   Same-machine
         connections  (such as local-host sockets, shared memory, and
         the Internet Protocol hostname localhost) are referred to as
         hostname/unix:displaynumber  so  that local entries for dif-
         ferent machines may be stored in one authority file.
    
    EXAMPLE
         The most common use for xauth is to extract  the  entry  for
         the  current  display, copy it to another machine, and merge
         it into the user's authority file on the remote machine:
    
                 %  xauth extract - $DISPLAY | rsh otherhost xauth merge -
    
         The following command contacts the server :0  to  create  an
         authorization   using   the   MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1   protocol.
         Clients  that  connect  with  this  authorization  will   be
         untrusted.
              %  xauth generate :0 .
    
    ENVIRONMENT
         This xauth program uses the following environment variables:
    
         XAUTHORITY
                 to get the name of the authority file to use if  the
                 -f option isn't used.
    
         HOME    to get the user's home directory if XAUTHORITY isn't
                 defined.
    
    FILES
         $HOME/.Xauthority
                 default authority file if XAUTHORITY isn't defined.
    
    BUGS
         Users that have unsecure networks should take  care  to  use
         encrypted  file  transfer  mechanisms  to copy authorization
         entries between machines. Similarly, the  MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1
         protocol is not very useful in unsecure environments.  Sites
         that are interested in additional security may need  to  use
         encrypted authorization mechanisms such as Kerberos.
    
         Spaces are currently  not  allowed  in  the  protocol  name.
         Quoting could be added for the truly perverse.
    
    AUTHOR
         Jim Fulton, MIT X Consortium
    
    
    
    


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