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Интерактивная система просмотра системных руководств (man-ов)

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top (1)
  • >> top (1) ( Solaris man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • top (1) ( FreeBSD man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • top (1) ( Linux man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • Ключ top обнаружен в базе ключевых слов.
         top - display and  update  information  about  the  top  cpu
         top [ -SbiInquv ] [ -dcount ] [  -stime  ]  [  -ofield  ]  [
         -Uusername ] [ number ]
         Top displays the top 15 processes on the system and periodi-
         cally  updates this information.  Raw cpu percentage is used
         to rank the processes.  If number is  given,  then  the  top
         number processes will be displayed instead of the default.
         Top makes  a  distinction  between  terminals  that  support
         advanced  capabilities and those that do not.  This distinc-
         tion affects the choice of defaults for certain options.  In
         the remainder of this document, an "intelligent" terminal is
         one that supports cursor addressing, clear screen, and clear
         to  end  of line.  Conversely, a "dumb" terminal is one that
         does not support such features.  If the  output  of  top  is
         redirected  to  a file, it acts as if it were being run on a
         dumb terminal.
         -S   Show system processes in the display.  Normally, system
              processes  such  as  the  pager and the swapper are not
              shown.  This option makes them visible.
         -b   Use "batch" mode.  In this mode,  all  input  from  the
              terminal  is ignored.  Interrupt characters (such as ^C
              and ^\) still have an effect.  This is the default on a
              dumb terminal, or when the output is not a terminal.
         -i   Use "interactive" mode.  In this  mode,  any  input  is
              immediately  read  for  processing.  See the section on
              "Interactive Mode" for an  explanation  of  which  keys
              perform  what  functions.   After  the  command is pro-
              cessed, the screen will immediately be updated, even if
              the  command  was  not  understood.   This  mode is the
              default when standard output is an  intelligent  termi-
         -I   Do  not  display  idle  processes.   By  default,   top
              displays both active and idle processes.
         -n   Use "non-interactive"  mode.   This  is  indentical  to
              "batch" mode.
         -q   Renice top to -20 so that it will run faster.  This can
              be  used  when  the  system  is  being very sluggish to
              improve the possibility  of  discovering  the  problem.
              This option can only be used by root.
         -u   Do not take the time to map uid numbers  to  usernames.
              Normally,   top   will   read   as  much  of  the  file
              "/etc/passwd" as is necessary to map all  the  user  id
              numbers  it  encounters  into login names.  This option
              disables all that, while possibly decreasing  execution
              time.   The  uid  numbers  are displayed instead of the
         -v   Write version number information to  stderr  then  exit
              immediately.  No other processing takes place when this
              option is used.  To see  current  revision  information
              while top is running, use the help command "?".
              Show only count displays, then exit.  A display is con-
              sidered  to  be  one update of the screen.  This option
              allows the user to select the  number  of  displays  he
              wants  to  see  before  top  automatically  exits.  For
              intelligent terminals, no  upper  limit  is  set.   The
              default is 1 for dumb terminals.
              Set the delay between screen updates to  time  seconds.
              The default delay between updates is 5 seconds.
              Sort the process display area on the  specified  field.
              The field name is the name of the column as seen in the
              output, but in lower case.  Likely  values  are  "cpu",
              "size",  "res",  and  "time", but may vary on different
              operating systems.  Note that not all operating systems
              support this option.
              Show only those  processes  owned  by  username.   This
              option  currently  only  accepts usernames and will not
              understand uid numbers.
         Both count and number fields can be specified as "infinite",
         indicating  that  they can stretch as far as possible.  This
         is accomplished by using any proper prefix of  the  keywords
         "infinity",  "maximum",  or "all".  The default for count on
         an intelligent terminal is, in fact, infinity.
         The environment variable TOP is examined for options  before
         the command line is scanned.  This enables a user to set his
         or her own defaults.  The number of processes to display can
         also  be  specified  in  the  environment variable TOP.  The
         options -I, -S, and  -u  are  actually  toggles.   A  second
         specification of any of these options will negate the first.
         Thus a user who has the environment variable TOP set to "-I"
         may use the command "top -I" to see idle processes.
         When top is running in "interactive mode", it reads commands
         from  the  terminal and acts upon them accordingly.  In this
         mode, the terminal is put in "CBREAK", so that  a  character
         will  be processed as soon as it is typed.  Almost always, a
         key will be pressed when top is between displays;  that  is,
         while  it is waiting for time seconds to elapse.  If this is
         the case, the command will be processed and the display will
         be  updated  immediately  thereafter (reflecting any changes
         that the command may have specified).  This happens even  if
         the command was incorrect.  If a key is pressed while top is
         in the middle of updating the display, it  will  finish  the
         update  and then process the command.  Some commands require
         additional  information,  and  the  user  will  be  prompted
         accordingly.   While  typing this information in, the user's
         erase and kill keys (as set up  by  the  command  stty)  are
         recognized, and a newline terminates the input.
         These  commands  are  currently  recognized  (^L  refers  to
         ^L   Redraw the screen.
         h or ?
              Display a summary of the commands (help screen).   Ver-
              sion information is included in this display.
         q    Quit top.
         d    Change the number of displays to show (prompt  for  new
              number).  Remember that the next display counts as one,
              so typing d1 will make top show one final  display  and
              then immediately exit.
         n or #
              Change the number of processes to display  (prompt  for
              new number).
         s    Change the number of seconds to delay between  displays
              (prompt for new number).
         k    Send  a  signal  ("kill"  by  default)  to  a  list  of
              processes.    This   acts   similarly  to  the  command
         r    Change  the  priority  (the  "nice")  of  a   list   of
              processes.   This  acts  similarly  to the command ren-
         u    Display only processes owned  by  a  specific  username
              (prompt  for  username).   If the username specified is
              simply "+", then processes belonging to all users  will
              be displayed.
         o    Change the order in which the display is sorted.   This
              command  is not available on all systems.  The sort key
              names vary fron system to system but  usually  include:
              "cpu", "res", "size", "time".  The default is cpu.
         e    Display a list of system errors (if any)  generated  by
              the last kill or renice command.
         i    (or I) Toggle the display of idle processes.
         The actual display varies depending on the specific  variant
         of  Unix  that the machine is running.  This description may
         not exactly match what is seen by top running on  this  par-
         ticular  machine.  Differences are listed at the end of this
         manual entry.
         The top few lines of the display  show  general  information
         about the state of the system, including the last process id
         assigned to a process (on  most  systems),  the  three  load
         averages,   the   current   time,  the  number  of  existing
         processes, the number of processes in each state  (sleeping,
         running,  starting,  zombies, and stopped), and a percentage
         of time spent in each of the processor states  (user,  nice,
         system,  and idle).  It also includes information about phy-
         sial and virtual memory allocation.
         The remainder of the screen displays information about indi-
         vidual  processes.   This  display  is  similar in spirit to
         ps(1) but it is not exactly the same.  PID  is  the  process
         id,  USERNAME  is  the name of the process's owner (if -u is
         specified, a UID column will be substituted  for  USERNAME),
         PRI is the current priority of the process, NICE is the nice
         amount (in the range -20 to 20), SIZE is the total  size  of
         the  process  (text,  data,  and  stack), RES is the current
         amount of resident memory (both SIZE and RES  are  given  in
         kilobytes),  STATE  is  the  current  state (one of "sleep",
         "WAIT", "run", "idl", "zomb", or "stop"), TIME is the number
         of  system  and  user cpu seconds that the process has used,
         WCPU, when displayed, is the weighted cpu  percentage  (this
         is  the  same  value that ps(1) displays as CPU), CPU is the
         raw percentage and is the field that is sorted to  determine
         the  order  of the processes, and COMMAND is the name of the
         command that the process is currently running (if  the  pro-
         cess is swapped out, this column is marked "<swapped>").
         The "ABANDONED" state (known in the kernel as  "SWAIT")  was
         abandoned,  thus the name.  A process should never end up in
         this state.
         William LeFebvre, EECS Department, Northwestern University
         TOP  user-configurable defaults for options.
         /dev/kmem      kernel memory
         /dev/mem       physical memory
         /etc/passwd         used to map uid numbers to user names
         /vmunix        system image
         Don't shoot me, but the default  for  -I  has  changed  once
         again.   So  many  people were confused by the fact that top
         wasn't showing them all the processes that I have decided to
         make  the default behavior show idle processes, just like it
         did in version 2.  But to appease folks who can't stand that
         behavior,  I have added the ability to set "default" options
         in the environment variable TOP (see the  OPTIONS  section).
         Those  who  want the behavior that version 3.0 had need only
         set the environment variable TOP to "-I".
         The command name for swapped  processes  should  be  tracked
         down, but this would make the program run slower.
         As with ps(1), things can change  while  top  is  collecting
         information  for  an update.  The picture it gives is only a
         close approximation to reality.
         kill(1), ps(1), stty(1), mem(4), renice(8)
         CPU percentage is calculated as a fraction of  total  avail-
         able computing resources.  Hence on a multiprocessor machine
         a single threaded process can  never  consume  cpu  time  in
         excess  of 1 divided by the number of processors.  For exam-
         ple, on a 4 processor machine,  a  single  threaded  process
         will  never  show a cpu percentage higher than 25%.  The CPU
         percentage  column  will  always  total  approximately  100,
         regardless of the number of processors.
         The memory summary line displays the  following:  "real"  is
         the  total  amount  of physical memory that can be allocated
         for use by processes (it does not  include  memory  reserved
         for  the  kernel's use), "free" is the amount of unallocated
         physical memory, "swap in use" is the amount of swap area on
         disk  that  is being used, "swap free" is the amount of swap
         area on disk that is still available.  The swap figures will
         differ  from the summary output of swap(1M) since the latter
         includes physical memory as well.
         The column "THR" indicates the number of  execution  threads
         in the process.
         In BSD Unix, process priority was represented internally  as
         a  signed  offset  from a zero value with an unsigned value.
         The "zero" value was usually something like 20, allowing for
         a  range  of  priorities  from -20 to 20.  As implemented on
         SunOS 5, older version of top continued to interpret process
         priority  in  this  manner,  even  though  it  was no longer
         correct.  Starting with top version 3.5, this was changed to
         agree with the rest of the system.
         The SunOS 5 (Solaris  2)  port  was  oroginally  written  by
         Torsten   Kasch,  <>.   Many
         contributions   have   been   provided   by    Casper    Dik
         <>.  Support for multi-cpu, calculation of
         CPU%  and  memory   stats   provided   by   Robert   Boucher
         <>,   Marc  Cohen  <>,  Charles
         Hedrick <>, and William  L.  Jones

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