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mailto (1)
  • >> mailto (1) ( Solaris man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • mailto (1) ( Linux man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
         mailto - Simple mutlimedia mail sending program
         mailto  [-a] [-c] [-s] [recipient name(s)]
         The mailto program is a very simple user interface for send-
         ing  multimedia  mail  in MIME format, the proposed standard
         format for multimedia Internet mail.  It  is  modelled  very
         heavily  on  the Berkeley "mail" program.  However it shares
         NO code with that program -- it is a completely  new  imple-
         As its name implies, mailto is for  sending  mail,  not  for
         reading it.  None of the mail-reading features of the Berke-
         ley mail program have been implemented in mailto.
         Users who are already familiar with using the Berkeley  mail
         command  to  send  mail  should  skip the following section,
         which explains things that are already familiar to you  from
         that  program.   Subsequent  sections  focus on the enhanced
         features that make  this  program  different  than  Berkeley
         mail,  notably  the ability to include rich text, multimedia
         objects, and text in non-ASCII languages such as  Hebrew  or
         The basic operation of mailto is very simple.  If  you  just
         type  "mailto"  you  will  be asked for a list of mail reci-
         pients ("To:") a mail subject ("Subject:")  and  possibly  a
         list  of  people  to  receive  a carbon copy of your message
         ("CC:").  Alternately, you can specify all of  these  things
         on the command line.  The "-s" option be used to specify the
         subject, and the "-c" option can be used to specify the car-
         bon  copy  address.   All  other  command line arguments are
         added to the To list.  Thus the following command sends mail
         to  nsb and jxr, with a subject of "Test message" and a car-
         bon copy to kraut:
         mailto nsb jxr -s "Test message" -c kraut
         For the convenience of users accustomed to mail  readers  in
         which names are separated by commas, you may optionally fol-
         low each address with a comma, but this is not required.
         After these preliminaries are taken care of, you  just  type
         in  the  contents of your message.  Everything you type will
         be included in your message UNLESS  you  type  a  line  that
         begins with the "~" (tilde) character.  Such a line is known
         as a TILDE ESCAPE, and can be used to give special  commands
         to the mailto program, as will be discussed shortly.
         When you are done composing your message, you can  cause  it
         to  be  sent to the intended recipients by simply typing the
         end-of-file character, typically  CONTROL-D.   Depending  on
         your  option settings, you may also be able to send the mail
         by typing "." alone on a line, or by typing "~.".
         That's all that you really need to know  in  order  to  send
         mail  with  mailto.  However, in order to use it to its ful-
         lest, you will also want to learn about some  of  the  tilde
         escapes.   In this section, we describe the most basic ones,
         which the mailto program shares in common with the  Berkeley
         mail program.   In subsequent sections, we will describe the
         more interesting tilde escapes which are unique to mailto.
         If anything in this section seems cryptic, it might be help-
         ful  to  consult the man page for the mail(1) program, since
         the user interfaces are very similar.
         Any line that starts with a tilde is a  tilde  escape.   The
         second  character  on  the  line -- the one that follows the
         tilde -- is then interpreted as a  special  command  to  the
         mailto  program.   The  simple tilde escapes that mailto and
         mail have in common are as follows:
             ~? Show help on tilde escapes
             ~! Shell escape (e.g. "~! ls")
             ~~ Enter text line starting with a tilde.  The tilde
                 "quotes" itself, allowing you to input a line of
                 text that starts with a tilde.
             ~. Send the mail and exit
             ~c Add to CC list (e.g. "~c nsb")
             ~d Read in the contents of "~/dead.letter"
                 (or a named file, "~d filename")
             ~e Edit the message being composed using the
                 editor named by the EDITOR environment variable.
             ~h Edit the To, Subject, and CC headers
             ~p Print out the message so far
             ~q Quit, copying the draft to ~/dead.letter
             ~r Read the named text file into the message
             ~s Reset the subject header
             ~t Add to the To list
             ~v Edit the message being composed using the
                 editor named by the VISUAL environment variable
             ~w Write the message being composed to a named file
                 (e.g. "~w filename")
         You can also control the behavior of the mailto program to a
         limited  extent  by  putting commands in a file in your home
         directory called  ".mailrc".   These  commands  include  the
         ability  to define aliases for commonly used mail addresses.
         See the section entitled "SUMMARY OF  MAILRC  FUNCTIONALITY"
         later in this man page.
         The main difference between mail  and  mailto  is  that  the
         latter can be used to generate enhanced mail in MIME format,
         the proposed standard format for Internet  multimedia  mail.
         However,  mailto  is intended to be a very simple multimedia
         mail generator.  There are, accordingly, lots of  things  it
         can't  do.  However,  it  has the virtues of being extremely
         simple, extremely similar to a  well-known  program  (mail),
         and  highly configurable, using the "mailcap" file mechanism
         to be described below.
         Basically, mailto can include the following things in mail:
         1.    Simple   formatted   text,   using   the   MIME   type
         "text/richtext".   This  allows  you to add emphasis to your
         message using underlining, bold text, italic  (diaplsyed  as
         reverse video), centering, and the like.
         2.  Non-text data.  Metamail can include  pictures,  sounds,
         and  other  non-textual  data in the middle of any mail mes-
         sage.  The mailcap configuration  mechanism  can  even  make
         this  process  reasonably  user-friendly, but a knowledgable
         user can include non-textual data even in the absence  of  a
         proper mailcap entry.
         3.  Text including non-ASCII characters, such as  Hebrew  or
         Russian.   Currently, mailto directly supports only the ISO-
         8859-* family of character sets, which means  that  it  does
         not  meet the needs of Asian users, in particular.  However,
         languages that can not be expressed in the  ISO-8859  family
         can  still  be included in the same way non-text data can be
         These three mechanisms will be discussed separately  in  the
         three sections that follow.
         Mailto lets you modify the formatting of your text in a  few
         simple  but  useful ways.  As with everything else, this can
         be done using simple tilde escapes, as described by the fol-
         lowing list:
             ~b Toggle bold mode (turn bold on or off)
             ~i Toggle italic mode (turn italic/reverse-video  on  or
             ~j Alter Justification, in particular:
                 ~jc Center subsequent text
                 ~jl Make subsequent text flush-left
                 ~jr Make subsequent text flush-right
             ~k Toggles whether or not a "blind" copy of the  message
         will be kept.
             ~n Force newline (hard line break)
             ~u Toggle underline mode (turn underline on or off)
             ~> Indent Left Margin
             ~< Unindent Left Margin
             ~<R Indent Right Margin
             ~>R Unindent Right Margin
             ~Q Toggle quotation (excerpt) mode
             ~z Add the contents of ~/.signature as a TEXT signature
         Some of these  may  require  a  little  explanation.   Bold,
         italic,  and  underline  modes are toggles in the sense that
         alternate uses of ~b, ~i,  and  ~u  turn  bold,  italic,  or
         underline  mode  on or off.  The justification, on the other
         hand, simply switches between the three justification modes,
         centering, left justified, and right justified.
         To understand the "~n" command, it must first be noted  that
         rich  text  is  automatically  justified,  so  that the line
         breaks you type have no more significance than space charac-
         ters.   This  allows the text to be displayed more nicely on
         variable-width windows.  (An exception is when you type mul-
         tiple  blank  lines,  in  which  case the line breaks become
         real.)  The "~n" command may be used to foce a  line  break.
         Remember  that  you can see what your mail looks like at any
         time using the "~p" command.
         Quotation mode, as toggled by "~Q", is useful for formatting
         excerpts.   If,  for  example,  you  turn on quotation mode,
         insert a file, and then turn off quotation  mode,  the  con-
         tents  of  the  file  will  be  considered an excerpt.  Most
         viewers will show excerpts as indented and/or preceded  with
         "> " to set them apart from the rest of the text.
         Finally, "~z" simply includes your text signature file,  but
         formats  it  as  a  "signature", which many richtext viewers
         will display in a smaller font or otherwise set it off  from
         the rest of your message.
         The basic command for  inserting  multimedia  objects  in  a
         mailto  message  is  "~*".   When you type this command, you
         will be give a list of options that will vary  depending  on
         your  configuration.   (How  to  configure this list will be
         described below.)   For example,  it  might  look  something
         like this:
          Please choose which kind of data you wish to insert:
          0: A raw file, possibly binary, of no particular data type.
          1: Raw data from a file, with you specifying  the  content-
         type by hand.
          1: An audio clip
          2: Data in 'application/andrew-inset' format
          3: An X11 window image dump
          4: An interactive mail-based survey
         Of these options, only the first two, options 0 and 1,  will
         appear at all sites and in all configurations.
         If you choose options 0 or 1, you will be asked for the name
         of  a  file  containing  data  you wish to include.  (If you
         enter something that starts with "|", you are including  the
         output of a command rather than the contents of a file.)  If
         you choose option 1, you will also be asked for the  correct
         "content-type"  name  that describes that type of data.  The
         content-type values are defined by the  MIME  standard,  and
         are  typically  type/subtype pairs that describe the general
         data type and its specific format.  For example,  a  picture
         in  GIF  format  has  a  content-type of "image/gif", and an
         audio clip in basic  u-law  format  has  a  content-type  of
         "audio/basic".   For  option 0, the type "application/octet-
         stream" will be used.  For  complete  documentation  on  the
         content-type  field, consult the MIME proposed standard, RFC
         More commonly, however, at a well-configured site  you  will
         not  need to know anything about content-types,  because you
         will choose one of the non-zero options.  In these cases,  a
         program  will run that will allow you to compose data of the
         given type.  The user interface to this  process  cannot  be
         described   here,  because  it  will  necessarily  be  site-
         dependent, but such programs are generally  designed  to  be
         easy for novice users.
         An extra mailto command that is useful  for  including  mul-
         timedia  objects  is  the "~Z" command.  This can be used to
         include a multimedia signature  file.   The  signature  file
         should  be  a complete MIME-format file, with a Content-type
         header field at the top.
         NOTE:  This section is intended for those who are interested
         in  extending  the  behavior of mailto to easily include new
         types  of  mail.   Users  at  well-administered  sites   are
         unlikely to need to do this very often, as the site adminis-
         trator will have done it for you.
         For a more complete explanation of  the  mailcap  mechanism,
         consult  the  man  page  for metamail(1).  Here we summarize
         only those aspects of mailcap files  that  are  relevant  to
         configuring the mailto program.
         First of all, mailto uses a search path to find the  mailcap
         file(s)  to consult.  Unlike many path searches, mailto will
         always read all the mailcap files on its path.  That is,  it
         will  keep  reading mailcap files until it runs out of them,
         collecting mailcap entries.   The  default  search  path  is
         equivalent to
         It  can  be  overridden  by setting the MAILCAPS environment
         variable.  Note: mailto does not actually interpret environ-
         ment  variables such as $HOME or the "~" syntax in this path
         The syntax of a mailcap file is quite simple, at least  com-
         pared  to termcap files.  Any line that starts with "#" is a
         comment.  Blank lines are  ignored.   Otherwise,  each  line
         defines  a  single  mailcap entry for a single content type.
         Long lines may be continued by ending them with a  backslash
         character, \.
         Each individual mailcap entry  consists  of  a  content-type
         specification,  a  command  to be executed on reading, typi-
         cally by the metamail(1) program, and (possibly)  a  set  of
         optional   "flag"   values.   The  mailto  program  is  only
         interested in mailcap entries that have either  or  both  of
         the  optional  "compose"  or "composetyped" or "edit" flags.
         The compose flag is used to tell mailto about a program that
         can  be  used to compose data in the given format, while the
         edit flag can be used to tell mailto how to edit data in the
         given format.  Thus, for example the following mailcap entry
         describes how to compose and edit audio data:
         audio/basic;   showaudio   %s;   compose=audiocompose    %s;
         edit=audiocompose %s; description="An audio clip"
         The "composetyped" flag is just like  compose,  except  that
         its  output  is  assumed  to be in MIME format, including at
         least a content-type and  also,  if  necessary,  a  content-
         transfer-encoding  header  field.  Composetyped is necessary
         if variable information needs to be conveyed via  parameters
         in the content-type field.
         The optional "description" field is used  in  composing  the
         prompt  that  mailto prints in response to the "~*" command.
         The compose program is used to compose data in this  format,
         and  the  edit  program is used to edit data in this format.
         In each of these, any occurrence of "%s" will be replaced by
         the  name of the file to be composed or edited.  If there is
         no "%s" in the compose command, it is equivalent  to  having
         "> %s" appended to the end of the compose command.
         Note that the order in which things appear in mailcap  files
         is  highly  critical.   The  metamail program uses the first
         matching mailcap entry to  display  data.   Mailto,  on  the
         other hand, offers the user an alternative for every mailcap
         entry that has a "compose" command.  However, it  should  be
         noted that mailto will use the content-type from the mailcap
         entry in composing content-type headers.  Therefore, compose
         and  edit commands should NOT be specified on wildcard mail-
         cap entries.  If you have a program can display lots of dif-
         ferent  subtypes,  you should probably make a separate entry
         for displaying and for composing the basic types, e.g.:
          image/*; showpicture %s
          image/gif; showpicture %s; compose="xwd -frame | xwdtoppm |
         ppmtogif"; description="An X11 window image dump in GIF for-
          image/x-xwd;   showpicture   %s;   compose="xwd    -frame";
         description="An X11 window image dump in XWD format"
         For more information on the mailcap file format and  syntax,
         see the metamail(1) man entry.
         Mailto provides rudimentary support for the  composition  of
         mail  in  non-ASCII  character sets.  Currently, it supports
         the ISO-8859 family of character sets.  These character sets
         all have the nice property that they are proper supersets of
         ASCII.  That is, all ASCII characters are identical  in  all
         of  the  ISO-8859 character sets.  When you use one of these
         character sets, then, you can still type all  ASCII  charac-
         ters as normal.
         By default, however, mailto assumes that you are  using  the
         US-ASCII  character set, and will not allow the inclusion of
         non-ASCII characters.  To tell mailto that you are  using  a
         terminal  or  terminal  window that supports one of the ISO-
         8859 character sets, you  can  use  the  -a  switch  or  the
         MM_CHARSET   environment   variable.   For  example,  typing
         "mailto -a  ISO-8859-8"  tells  mailto  that  your  terminal
         understands  ISO-8859-8,  the  ASCII+Hebrew  character  set.
         This is what you would use if you were on  a  terminal  that
         actually  understood  this character set.  If you're using a
         window system such as X11, you'll also need to be sure  that
         your terminal emulator is using the right font.  Thus if you
         have a font named "heb6x13",  you  can  start  a  compatible
         xterm and mailto to send mixed English/Hebrew mail using the
         command "xterm -fn heb6x13 -e  mailto  -a  iso-8859-8".   In
         general,  having an installed font with the same name as the
         character set is a good idea, particularly if  you're  using
         Once you've got mailto started up using the right  character
         sets, there are two ways to enter non-ASCII characters.  The
         first, and by far the easiest, is to use the keys as marked,
         if  you're  on  a  physical  terminal that uses one of these
         character sets.  However, if you're using a  standard  ASCII
         keyboard,  as  most X11 users do, you need some other way to
         enter non-ASCII characters.  To permit this, mailto  has  an
         "eight  bit mode".  In eight bit mode, all printable charac-
         ters that you type have the eighth bit turned on, thus turn-
         ing them into non-ASCII characters.  You can enter eight bit
         mode using the tilde escape "~+", and you can leave it using
         "~-".   To  see the mapping from your keyboard to eight-bit-
         mode characters, just give the command "~?+".
         Finally, certain languages that  can  be  expressed  in  the
         ISO-8859 family, notably Hebrew and Arabic, go from right to
         left rather than left to right.  To ease the composition  of
         text  in these languages, mailto has a "right to left" mode.
         This mode is toggled on or off using the "~^" command.   For
         added convenience, the right-to-left mode and eight-bit-mode
         can be toggled on and off together using a  single  command,
         "~S" (Semitic mode).
         For easy reference, here is a complete summary of the  tilde
         escapes in the mailto program:
             ~? Show help on tilde escapes
             ~! Shell escape
             ~~ Enter text line starting with a tilde
             ~. Send the mail and exit
             ~/ Set maximum size before message is split into
                 multiple parts
             ~?+ Show help on extended (eight-bit) characters
             ~> Indent Left Margin
             ~< Unindent Left Margin
             ~<R Indent Right Margin
             ~>R Unindent Right Margin
             ~+ Enter 8-bit mode for non-ASCII characters
             ~- Leave 8-bit mode (return to ASCII)
             ~^ Toggle
             ~* Add non-text data (pictures, sounds, etc.) as a new
                 MIME part (try it!)
             ~b Toggle bold mode
             ~c Add to CC list
             ~d Read from dead.letter (or named file, ~d filename)
             ~e Edit message being composed
             ~h Edit the headers
             ~i Toggle italic mode
             ~j Alter Justification (~jc = center, ~jl = flushleft,
                 ~jr = flushright.)
             ~n Force newline (hard line break)
             ~p Print out the message so far
             ~q Quit, copying to dead.letter
             ~Q Toggle quotation (excerpt) mode
             ~r Read the named text file into the message
             ~s Reset the subject
             ~S Toggle Semitic mode (right-to-left AND eight-bit)
             ~t Add to To list
             ~u Toggle underline mode
             ~v Edit using VISUAL editor
             ~w Write message to named file
             ~z Add the contents of ~/.signature as a TEXT signature.
             ~Z Add the contents of ~/.SIGNATURE as a NON-TEXT
                 (MIME-format) signature.
         The .mailrc file in your home directory is used to customize
         the  Berkeley mail program.  The mailto program is sensitive
         to some, though not all, of these customizations.   In  par-
         ticular,  you  can use the .mailrc file to set the following
         variables (via "set variablename" or  "unset  variablename")
         that affect mailto's behavior:
            askcc -- controls whether or not you are prompted  for  a
         CC list.
            dot -- controls whether or not a period alone on a line
                 should be interpreted as terminating your mail
            ignore -- controls whether or not interrupts are ignored
            verbose  --  controls  the  verbosity  of   output   from
            quiet -- controls the verbosity of output from the mailto
            keepblind -- controls whether or not a  'blind'  copy  of
         the mail is kept.
           commasonly -- controls whether or not a space character
                  is interpreted as separating  mail  addresses.   By
                 for compatibility with BSD  mail,  space  is  inter-
         preted in this way,
                 but the commasonly option makes mailto  behave  more
         like a modern
                 Internet mailer in this regard.
         The other functionality implemented by the .mailrc  file  is
         personal  mail  aliases.   If  you have a friend with a long
         horrible mail address, you can put a line  in  your  .mailrc
         file  that  allows  you  to  refer to him by a more friendly
            alias    boygeorge      George.Herbert.Walker.Bush%white-
         Mailto implements the alias feature in a manner that is com-
         patible  with Berkeley mail.  Moreover, it also knows how to
         read ".AMS_aliases" files as used by CMU's Andrew system, so
         that  Andrew  users  do  not  need to maintain two different
         alias files in order to use both Andrew and mailto.
         Although this program was modelled  on  Berkeley  mail,  its
         user  interface  is  inevitably not identical with that pro-
         gram.   What follows is a list of major  known  differences,
         beyond the multimedia enhancements, that might confuse users
         accustomed to the Berkeley mail program:
         Address  separators:   In  Berkeley  mail,   addresses   are
         separated  by  spaces,  which  is an abomination to the mail
         gods.   For  backward  compatibility,  this  also  works  in
         mailto, but right-thinking people may use commas instead.
         Newline semantics: Unlike Berkeley mail,  in  mailto  single
         line  breaks  are  generally regarded as "soft".  This means
         that your message may be filled and/or justified when it  is
         seen  by  the  recipient.  Explicit line breaks can be added
         using the "~n" command.  Multiple  consecutive  line  breaks
         typed  by  the  user  WILL  have the desired effect.  Alter-
         nately, any line that starts with a space or  tab  character
         will be preceded by a line break.
         Inclusion of dead.letter files:  The "~d" command is used to
         include  the  contents  of  the  file  "dead.letter"  in the
         current message.  Mailto's implementation  of  this  feature
         differs  from  Mail's  in  two  ways:  First, the message is
         included as an encapsulated message  rather  than  as  plain
         text.   While  this may sometimes be inconvenient, it allows
         multimedia dead.letter  files   to  be  retrieved  properly.
         Second,  the  "~d"  command  in mailto can take an argument,
         which is the name of a file to use instead  of  the  default
         Incompatibilities with Sun's version:  Sun Microsystems (and
         no  doubt  many  other  vendors with whom the author is less
         familiar) have enhanced the Berkeley mail command in several
         ways,  a  few  of  which are not compatible with mailto.  In
         particular, the "~b," "~i,  and "~<" commands, at least, are
         different in mailto than in Sun's version.
         Potential for failure in ~p:  In the standard Berkeley  mail
         program,  it is inconceivable that "~p" would ever fail.  In
         mailto, ~p works by calling  the  metamail(1)  program.   If
         metamail is not on the user's search path, ~p will not work.
         Extended alias searching:  The mailto program reads both the
         aliases  in  the  .mailrc  file,  as does Berkeley mail, and
         those in the .AMS_aliases file, as used by CMU's Andrew Mes-
         sage System.
         Altered editing behavior:  The ~e and ~v commands, which are
         used  to  edit  the message being composed, will behave dif-
         ferently in mailto if the mail includes  non-text  portions.
         In  such  cases,  each  part  will  be edited separately, in
         sequence, which makes it impossble for the user to  acciden-
         tally  mess  up the inter-part boundaries.  Moreover, if the
         mailcap entry for a  given  data  type  includes  an  "edit"
         field, the user will be given the choice of editing with the
         program named there or editing with his usual (text) editor.
         In  most cases, this will be a choice between using a struc-
         tured editor or editing the raw data stream.
         Altered behavior for large messages:  Mailto  delivers  your
         message  using  the  splitmail(1)  program.  This is done so
         that large messages will be split  into  a  set  of  smaller
         parts  in  a  MIME-compliant  way,  so that MIME readers can
         automatically reassemble them upon receipt.  By default  all
         messages  over  100Kbytes  are  split,  but this can be con-
         trolled using the SPLITSIZE environment variable.   See  the
         splitmail(1) man page for more information.
         New -r command-line option The -r comand-line option is  not
         found in standard Berkeley mail.
         -a <charset> -- specifies an alternate character set in use.
         This  had better be the one your terminal is actually using.
         Currently it must be in the iso-8859 character set family.
         -c name -- specifies a name for the CC field.  If  you  want
         to  include  multiple values, you'll need to quote the name,
         as in -c "name1, name2, name3"
         -r message-id -- specifies a message-id to be used  in  con-
         structing an In-Reply-To header field.
         -s subject -- specifies the subject for  the  mail.   If  it
         includes  spaces,  it  will  need to be surrounded by double
         quotes as well.
                 This variable can be used to  override  the  default
                 path search for mailcap files.
         PAGER   If set, this variable overrides "more" as  the  name
                 of  the  program  to  run to paginate output from an
                 interpreter, when pagination has been requested.
                 This variable can be used instead of the  -a  switch
                 to  tell mailto that your terminal (or terminal emu-
                 lator) implements a character  set  other  than  US-
         TERM    This variable tells mailto what your  terminal  type
                 is.  This is used in conjunction with the termcap(5)
                 facility to figure out how to  do  bold  characters,
                 reverse  video,  underlining, or other neat stuff on
                 your terminal.
         EDITOR  This variable names the editor mailto will use  when
                 you  ask  (with ~e) to edit the message you are com-
         VISUAL  This variable names the visual  editor  mailto  will
                 use  when  you ask (with ~v) to edit the message you
                 are composing.
         metamail(1), mmencode(1), richtext(1), audiocompose(1), get-
         filename(1), mailto-hebrew(1), splitmail(1), shownonasci(1)
         Currently, fgets is used to get  each  line  of  input.   An
         intelligent  replacement,  in which the effects of right-to-
         left   mode,   eight-bit-mode,   and   the    margin-    and
         justification-related  commands  were  immediately  evident,
         would be a big improvement.
         Although this program was modelled  on  Berkeley  mail,  its
         user  interface  is  inevitably not identical with that pro-
         gram.  The section entitled "OTHER  KNOWN  DIFFERENCES  FROM
         BERKELEY  MAIL," above, might be considered by some to be an
         extension of this "BUGS" section.
         Copyright  (c)  1992  Bell  Communications  Research,   Inc.
         Permission  to  use,  copy,  modify,  and  distribute   this
         material  for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted,
         provided that the above copyright notice and this permission
         notice  appear  in all copies, and that the name of Bellcore
         not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining  to  this
         material  without  the specific, prior written permission of
         an authorized representative of Bellcore.  BELLCORE MAKES NO
         Nathaniel S. Borenstein

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