eqn, neqn, checkeq  typeset mathematics test
eqn [d xy] [ f n] [p n] [ s n] [file]...
neqn [file]...
checkeq [file]...
eqn and neqn are language processors to assist in describing equations. eqn is a preprocessor for troff(1) and is intended for devices that can print troff's output. neqn is a preprocessor for nroff(1) and is intended for use with terminals. Usage is almost always:
example% eqn file ...  troff example% neqn file ...  nroff
If no files are specified, eqn and neqn read from the standard input. A line beginning with .EQ marks the start of an equation. The end of an equation is marked by a line beginning with .EN. Neither of these lines is altered, so they may be defined in macro packages to get centering, numbering, and so on. It is also possible to set two characters as ``delimiters''; subsequent text between delimiters is also treated as eqn input.
checkeq reports missing or unbalanced delimiters and .EQ/.EN pairs.
The following options are supported:
dxy
fn
pn
sn
The following operands are supported:
file
The nroff version of this description depicts the output of neqn to the terminal screen exactly as neqn is able to display it. To see an accurate depiction of the output, view the printed version of this page.
Tokens within eqn are separated by braces, double quotes, tildes, circumflexes, SPACE, TAB, or NEWLINE characters. Braces {} are used for grouping. Generally speaking, anywhere a single character like x could appear, a complicated construction enclosed in braces may be used instead. A tilde (~) represents a full SPACE in the output; a circumflex (^) half as much.
Subscripts and superscripts:
x sub i
a sub i sup 2
e sup {x sup 2 + y sup 2}
Fractions:
a over b
Square Roots:
1 over sqrt {ax sup 2 +bx+c}
Limits:
lim from {n> inf } sum from 0 to n x sub i
Brackets and Braces:
left [ x sup 2 + y sup 2 over alpha right ] ~=~1
The right clause is optional. Legal characters after left and right are braces, brackets, bars, c and f for ceiling and floor, and "" for nothing at all (useful for a rightsideonly bracket).
Vertical piles:
pile {a above b above c}
There can be an arbitrary number of elements in a pile. lpile leftjustifies, pile and cpile center, with different vertical spacing, and rpile right justifies.
Matrices:
matrix { lcol { x sub i above y sub 2 } ccol { 1 above 2 } }
In addition, there is rcol for a rightjustified column.
Diacritical marks:
x dot = f(t) bar
y dotdot bar ~=~ n under
x vec ~=~ y dyad
Sizes and Fonts:
Successive display arguments:
Shorthands:
define thing % replacement %
Keywords and Shorthands:
Greek letters:
Mathematical words:
troff(1) fourcharacter escapes like * (*) can be used anywhere. Strings enclosed in double quotes "..." are passed through untouched; this permits keywords to be entered as text, and can be used to communicate with troff when all else fails.
See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

nroff(1), tbl(1), troff(1), attributes(5), ms(5)
To embolden characters such as digits and parentheses, it is necessary to quote them, as in `bold "12.3"'.
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