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ps (1)
  • >> ps (1) ( Solaris man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • ps (1) ( FreeBSD man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • ps (1) ( Linux man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • ps (1) ( POSIX man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  •  

    NAME

    ps - report process status
     
    

    SYNOPSIS

    ps [-aAcdefjHlLPyZ] [-g grplist] [-h lgrplist] 
        [-n namelist] [-o format]... [-p proclist] 
        [-s sidlist] [-t term] [-u uidlist] [-U uidlist] 
        [-G gidlist] [-z zonelist]
    

     

    DESCRIPTION

    The ps command prints information about active processes. Without options, ps prints information about processes that have the same effective user ID and the same controlling terminal as the invoker. The output contains only the process ID, terminal identifier, cumulative execution time, and the command name. Otherwise, the information that is displayed is controlled by the options.

    Some options accept lists as arguments. Items in a list can be either separated by commas or else enclosed in quotes and separated by commas or spaces. Values for proclist and grplist must be numeric.  

    OPTIONS

    The following options are supported:

    -a

    Lists information about all processes most frequently requested: all those except session leaders and processes not associated with a terminal.

    -A

    Lists information for all processes. Identical to -e, below.

    -c

    Prints information in a format that reflects scheduler properties as described in priocntl(1). The -c option affects the output of the -f and -l options, as described below.

    -d

    Lists information about all processes except session leaders.

    -e

    Lists information about every process now running.

    When the -eoption is specified, options -z, -t, -u, -U, -g, -G, -p, -g, -s and -a options have no effect.

    -f

    Generates a full listing. (See below for significance of columns in a full listing.)

    -g grplist

    Lists only process data whose group leader's ID number(s) appears in grplist. (A group leader is a process whose process ID number is identical to its process group ID number.)

    -G gidlist

    Lists information for processes whose real group ID numbers are given in gidlist. The gidlist must be a single argument in the form of a blank- or comma-separated list.

    -Lists only processes homed to the specified lgroups. Nothing is listed for any invalid lgroups given.

    -H

    Prints the home lgroup of the process under an additional column header, LGRP.

    -j

    Prints session ID and process group ID.

    -l

    Generates a long listing. (See below.)

    -L

    Prints information about each light weight process (lwp) in each selected process. (See below.)

    -n namelist

    Specifies the name of an alternative system namelist file in place of the default. This option is accepted for compatibility, but is ignored.

    -o format

    Prints information according to the format specification given in format. This is fully described in DISPLAY FORMATS. Multiple -o options can be specified; the format specification is interpreted as the space-character-separated concatenation of all the format option-arguments.

    -p proclist

    Lists only process data whose process ID numbers are given in proclist.

    -P

    Prints the number of the processor to which the process or lwp is bound, if any, under an additional column header, PSR.

    -s sidlist

    Lists information on all session leaders whose IDs appear in sidlist.

    -t term

    Lists only process data associated with term. Terminal identifiers are specified as a device file name, and an identifier. For example, term/a, or pts/0.

    -u uidlist

    Lists only process data whose effective user ID number or login name is given in uidlist. In the listing, the numerical user ID is printed unless you give the -f option, which prints the login name.

    -U uidlist

    Lists information for processes whose real user ID numbers or login names are given in uidlist. The uidlist must be a single argument in the form of a blank- or comma-separated list.

    -y

    Under a long listing (-l), omits the obsolete F and ADDR columns and includes an RSS column to report the resident set size of the process. Under the -y option, both RSS and SZ (see below) is reported in units of kilobytes instead of pages.

    -z zonelist

    Lists only processes in the specified zones. Zones can be specified either by name or ID. This option is only useful when executed in the global zone.

    -Z

    Prints the name of the zone with which the process is associated under an additional column header, ZONE. The ZONE column width is limited to 8 characters. Use ps -eZ for a quick way to see information about every process now running along with the associated zone name. Use

    ps -eo zone,uid,pid,ppid,time,comm,...
    

    to see zone names wider than 8 characters.

    Many of the options shown are used to select processes to list. If any are specified, the default list is ignored and ps selects the processes represented by the inclusive OR of all the selection-criteria options.  

    DISPLAY FORMATS

    Under the -f option, ps tries to determine the command name and arguments given when the process was created by examining the user block. Failing this, the command name is printed, as it would have appeared without the -f option, in square brackets.

    The column headings and the meaning of the columns in a ps listing are given below; the letters f and l indicate the option (full or long, respectively) that causes the corresponding heading to appear; all means that the heading always appears. Note: These two options determine only what information is provided for a process; they do not determine which processes are listed.

    F(l)

    Flags (hexadecimal and additive) associated with the process. These flags are available for historical purposes; no meaning should be currently ascribed to them.

    S (l)

    The state of the process:

    O

    Process is running on a processor.

    S

    Sleeping: process is waiting for an event to complete.

    R

    Runnable: process is on run queue.

    T

    Process is stopped, either by a job control signal or because it is being traced.

    W

    Waiting: process is waiting for CPU usage to drop to the CPU-caps enforced limits.

    Z

    Zombie state: process terminated and parent not waiting.

    UID (f,l)

    The effective user ID number of the process (the login name is printed under the -f option).

    PID(all)

    The process ID of the process (this datum is necessary in order to kill a process).

    PPID(f,l)

    The process ID of the parent process.

    C(f,l)

    Processor utilization for scheduling (obsolete). Not printed when the -c option is used.

    CLS(f,l)

    Scheduling class. Printed only when the -c option is used.

    PRI(l)

    The priority of the process. Without the -c option, higher numbers mean lower priority. With the -c option, higher numbers mean higher priority.

    NI(l)

    Nice value, used in priority computation. Not printed when the -c option is used. Only processes in the certain scheduling classes have a nice value.

    ADDR(l)

    The memory address of the process.

    SZ(l)

    The total size of the process in virtual memory, including all mapped files and devices, in pages. See pagesize(1).

    WCHAN(l)

    The address of an event for which the process is sleeping (if blank, the process is running).

    STIME(f)

    The starting time of the process, given in hours, minutes, and seconds. (A process begun more than twenty-four hours before the ps inquiry is executed is given in months and days.)

    TTY(all)

    The controlling terminal for the process (the message, ?, is printed when there is no controlling terminal).

    TIME(all)

    The cumulative execution time for the process.

    LTIME(all)

    The execution time for the lwp being reported.

    CMD(all)

    The command name (the full command name and its arguments, up to a limit of 80 characters, are printed under the -f option).

    The following two additional columns are printed when the -j option is specified:

    PGID

    The process ID of the process group leader.

    SID

    The process ID of the session leader.

    The following two additional columns are printed when the -L option is specified:

    LWP

    The lwp ID of the lwp being reported.

    NLWP

    The number of lwps in the process (if -f is also specified).

    Under the -L option, one line is printed for each lwp in the process and the time-reporting fields STIME and LTIME show the values for the lwp, not the process. A traditional single-threaded process contains only one lwp.

    A process that has exited and has a parent, but has not yet been waited for by the parent, is marked <defunct>.  

    -o format

    The -o option allows the output format to be specified under user control.

    The format specification must be a list of names presented as a single argument, blank- or comma-separated. Each variable has a default header. The default header can be overridden by appending an equals sign and the new text of the header. The rest of the characters in the argument is used as the header text. The fields specified are written in the order specified on the command line, and should be arranged in columns in the output. The field widths are selected by the system to be at least as wide as the header text (default or overridden value). If the header text is null, such as -o user=, the field width is at least as wide as the default header text. If all header text fields are null, no header line is written.

    The following names are recognized in the POSIX locale:

    user

    The effective user ID of the process. This is the textual user ID, if it can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.

    ruser

    The real user ID of the process. This is the textual user ID, if it can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.

    group

    The effective group ID of the process. This is the textual group ID, if it can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.

    rgroup

    The real group ID of the process. This is the textual group ID, if it can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.

    pid

    The decimal value of the process ID.

    ppid

    The decimal value of the parent process ID.

    pgid

    The decimal value of the process group ID.

    pcpu

    The ratio of CPU time used recently to CPU time available in the same period, expressed as a percentage. The meaning of ``recently'' in this context is unspecified. The CPU time available is determined in an unspecified manner.

    vsz

    The total size of the process in virtual memory, in kilobytes.

    nice

    The decimal value of the system scheduling priority of the process. See nice(1).

    etime

    In the POSIX locale, the elapsed time since the process was started, in the form:

    [[dd-]hh:]mm:ss

    where

    dd

    is the number of days

    hh

    is the number of hours

    mm

    is the number of minutes

    ss

    is the number of seconds

    The dd field is a decimal integer. The hh, mm and ss fields is two-digit decimal integers padded on the left with zeros.

    time

    In the POSIX locale, the cumulative CPU time of the process in the form:

    [dd-]hh:mm:ss

    The dd, hh, mm, and ss fields is as described in the etime specifier.

    tty

    The name of the controlling terminal of the process (if any) in the same format used by the who(1) command.

    comm

    The name of the command being executed (argv[0] value) as a string.

    args

    The command with all its arguments as a string. The implementation might truncate this value to the field width; it is implementation-dependent whether any further truncation occurs. It is unspecified whether the string represented is a version of the argument list as it was passed to the command when it started, or is a version of the arguments as they might have been modified by the application. Applications cannot depend on being able to modify their argument list and having that modification be reflected in the output of ps. The Solaris implementation limits the string to 80 bytes; the string is the version of the argument list as it was passed to the command when it started.

    The following names are recognized in the Solaris implementation:

    f

    Flags (hexadecimal and additive) associated with the process.

    s

    The state of the process.

    c

    Processor utilization for scheduling (obsolete).

    uid

    The effective user ID number of the process as a decimal integer.

    ruid

    The real user ID number of the process as a decimal integer.

    gid

    The effective group ID number of the process as a decimal integer.

    rgid

    The real group ID number of the process as a decimal integer.

    projid

    The project ID number of the process as a decimal integer.

    project

    The project ID of the process as a textual value if that value can be obtained; otherwise, as a decimal integer.

    zoneid

    The zone ID number of the process as a decimal integer.

    zone

    The zone ID of the process as a textual value if that value can be obtained; otherwise, as a decimal integer.

    sid

    The process ID of the session leader.

    taskid

    The task ID of the process.

    class

    The scheduling class of the process.

    pri

    The priority of the process. Higher numbers mean higher priority.

    opri

    The obsolete priority of the process. Lower numbers mean higher priority.

    lwp

    The decimal value of the lwp ID. Requesting this formatting option causes one line to be printed for each lwp in the process.

    nlwp

    The number of lwps in the process.

    psr

    The number of the processor to which the process or lwp is bound.

    pset

    The ID of the processor set to which the process or lwp is bound.

    addr

    The memory address of the process.

    osz

    The total size of the process in virtual memory, in pages.

    wchan

    The address of an event for which the process is sleeping (if -, the process is running).

    stime

    The starting time or date of the process, printed with no blanks.

    rss

    The resident set size of the process, in kilobytes. The rss value reported by ps is an estimate provided by proc(4) that might underestimate the actual resident set size. Users who wish to get more accurate usage information for capacity planning should use pmap(1) -x instead.

    pmem

    The ratio of the process's resident set size to the physical memory on the machine, expressed as a percentage.

    fname

    The first 8 bytes of the base name of the process's executable file.

    ctid

    The contract ID of the process contract the process is a member of as a decimal integer.

    lgrp

    The home lgroup of the process.

    Only comm and args are allowed to contain blank characters; all others, including the Solaris implementation variables, are not.

    The following table specifies the default header to be used in the POSIX locale corresponding to each format specifier.

    FormatDefaultFormatDefault
    SpecifierHeaderSpecifierHeader

    args
    comm
    etime
    group
    nice
    pcpu
    pgid
    pid

    The following table lists the Solaris implementation format specifiers and the default header used with each.

    FormatDefaultFormatDefault
    SpecifierHeaderSpecifierHeader

    addr
    c
    class
    f
    fname
    gid
    lgrp
    lwp
    nlwp
    opri
    osz
    pmem
    pri
    ctid

     

    EXAMPLES

    Example 1 Using ps Command

    The command:

    example% ps -o user,pid,ppid=MOM -o args
    

    writes the following in the POSIX locale:

     USER  PID   MOM   COMMAND
    helene  34    12   ps -o uid,pid,ppid=MOM -o args
    

    The contents of the COMMAND field need not be the same due to possible truncation.

     

    ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

    See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment variables that affect the execution of ps: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, LC_TIME, and NLSPATH.

    COLUMNS

    Override the system-selected horizontal screen size, used to determine the number of text columns to display.

     

    EXIT STATUS

    The following exit values are returned:

    0

    Successful completion.

    >0

    An error occurred.

     

    FILES

    /dev/pts/*

    /dev/term/*

    terminal (``tty'') names searcher files

    /etc/passwd

    UID information supplier

    /proc/*

    process control files

     

    ATTRIBUTES

    See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

    ATTRIBUTE TYPEATTRIBUTE VALUE

    AvailabilitySUNWcsu

    CSI

    Interface Stability

    Standard

     

    SEE ALSO

    kill(1), lgrpinfo(1), nice(1), pagesize(1), pmap(1), priocntl(1), who(1), getty(1M), proc(4), ttysrch(4), attributes(5), environ(5), resource_controls(5), standards(5), zones(5)  

    NOTES

    Things can change while ps is running. The snapshot it gives is true only for a split-second, and it might not be accurate by the time you see it. Some data printed for defunct processes is irrelevant.

    If no options to select processes are specified, ps reports all processes associated with the controlling terminal. If there is no controlling terminal, there is no report other than the header.

    ps -ef or ps -o stime might not report the actual start of a tty login session, but rather an earlier time, when a getty was last respawned on the tty line.

    ps is CSI-enabled except for login names (usernames).


     

    Index

    NAME
    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    OPTIONS
    DISPLAY FORMATS
    -o format
    EXAMPLES
    ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
    EXIT STATUS
    FILES
    ATTRIBUTES
    SEE ALSO
    NOTES


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