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Интерактивная система просмотра системных руководств (man-ов)

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curses (3)
  • >> curses (3) ( Solaris man: Библиотечные вызовы )
  • curses (3) ( FreeBSD man: Библиотечные вызовы )
  • Ключ curses обнаружен в базе ключевых слов.
  •  

    NAME

    curses - CRT screen handling and optimization package
     
    

    SYNOPSIS

    cc [ flag... ] file.. .-lcurses [ library... ]
    #include <curses.h>
    

     

    DESCRIPTION

    The curses library routines give the user a terminal-independent method of updating character screens with reasonable optimization.

    The curses package allows: overall screen, window and pad manipulation; output to windows and pads; reading terminal input; control over terminal and curses input and output options; environment query routines; color manipulation; use of soft label keys; terminfo access; and access to low-level curses routines.

    To initialize the routines, the routine initscr() or newterm() must be called before any of the other routines that deal with windows and screens are used. The routine endwin() must be called before exiting. To get character-at-a-time input without echoing (most interactive, screen oriented programs want this), the following sequence should be used:

    initscr,cbreak,noecho;

    Most programs would additionally use the sequence:

    nonl,intrflush(stdscr,FALSE),keypad(stdscr,TRUE);

    Before a curses program is run, the tab stops of the terminal should be set and its initialization strings, if defined, must be output. This can be done by executing the tput init command after the shell environment variable TERM has been exported. (See terminfo(4) for further details.)

    The curses library permits manipulation of data structures, called windows, which can be thought of as two-dimensional arrays of characters representing all or part of a CRT screen. A default window called stdscr, which is the size of the terminal screen, is supplied. Others may be created with newwin(3CURSES).

    Windows are referred to by variables declared as WINDOW *. These data structures are manipulated with routines described on 3CURSES pages (whose names begin "curs_"). Among which the most basic routines are move(3CURSES) and addch(3CURSES). More general versions of these routines are included with names beginning with w, allowing the user to specify a window. The routines not beginning with w affect stdscr.

    After using routines to manipulate a window, refresh(3CURSES) is called, telling curses to make the user's CRT screen look like stdscr. The characters in a window are actually of type chtype, (character and attribute data) so that other information about the character may also be stored with each character.

    Special windows called pads may also be manipulated. These are windows which are not constrained to the size of the screen and whose contents need not be completely displayed. See curs_pad(3CURSES) for more information.

    In addition to drawing characters on the screen, video attributes and colors may be included, causing the characters to show up in such modes as underlined, in reverse video, or in color on terminals that support such display enhancements. Line drawing characters may be specified to be output. On input, curses is also able to translate arrow and function keys that transmit escape sequences into single values. The video attributes, line drawing characters, and input values use names, defined in <curses.h>, such as A_REVERSE, ACS_HLINE, and KEY_LEFT.

    If the environment variables LINES and COLUMNS are set, or if the program is executing in a window environment, line and column information in the environment will override information read by terminfo. This would effect a program running in an AT&T 630 layer, for example, where the size of a screen is changeable.

    If the environment variable TERMINFO is defined, any program using curses checks for a local terminal definition before checking in the standard place. For example, if TERM is set to att4424, then the compiled terminal definition is found in

    /usr/share/lib/terminfo/a/att4424.

    (The `a' is copied from the first letter of att4424 to avoid creation of huge directories.) However, if TERMINFO is set to $HOME/myterms, curses first checks

    $HOME/myterms/a/att4424,

    and if that fails, it then checks

    /usr/share/lib/terminfo/a/att4424.

    This is useful for developing experimental definitions or when write permission in /usr/share/lib/terminfo is not available.

    The integer variables LINES and COLS are defined in <curses.h> and will be filled in by initscr with the size of the screen. The constants TRUE and FALSE have the values 1 and 0, respectively.

    The curses routines also define the WINDOW * variable curscr which is used for certain low-level operations like clearing and redrawing a screen containing garbage. The curscr can be used in only a few routines.  

    International Functions

    The number of bytes and the number of columns to hold a character from the supplementary character set is locale-specific (locale category LC_CTYPE) and can be specified in the character class table.

    For editing, operating at the character level is entirely appropriate. For screen formatting, arbitrary movement of characters on screen is not desirable.

    Overwriting characters (addch, for example) operates on a screen level. Overwriting a character by a character that requires a different number of columns may produce orphaned columns. These orphaned columns are filled with background characters.

    Inserting characters (insch, for example) operates on a character level (that is, at the character boundaries). The specified character is inserted right before the character, regardless of which column of a character the cursor points to. Before insertion, the cursor position is adjusted to the first column of the character.

    As with inserting characters, deleting characters (delch, for example) operates on a character level (that is, at the character boundaries). The character at the cursor is deleted whichever column of the character the cursor points to. Before deletion, the cursor position is adjusted to the first column of the character.

    A multi-column character cannot be put on the last column of a line. When such attempts are made, the last column is set to the background character. In addition, when such an operation creates orphaned columns, the orphaned columns are filled with background characters.

    Overlapping and overwriting a window follows the operation of overwriting characters around its edge. The orphaned columns, if any, are handled as in the character operations.

    The cursor is allowed to be placed anywhere in a window. If the insertion or deletion is made when the cursor points to the second or later column position of a character that holds multiple columns, the cursor is adjusted to the first column of the character before the insertion or deletion.  

    Routine and Argument Names

    Many curses routines have two or more versions. The routines prefixed with w require a window argument. The routines prefixed with p require a pad argument. Those without a prefix generally use stdscr.

    The routines prefixed with mv require an x and y coordinate to move to before performing the appropriate action. The mv routines imply a call to move(3CURSES) before the call to the other routine. The coordinate y always refers to the row (of the window), and x always refers to the column. The upper left-hand corner is always (0,0), not (1,1).

    The routines prefixed with mvw take both a window argument and x and y coordinates. The window argument is always specified before the coordinates.

    In each case, win is the window affected, and pad is the pad affected; win and pad are always pointers to type WINDOW

    Option setting routines require a Boolean flag bf with the value TRUE or FALSE; bf is always of type bool. The variables ch and attrs below are always of type chtype. The types WINDOW, SCREEN, bool, and chtype are defined in <curses.h>. The type TERMINAL is defined in <term.h>. All other arguments are integers.  

    Routine Name Index

    The following table lists each curses routine and the name of the manual page on which it is described.

    curses Routine Name

    Manual Page Name

    addch

    curs_addch(3CURSES)

    addchnstr

    curs_addchstr(3CURSES)

    addchstr

    curs_addchstr(3CURSES)

    addnstr

    curs_addstr(3CURSES)

    addnwstr

    curs_addwstr(3CURSES)

    addstr

    curs_addstr(3CURSES)

    addwch

    curs_addwch(3CURSES)

    addwchnstr

    curs_addwchstr(3CURSES)

    addwchstr

    curs_addwchstr(3CURSES)

    addwstr

    curs_addwstr(3CURSES)

    adjcurspos

    curs_alecompat(3CURSES)

    attroff

    curs_attr(3CURSES)

    attron

    curs_attr(3CURSES)

    attrset

    curs_attr(3CURSES)

    baudrate

    curs_termattrs(3CURSES)

    beep

    curs_beep(3CURSES)

    bkgd

    curs_bkgd(3CURSES)

    bkgdset

    curs_bkgd(3CURSES)

    border

    curs_border(3CURSES)

    box

    curs_border(3CURSES)

    can_change_color

    curs_color(3CURSES)

    cbreak

    curs_inopts(3CURSES)

    clear

    curs_clear(3CURSES)

    clearok

    curs_outopts(3CURSES)

    clrtobot

    curs_clear(3CURSES)

    clrtoeol

    curs_clear(3CURSES)

    color_content

    curs_color(3CURSES)

    copywin

    curs_overlay(3CURSES)

    curs_set

    curs_kernel(3CURSES)

    def_prog_mode

    curs_kernel(3CURSES)

    def_shell_mode

    curs_kernel(3CURSES)

    del_curterm

    curs_terminfo(3CURSES)

    delay_output

    curs_util(3CURSES)

    delch

    curs_delch(3CURSES)

    deleteln

    curs_deleteln(3CURSES)

    delscreen

    curs_initscr(3CURSES)

    delwin

    curs_window(3CURSES)

    derwin

    curs_window(3CURSES)

    doupdate

    curs_refresh(3CURSES)

    dupwin

    curs_window(3CURSES)

    echo

    curs_inopts(3CURSES)

    echochar

    curs_addch(3CURSES)

    echowchar

    curs_addwch(3CURSES)

    endwin

    curs_initscr(3CURSES)

    erase

    curs_clear(3CURSES)

    erasechar

    curs_termattrs(3CURSES)

    filter

    curs_util(3CURSES)

    flash

    curs_beep(3CURSES)

    flushinp

    curs_util(3CURSES)

    getbegyx

    curs_getyx(3CURSES)

    getch

    curs_getch(3CURSES)

    getmaxyx

    curs_getyx(3CURSES)

    getnwstr

    curs_getwstr(3CURSES)

    getparyx

    curs_getyx(3CURSES)

    getstr

    curs_getstr(3CURSES)

    getsyx

    curs_kernel(3CURSES)

    getwch

    curs_getwch(3CURSES)

    getwin

    curs_util(3CURSES)

    getwstr

    curs_getwstr(3CURSES)

    getyx

    curs_getyx(3CURSES)

    halfdelay

    curs_inopts(3CURSES)

    has_colors

    curs_color(3CURSES)

    has_ic

    curs_termattrs(3CURSES)

    has_il

    curs_termattrs(3CURSES)

    idcok

    curs_outopts(3CURSES)

    idlok

    curs_outopts(3CURSES)

    immedok

    curs_outopts(3CURSES)

    inch

    curs_inch(3CURSES)

    inchnstr

    curs_inchstr(3CURSES)

    inchstr

    curs_inchstr(3CURSES)

    init_color

    curs_color(3CURSES)

    init_pair

    curs_color(3CURSES)

    initscr

    curs_initscr(3CURSES)

    innstr

    curs_instr(3CURSES)

    innwstr

    curs_inwstr(3CURSES)

    insch

    curs_insch(3CURSES)

    insdelln

    curs_deleteln(3CURSES)

    insertln

    curs_deleteln(3CURSES)

    insnstr

    curs_insstr(3CURSES)

    insnwstr

    curs_inswstr(3CURSES)

    insstr

    curs_insstr(3CURSES)

    instr

    curs_instr(3CURSES)

    inswch

    curs_inswch(3CURSES)

    inswstr

    curs_inswstr(3CURSES)

    intrflush

    curs_inopts(3CURSES)

    inwch

    curs_inwch(3CURSES)

    inwchnstr

    curs_inwchstr(3CURSES)

    inwchstr

    curs_inwchstr(3CURSES)

    inwstr

    curs_inwstr(3CURSES)

    is_linetouched

    curs_touch(3CURSES)

    is_wintouched

    curs_touch(3CURSES)

    isendwin

    curs_initscr(3CURSES)

    keyname

    curs_util(3CURSES)

    keypad

    curs_inopts(3CURSES)

    killchar

    curs_termattrs(3CURSES)

    leaveok

    curs_outopts(3CURSES)

    longname

    curs_termattrs(3CURSES)

    meta

    curs_inopts(3CURSES)

    move

    curs_move(3CURSES)

    movenextch

    curs_alecompat(3CURSES)

    moveprevch

    curs_alecompat(3CURSES)

    mvaddch

    curs_addch(3CURSES)

    mvaddchnstr

    curs_addchstr(3CURSES)

    mvaddchstr

    curs_addchstr(3CURSES)

    mvaddnstr

    curs_addstr(3CURSES)

    mvaddnwstr

    curs_addwstr(3CURSES)

    mvaddstr

    curs_addstr(3CURSES)

    mvaddwch

    curs_addwch(3CURSES)

    mvaddwchnstr

    curs_addwchstr(3CURSES)

    mvaddwchstr

    curs_addwchstr(3CURSES)

    mvaddwstr

    curs_addwstr(3CURSES)

    mvcur

    curs_terminfo(3CURSES)

    mvdelch

    curs_delch(3CURSES)

    mvderwin

    curs_window(3CURSES)

    mvgetch

    curs_getch(3CURSES)

    mvgetnwstr

    curs_getwstr(3CURSES)

    mvgetstr

    curs_getstr(3CURSES)

    mvgetwch

    curs_getwch(3CURSES)

    mvgetwstr

    curs_getwstr(3CURSES)

    mvinch

    curs_inch(3CURSES)

    mvinchnstr

    curs_inchstr(3CURSES)

    mvinchstr

    curs_inchstr(3CURSES)

    mvinnstr

    curs_instr(3CURSES)

    mvinnwstr

    curs_inwstr(3CURSES)

    mvinsch

    curs_insch(3CURSES)

    mvinsnstr

    curs_insstr(3CURSES)

    mvinsnwstr

    curs_inswstr(3CURSES)

    mvinsstr

    curs_insstr(3CURSES)

    mvinstr

    curs_instr(3CURSES)

    mvinswch

    curs_inswch(3CURSES)

    mvinswstr

    curs_inswstr(3CURSES)

    mvinwch

    curs_inwch(3CURSES)

    mvinwchnstr

    curs_inwchstr(3CURSES)

    mvinwchstr

    curs_inwchstr(3CURSES)

    mvinwstr

    curs_inwstr(3CURSES)

    mvprintw

    curs_printw(3CURSES)

    mvscanw

    curs_scanw(3CURSES)

    mvwaddch

    curs_addch(3CURSES)

    mvwaddchnstr

    curs_addchstr(3CURSES)

    mvwaddchstr

    curs_addchstr(3CURSES)

    mvwaddnstr

    curs_addstr(3CURSES)

    mvwaddnwstr

    curs_addwstr(3CURSES)

    mvwaddstr

    curs_addstr(3CURSES)

    mvwaddwch

    curs_addwch(3CURSES)

    mvwaddwchnstr

    curs_addwchstr(3CURSES)

    mvwaddwchstr

    curs_addwchstr(3CURSES)

    mvwaddwstr

    curs_addwstr(3CURSES)

    mvwdelch

    curs_delch(3CURSES)

    mvwgetch

    curs_getch(3CURSES)

    mvwgetnwstr

    curs_getwstr(3CURSES)

    mvwgetstr

    curs_getstr(3CURSES)

    mvwgetwch

    curs_getwch(3CURSES)

    mvwgetwstr

    curs_getwstr(3CURSES)

    mvwin

    curs_window(3CURSES)

    mvwinch

    curs_inch(3CURSES)

    mvwinchnstr

    curs_inchstr(3CURSES)

    mvwinchstr

    curs_inchstr(3CURSES)

    mvwinnstr

    curs_instr(3CURSES)

    mvwinnwstr

    curs_inwstr(3CURSES)

    mvwinsch

    curs_insch(3CURSES)

    mvwinsnstr

    curs_insstr(3CURSES)

    mvwinsstr

    curs_insstr(3CURSES)

    mvwinstr

    curs_instr(3CURSES)

    mvwinswch

    curs_inswch(3CURSES)

    mvwinswstr

    curs_inswstr(3CURSES)

    mvwinwch

    curs_inwch(3CURSES)

    mvwinwchnstr

    curs_inwchstr(3CURSES)

    mvwinwchstr

    curs_inwchstr(3CURSES)

    mvwinwstr

    curs_inwstr(3CURSES)

    mvwprintw

    curs_printw(3CURSES)

    mvwscanw

    curs_scanw(3CURSES)

    napms

    curs_kernel(3CURSES)

    newpad

    curs_pad(3CURSES)

    newterm

    curs_initscr(3CURSES)

    newwin

    curs_window(3CURSES)

    nl

    curs_outopts(3CURSES)

    nocbreak

    curs_inopts(3CURSES)

    nodelay

    curs_inopts(3CURSES)

    noecho

    curs_inopts(3CURSES)

    nonl

    curs_outopts(3CURSES)

    noqiflush

    curs_inopts(3CURSES)

    noraw

    curs_inopts(3CURSES)

    notimeout

    curs_inopts(3CURSES)

    overlay

    curs_overlay(3CURSES)

    overwrite

    curs_overlay(3CURSES)

    pair_content

    curs_color(3CURSES)

    pechochar

    curs_pad(3CURSES)

    pechowchar

    curs_pad(3CURSES)

    pnoutrefresh

    curs_pad(3CURSES)

    prefresh

    curs_pad(3CURSES)

    printw

    curs_printw(3CURSES)

    putp

    curs_terminfo(3CURSES)

    putwin

    curs_util(3CURSES)

    qiflush

    curs_inopts(3CURSES)

    raw

    curs_inopts(3CURSES)

    redrawwin

    curs_refresh(3CURSES)

    refresh

    curs_refresh(3CURSES)

    reset_prog_mode

    curs_kernel(3CURSES)

    reset_shell_mode

    curs_kernel(3CURSES)

    resetty

    curs_kernel(3CURSES)

    restartterm

    curs_terminfo(3CURSES)

    ripoffline

    curs_kernel(3CURSES)

    savetty

    curs_kernel(3CURSES)

    scanw

    curs_scanw(3CURSES)

    scr_dump

    curs_scr_dump(3CURSES)

    scr_init

    curs_scr_dump(3CURSES)

    scr_restore

    curs_scr_dump(3CURSES)

    scr_set

    curs_scr_dump(3CURSES)

    scroll

    curs_scroll(3CURSES)

    scrollok

    curs_outopts(3CURSES)

    set_curterm

    curs_terminfo(3CURSES)

    set_term

    curs_initscr(3CURSES)

    setscrreg

    curs_outopts(3CURSES)

    setsyx

    curs_kernel(3CURSES)

    setterm

    curs_terminfo(3CURSES)

    setupterm

    curs_terminfo(3CURSES)

    slk_attroff

    curs_slk(3CURSES)

    slk_attron

    curs_slk(3CURSES)

    slk_attrset

    curs_slk(3CURSES)

    slk_clear

    curs_slk(3CURSES)

    slk_init

    curs_slk(3CURSES)

    slk_label

    curs_slk(3CURSES)

    slk_noutrefresh

    curs_slk(3CURSES)

    slk_refresh

    curs_slk(3CURSES)

    slk_restore

    curs_slk(3CURSES)

    slk_set

    curs_slk(3CURSES)

    slk_touch

    curs_slk(3CURSES)

    srcl

    curs_scroll(3CURSES)

    standend

    curs_attr(3CURSES)

    standout

    curs_attr(3CURSES)

    start_color

    curs_color(3CURSES)

    subpad

    curs_pad(3CURSES)

    subwin

    curs_window(3CURSES)

    syncok

    curs_window(3CURSES)

    termattrs

    curs_termattrs(3CURSES)

    termname

    curs_termattrs(3CURSES)

    tgetent

    curs_termcap(3CURSES)

    tgetflag

    curs_termcap(3CURSES)

    tgetnum

    curs_termcap(3CURSES)

    tgetstr

    curs_termcap(3CURSES)

    tgoto

    curs_termcap(3CURSES)

    tigetflag

    curs_terminfo(3CURSES)

    tigetnum

    curs_terminfo(3CURSES)

    tigetstr

    curs_terminfo(3CURSES)

    timeout

    curs_inopts(3CURSES)

    touchline

    curs_touch(3CURSES)

    touchwin

    curs_touch(3CURSES)

    tparm

    curs_terminfo(3CURSES)

    tputs

    curs_terminfo(3CURSES)

    typeahead

    curs_inopts(3CURSES)

    unctrl

    curs_util(3CURSES)

    ungetch

    curs_getch(3CURSES)

    ungetwch

    curs_getwch(3CURSES)

    untouchwin

    curs_touch(3CURSES)

    use_env

    curs_util(3CURSES)

    vidattr

    curs_terminfo(3CURSES)

    vidputs

    curs_terminfo(3CURSES)

    vwprintw

    curs_printw(3CURSES)

    vwscanw

    curs_scanw(3CURSES)

    waddch

    curs_addch(3CURSES)

    waddchnstr

    curs_addchstr(3CURSES)

    waddchstr

    curs_addchstr(3CURSES)

    waddnstr

    curs_addstr(3CURSES)

    waddnwstr

    curs_addwstr(3CURSES)

    waddstr

    curs_addstr(3CURSES)

    waddwch

    curs_addwch(3CURSES)

    waddwchnstr

    curs_addwchstr(3CURSES)

    waddwchstr

    curs_addwchstr(3CURSES)

    waddwstr

    curs_addwstr(3CURSES)

    wadjcurspos

    curs_alecompat(3CURSES)

    wattroff

    curs_attr(3CURSES)

    wattron

    curs_attr(3CURSES)

    wattrset

    curs_attr(3CURSES)

    wbkgd

    curs_bkgd(3CURSES)

    wbkgdset

    curs_bkgd(3CURSES)

    wborder

    curs_border(3CURSES)

    wclear

    curs_clear(3CURSES)

    wclrtobot

    curs_clear(3CURSES)

    wclrtoeol

    curs_clear(3CURSES)

    wcursyncup

    curs_window(3CURSES)

    wdelch

    curs_delch(3CURSES)

    wdeleteln

    curs_deleteln(3CURSES)

    wechochar

    curs_addch(3CURSES)

    wechowchar

    curs_addwch(3CURSES)

    werase

    curs_clear(3CURSES)

    wgetch

    curs_getch(3CURSES)

    wgetnstr

    curs_getstr(3CURSES)

    wgetnwstr

    curs_getwstr(3CURSES)

    wgetstr

    curs_getstr(3CURSES)

    wgetwch

    curs_getwch(3CURSES)

    wgetwstr

    curs_getwstr(3CURSES)

    whline

    curs_border(3CURSES)

    winch

    curs_inch(3CURSES)

    winchnstr

    curs_inchstr(3CURSES)

    winchstr

    curs_inchstr(3CURSES)

    winnstr

    curs_instr(3CURSES)

    winnwstr

    curs_inwstr(3CURSES)

    winsch

    curs_insch(3CURSES)

    winsdelln

    curs_deleteln(3CURSES)

    winsertln

    curs_deleteln(3CURSES)

    winsnstr

    curs_insstr(3CURSES)

    winsnwstr

    curs_inswstr(3CURSES)

    winsstr

    curs_insstr(3CURSES)

    winstr

    curs_instr(3CURSES)

    winswch

    curs_inswch(3CURSES)

    winswstr

    curs_inswstr(3CURSES)

    winwch

    curs_inwch(3CURSES)

    winwchnstr

    curs_inwchstr(3CURSES)

    winwchstr

    curs_inwchstr(3CURSES)

    winwstr

    curs_inwstr(3CURSES)

    wmove

    curs_move(3CURSES)

    wmovenextch

    curs_alecompat(3CURSES)

    wmoveprevch

    curs_alecompat(3CURSES)

    wnoutrefresh

    curs_refresh(3CURSES)

    wprintw

    curs_printw(3CURSES)

    wredrawln

    curs_refresh(3CURSES)

    wrefresh

    curs_refresh(3CURSES)

    wscanw

    curs_scanw(3CURSES)

    wscrl

    curs_scroll(3CURSES)

    wsetscrreg

    curs_outopts(3CURSES)

    wstandend

    curs_attr(3CURSES)

    wstandout

    curs_attr(3CURSES)

    wsyncdown

    curs_window(3CURSES)

    wsyncup

    curs_window(3CURSES)

    wtimeout

    curs_inopts(3CURSES)

    wtouchln

    curs_touch(3CURSES)

    wvline

    curs_border(3CURSES)

     

    RETURN VALUES

    Routines that return an integer return ERR upon failure and an integer value other than ERR upon successful completion, unless otherwise noted in the routine descriptions.

    All macros return the value of the w version, except setscrreg(), wsetscrreg(), getyx(), getbegyx(), and getmaxyx(). The return values of setscrreg(), wsetscrreg(), getyx(), getbegyx(), and getmaxyx() are undefined (that is, these should not be used as the right-hand side of assignment statements).

    Routines that return pointers return NULL on error.  

    ATTRIBUTES

    See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

    ATTRIBUTE TYPEATTRIBUTE VALUE

    MT-LevelUnsafe

     

    SEE ALSO

    curses(3XCURSES), libcurses(3LIB), libcurses(3XCURSES), terminfo(4), attributes(5)  

    NOTES

    The header <curses.h> automatically includes the headers <stdio.h> and <unctrl.h>.


     

    Index

    NAME
    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    International Functions
    Routine and Argument Names
    Routine Name Index
    RETURN VALUES
    ATTRIBUTES
    SEE ALSO
    NOTES


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