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sysctl (3)
  • sysctl (2) ( Русские man: Системные вызовы )
  • sysctl (2) ( Linux man: Системные вызовы )
  • >> sysctl (3) ( FreeBSD man: Библиотечные вызовы )
  • sysctl (8) ( FreeBSD man: Команды системного администрирования )
  • sysctl (8) ( Русские man: Команды системного администрирования )
  • sysctl (8) ( Linux man: Команды системного администрирования )
  • sysctl (9) ( FreeBSD man: Ядро )
  • Ключ sysctl обнаружен в базе ключевых слов.

  • BSD mandoc
     

    NAME

    
    
    sysctl
    
     
    sysctlbyname
    
     
    sysctlnametomib
    
     - get or set system information
    
     
    

    LIBRARY

    Lb libc
    
     
    

    SYNOPSIS

       #include <sys/types.h>
       #include <sys/sysctl.h>
    int sysctl (int *name u_int namelen void *oldp size_t *oldlenp void *newp size_t newlen);
    int sysctlbyname (const char *name void *oldp size_t *oldlenp void *newp size_t newlen);
    int sysctlnametomib (const char *name int *mibp size_t *sizep);
     

    DESCRIPTION

    The sysctl ();
    function retrieves system information and allows processes with appropriate privileges to set system information. The information available from sysctl ();
    consists of integers, strings, and tables. Information may be retrieved and set from the command interface using the sysctl(8) utility.

    Unless explicitly noted below, sysctl ();
    returns a consistent snapshot of the data requested. Consistency is obtained by locking the destination buffer into memory so that the data may be copied out without blocking. Calls to sysctl ();
    are serialized to avoid deadlock.

    The state is described using a ``Management Information Base'' (MIB) style name, listed in Fa name , which is a Fa namelen length array of integers.

    The sysctlbyname ();
    function accepts an ASCII representation of the name and internally looks up the integer name vector. Apart from that, it behaves the same as the standard sysctl ();
    function.

    The information is copied into the buffer specified by Fa oldp . The size of the buffer is given by the location specified by Fa oldlenp before the call, and that location gives the amount of data copied after a successful call and after a call that returns with the error code Er ENOMEM . If the amount of data available is greater than the size of the buffer supplied, the call supplies as much data as fits in the buffer provided and returns with the error code Er ENOMEM . If the old value is not desired, Fa oldp and Fa oldlenp should be set to NULL.

    The size of the available data can be determined by calling sysctl ();
    with the NULL argument for Fa oldp . The size of the available data will be returned in the location pointed to by Fa oldlenp . For some operations, the amount of space may change often. For these operations, the system attempts to round up so that the returned size is large enough for a call to return the data shortly thereafter.

    To set a new value, Fa newp is set to point to a buffer of length Fa newlen from which the requested value is to be taken. If a new value is not to be set, Fa newp should be set to NULL and Fa newlen set to 0.

    The sysctlnametomib ();
    function accepts an ASCII representation of the name, looks up the integer name vector, and returns the numeric representation in the mib array pointed to by Fa mibp . The number of elements in the mib array is given by the location specified by Fa sizep before the call, and that location gives the number of entries copied after a successful call. The resulting Fa mib and Fa size may be used in subsequent sysctl ();
    calls to get the data associated with the requested ASCII name. This interface is intended for use by applications that want to repeatedly request the same variable (the sysctl ();
    function runs in about a third the time as the same request made via the sysctlbyname ();
    function). The sysctlnametomib ();
    function is also useful for fetching mib prefixes and then adding a final component. For example, to fetch process information for processes with pid's less than 100:

    int i, mib[4];
    size_t len;
    struct kinfo_proc kp;
    
    /* Fill out the first three components of the mib */
    len = 4;
    sysctlnametomib("kern.proc.pid", mib, &len);
    
    /* Fetch and print entries for pid's < 100 */
    for (i = 0; i < 100; i++) {
            mib[3] = i;
            len = sizeof(kp);
            if (sysctl(mib, 4, &kp, &len, NULL, 0) == -1)
                    perror("sysctl");
            else if (len > 0)
                    printkproc(&kp);
    }
    

    The top level names are defined with a CTL_ prefix in In sys/sysctl.h , and are as follows. The next and subsequent levels down are found in the include files listed here, and described in separate sections below.

    Name  Next level names        Description
    "CTL_DEBUG      sys/sysctl.h    Debugging"
    "CTL_VFSsys/mount.hFile system"
    "CTL_HWsys/sysctl.hGeneric CPU, I/O"
    "CTL_KERNsys/sysctl.hHigh kernel limits"
    "CTL_MACHDEPsys/sysctl.hMachine dependent"
    "CTL_NETsys/socket.hNetworking"
    "CTL_USERsys/sysctl.hUser-level"
    "CTL_VMvm/vm_param.hVirtual memory"

    For example, the following retrieves the maximum number of processes allowed
    in the system:

    int mib[2], maxproc;
    size_t len;
    
    mib[0] = CTL_KERN;
    mib[1] = KERN_MAXPROC;
    len = sizeof(maxproc);
    sysctl(mib, 2, &maxproc, &len, NULL, 0);
    

    To retrieve the standard search path for the system utilities:

    int mib[2];
    size_t len;
    char *p;
    
    mib[0] = CTL_USER;
    mib[1] = USER_CS_PATH;
    sysctl(mib, 2, NULL, &len, NULL, 0);
    p = malloc(len);
    sysctl(mib, 2, p, &len, NULL, 0);
    
     

    CTL_DEBUG

    The debugging variables vary from system to system. A debugging variable may be added or deleted without need to recompile sysctl ();
    to know about it. Each time it runs, sysctl ();
    gets the list of debugging variables from the kernel and displays their current values. The system defines twenty (Vt struct ctldebug ) variables named debug0 through debug19 They are declared as separate variables so that they can be individually initialized at the location of their associated variable. The loader prevents multiple use of the same variable by issuing errors if a variable is initialized in more than one place. For example, to export the variable dospecialcheck as a debugging variable, the following declaration would be used:

    int dospecialcheck = 1;
    struct ctldebug debug5 = { "dospecialcheck", &dospecialcheck };
    
     

    CTL_VFS

    A distinguished second level name, VFS_GENERIC, is used to get general information about all file systems. One of its third level identifiers is VFS_MAXTYPENUM that gives the highest valid file system type number. Its other third level identifier is VFS_CONF that returns configuration information about the file system type given as a fourth level identifier (see getvfsbyname(3) as an example of its use). The remaining second level identifiers are the file system type number returned by a statfs(2) call or from VFS_CONF. The third level identifiers available for each file system are given in the header file that defines the mount argument structure for that file system.  

    CTL_HW

    The string and integer information available for the CTL_HW level is detailed below. The changeable column shows whether a process with appropriate privilege may change the value.

    Second level name     Type    Changeable
    "HW_MACHINE      string  no"
    "HW_MODEL  string  no"
    "HW_NCPUintegerno"
    "HW_BYTEORDERintegerno"
    "HW_PHYSMEMintegerno"
    "HW_USERMEMintegerno"
    "HW_PAGESIZEintegerno"
    "HW_FLOATINGPOINTintegerno"
    "HW_MACHINE_ARCHstringno"

    HW_MACHINE
    The machine class.
    HW_MODEL
    The machine model
    HW_NCPU
    The number of cpus.
    HW_BYTEORDER
    The byteorder (4,321, or 1,234).
    HW_PHYSMEM
    The bytes of physical memory.
    HW_USERMEM
    The bytes of non-kernel memory.
    HW_PAGESIZE
    The software page size.
    HW_FLOATINGPOINT
    Nonzero if the floating point support is in hardware.
    HW_MACHINE_ARCH
    The machine dependent architecture type.

     

    CTL_KERN

    The string and integer information available for the CTL_KERN level is detailed below. The changeable column shows whether a process with appropriate privilege may change the value. The types of data currently available are process information, system vnodes, the open file entries, routing table entries, virtual memory statistics, load average history, and clock rate information.

    Second level name     Type    Changeable
    "KERN_ARGMAX     integer no"
    "KERN_BOOTFILE     stringyes"
    "KERN_BOOTTIMEstruct timevalno"
    "KERN_CLOCKRATEstruct clockinfono"
    "KERN_FILEstruct fileno"
    "KERN_HOSTIDintegeryes"
    "KERN_HOSTUUIDstringyes"
    "KERN_HOSTNAMEstringyes"
    "KERN_JOB_CONTROLintegerno"
    "KERN_MAXFILESintegeryes"
    "KERN_MAXFILESPERPROCintegeryes"
    "KERN_MAXPROCintegerno"
    "KERN_MAXPROCPERUIDintegeryes"
    "KERN_MAXVNODESintegeryes"
    "KERN_NGROUPSintegerno"
    "KERN_NISDOMAINNAMEstringyes"
    "KERN_OSRELDATEintegerno"
    "KERN_OSRELEASEstringno"
    "KERN_OSREVintegerno"
    "KERN_OSTYPEstringno"
    "KERN_POSIX1integerno"
    "KERN_PROCstruct procno"
    "KERN_PROFnodenot applicable"
    "KERN_QUANTUMintegeryes"
    "KERN_SAVED_IDSintegerno"
    "KERN_SECURELVLintegerraise only"
    "KERN_UPDATEINTERVALintegerno"
    "KERN_VERSIONstringno"
    "KERN_VNODEstruct vnodeno"

    KERN_ARGMAX
    The maximum bytes of argument to
    execve(2).
    KERN_BOOTFILE
    The full pathname of the file from which the kernel was loaded.
    KERN_BOOTTIME
    A struct timeval structure is returned. This structure contains the time that the system was booted.
    KERN_CLOCKRATE
    A struct clockinfo structure is returned. This structure contains the clock, statistics clock and profiling clock frequencies, the number of micro-seconds per hz tick and the skew rate.
    KERN_FILE
    Return the entire file table. The returned data consists of a single struct filehead followed by an array of struct file whose size depends on the current number of such objects in the system.
    KERN_HOSTID
    Get or set the host ID.
    KERN_HOSTUUID
    Get or set the host's universally unique identifier (UUID).
    KERN_HOSTNAME
    Get or set the hostname.
    KERN_JOB_CONTROL
    Return 1 if job control is available on this system, otherwise 0.
    KERN_MAXFILES
    The maximum number of files that may be open in the system.
    KERN_MAXFILESPERPROC
    The maximum number of files that may be open for a single process. This limit only applies to processes with an effective uid of nonzero at the time of the open request. Files that have already been opened are not affected if the limit or the effective uid is changed.
    KERN_MAXPROC
    The maximum number of concurrent processes the system will allow.
    KERN_MAXPROCPERUID
    The maximum number of concurrent processes the system will allow for a single effective uid. This limit only applies to processes with an effective uid of nonzero at the time of a fork request. Processes that have already been started are not affected if the limit is changed.
    KERN_MAXVNODES
    The maximum number of vnodes available on the system.
    KERN_NGROUPS
    The maximum number of supplemental groups.
    KERN_NISDOMAINNAME
    The name of the current YP/NIS domain.
    KERN_OSRELDATE
    The kernel release version in the format M mm R xx where M is the major version, mm is the two digit minor version, R is 0 if release branch, otherwise 1, and xx is updated when the available APIs change.

    The userland release version is available from In osreldate.h ; parse this file if you need to get the release version of the currently installed userland.

    KERN_OSRELEASE
    The system release string.
    KERN_OSREV
    The system revision string.
    KERN_OSTYPE
    The system type string.
    KERN_POSIX1
    The version of St -p1003.1 with which the system attempts to comply.
    KERN_PROC
    Return selected information about specific running processes.

    For the following names, an array of pairs of struct proc followed by corresponding struct eproc structures is returned, whose size depends on the current number of such objects in the system.

    "Third level name      Fourth level is:"
    "KERN_PROC_ALL       None"
    "KERN_PROC_PID   A process ID"
    "KERN_PROC_PGRPA process group"
    "KERN_PROC_TTYA tty device"
    "KERN_PROC_UIDA user ID"
    "KERN_PROC_RUIDA real user ID"

    If the third level name is
    KERN_PROC_ARGS then the command line argument array is returned in a flattened form, i.e., zero-terminated arguments follow each other. The total size of array is returned. It is also possible for a process to set its own process title this way. If the third level name is KERN_PROC_PATHNAME the path of the process' text file is stored. For KERN_PROC_PATHNAME a process ID of -1 implies the current process.

    Third level name      Fourth level is:
    KERN_PROC_ARGS Ta A process ID
    KERN_PROC_PATHNAME Ta A process ID

    KERN_PROF
    Return profiling information about the kernel.
    If the kernel is not compiled for profiling, attempts to retrieve any of the KERN_PROF values will fail with Er ENOENT . The third level names for the string and integer profiling information is detailed below. The changeable column shows whether a process with appropriate privilege may change the value.

    Third level name      Type    Changeable
    "GPROF_STATE     integer yes"
    "GPROF_COUNT      u_short[]yes"
    "GPROF_FROMSu_short[]yes"
    "GPROF_TOSstruct tostructyes"
    "GPROF_GMONPARAMstruct gmonparamno"

    The variables are as follows:

    GPROF_STATE
    Returns GMON_PROF_ON or GMON_PROF_OFF to show that profiling is running or stopped.
    GPROF_COUNT
    Array of statistical program counter counts.
    GPROF_FROMS
    Array indexed by program counter of call-from points.
    GPROF_TOS
    Array of struct tostruct describing destination of calls and their counts.
    GPROF_GMONPARAM
    Structure giving the sizes of the above arrays.

    KERN_QUANTUM
    The maximum period of time, in microseconds, for which a process is allowed to run without being preempted if other processes are in the run queue.
    KERN_SAVED_IDS
    Returns 1 if saved set-group and saved set-user ID is available.
    KERN_SECURELVL
    The system security level. This level may be raised by processes with appropriate privilege. It may not be lowered.
    KERN_VERSION
    The system version string.
    KERN_VNODE
    Return the entire vnode table. Note, the vnode table is not necessarily a consistent snapshot of the system. The returned data consists of an array whose size depends on the current number of such objects in the system. Each element of the array contains the kernel address of a vnode struct vnode followed by the vnode itself struct vnode

     

    CTL_MACHDEP

    The set of variables defined is architecture dependent. The following variables are defined for the i386 architecture.

    Second level name     Type    Changeable
    CPU_CONSDEV     dev_t   no
    CPU_ADJKERNTZ   intyes
    CPU_DISRTCSETintyes
    CPU_BOOTINFOstruct bootinfono
    CPU_WALLCLOCKintyes

     

    CTL_NET

    The string and integer information available for the CTL_NET level
    is detailed below. The changeable column shows whether a process with appropriate privilege may change the value.

    Second level name     Type    Changeable
    "PF_ROUTE        routing messages        no"
    "PF_INETIPv4 valuesyes"
    "PF_INET6IPv6 valuesyes"

    PF_ROUTE
    Return the entire routing table or a subset of it.
    The data is returned as a sequence of routing messages (see route(4) for the header file, format and meaning). The length of each message is contained in the message header.

    The third level name is a protocol number, which is currently always 0. The fourth level name is an address family, which may be set to 0 to select all address families. The fifth and sixth level names are as follows:

    Fifth level name      Sixth level is:
    "NET_RT_FLAGS       rtflags"
    "NET_RT_DUMP  None"
    "NET_RT_IFLIST0 or if_index"
    "NET_RT_IFMALIST0 or if_index"

    The
    NET_RT_IFMALIST name returns information about multicast group memberships on all interfaces if 0 is specified, or for the interface specified by if_index

    PF_INET
    Get or set various global information about the IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4). The third level name is the protocol. The fourth level name is the variable name. The currently defined protocols and names are:

    Protocol      Variable        Type    Changeable
    "icmp    bmcastecho      integer yes"
    "icmpmaskreplintegeryes"
    "ipforwardingintegeryes"
    "ipredirectintegeryes"
    "ipttlintegeryes"
    "udpchecksumintegeryes"

    The variables are as follows:

    icmp.bmcastecho
    Returns 1 if an ICMP echo request to a broadcast or multicast address is to be answered.
    icmp.maskrepl
    Returns 1 if ICMP network mask requests are to be answered.
    ip.forwarding
    Returns 1 when IP forwarding is enabled for the host, meaning that the host is acting as a router.
    ip.redirect
    Returns 1 when ICMP redirects may be sent by the host. This option is ignored unless the host is routing IP packets, and should normally be enabled on all systems.
    ip.ttl
    The maximum time-to-live (hop count) value for an IP packet sourced by the system. This value applies to normal transport protocols, not to ICMP.
    udp.checksum
    Returns 1 when UDP checksums are being computed and checked. Disabling UDP checksums is strongly discouraged.

    For variables net.inet.*.ipsec, please refer to ipsec(4).

    PF_INET6
    Get or set various global information about the IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6). The third level name is the protocol. The fourth level name is the variable name.

    For variables net.inet6.* please refer to inet6(4). For variables net.inet6.*.ipsec6, please refer to ipsec(4).

     

    CTL_USER

    The string and integer information available for the CTL_USER level is detailed below. The changeable column shows whether a process with appropriate privilege may change the value.

    Second level name     Type    Changeable
    "USER_BC_BASE_MAX        integer no"
    "USER_BC_DIM_MAXintegerno"
    "USER_BC_SCALE_MAXintegerno"
    "USER_BC_STRING_MAXintegerno"
    "USER_COLL_WEIGHTS_MAXintegerno"
    "USER_CS_PATHstringno"
    "USER_EXPR_NEST_MAXintegerno"
    "USER_LINE_MAXintegerno"
    "USER_POSIX2_CHAR_TERMintegerno"
    "USER_POSIX2_C_BINDintegerno"
    "USER_POSIX2_C_DEVintegerno"
    "USER_POSIX2_FORT_DEVintegerno"
    "USER_POSIX2_FORT_RUNintegerno"
    "USER_POSIX2_LOCALEDEFintegerno"
    "USER_POSIX2_SW_DEVintegerno"
    "USER_POSIX2_UPEintegerno"
    "USER_POSIX2_VERSIONintegerno"
    "USER_RE_DUP_MAXintegerno"
    "USER_STREAM_MAXintegerno"
    "USER_TZNAME_MAXintegerno"

    USER_BC_BASE_MAX
    The maximum ibase/obase values in the
    bc(1) utility.
    USER_BC_DIM_MAX
    The maximum array size in the bc(1) utility.
    USER_BC_SCALE_MAX
    The maximum scale value in the bc(1) utility.
    USER_BC_STRING_MAX
    The maximum string length in the bc(1) utility.
    USER_COLL_WEIGHTS_MAX
    The maximum number of weights that can be assigned to any entry of the LC_COLLATE order keyword in the locale definition file.
    USER_CS_PATH
    Return a value for the PATH environment variable that finds all the standard utilities.
    USER_EXPR_NEST_MAX
    The maximum number of expressions that can be nested within parenthesis by the expr(1) utility.
    USER_LINE_MAX
    The maximum length in bytes of a text-processing utility's input line.
    USER_POSIX2_CHAR_TERM
    Return 1 if the system supports at least one terminal type capable of all operations described in St -p1003.2 , otherwise 0.
    USER_POSIX2_C_BIND
    Return 1 if the system's C-language development facilities support the C-Language Bindings Option, otherwise 0.
    USER_POSIX2_C_DEV
    Return 1 if the system supports the C-Language Development Utilities Option, otherwise 0.
    USER_POSIX2_FORT_DEV
    Return 1 if the system supports the FORTRAN Development Utilities Option, otherwise 0.
    USER_POSIX2_FORT_RUN
    Return 1 if the system supports the FORTRAN Runtime Utilities Option, otherwise 0.
    USER_POSIX2_LOCALEDEF
    Return 1 if the system supports the creation of locales, otherwise 0.
    USER_POSIX2_SW_DEV
    Return 1 if the system supports the Software Development Utilities Option, otherwise 0.
    USER_POSIX2_UPE
    Return 1 if the system supports the User Portability Utilities Option, otherwise 0.
    USER_POSIX2_VERSION
    The version of St -p1003.2 with which the system attempts to comply.
    USER_RE_DUP_MAX
    The maximum number of repeated occurrences of a regular expression permitted when using interval notation.
    USER_STREAM_MAX
    The minimum maximum number of streams that a process may have open at any one time.
    USER_TZNAME_MAX
    The minimum maximum number of types supported for the name of a timezone.

     

    CTL_VM

    The string and integer information available for the CTL_VM level is detailed below. The changeable column shows whether a process with appropriate privilege may change the value.

    Second level name     Type    Changeable
    "VM_LOADAVG      struct loadavg  no"
    "VM_METER  struct vmtotalno"
    "VM_PAGEOUT_ALGORITHMintegeryes"
    "VM_SWAPPING_ENABLEDintegermaybe"
    "VM_V_CACHE_MAXintegeryes"
    "VM_V_CACHE_MINintegeryes"
    "VM_V_FREE_MINintegeryes"
    "VM_V_FREE_RESERVEDintegeryes"
    "VM_V_FREE_TARGETintegeryes"
    "VM_V_INACTIVE_TARGETintegeryes"
    "VM_V_PAGEOUT_FREE_MINintegeryes"

    VM_LOADAVG
    Return the load average history.
    The returned data consists of a struct loadavg
    VM_METER
    Return the system wide virtual memory statistics. The returned data consists of a struct vmtotal
    VM_PAGEOUT_ALGORITHM
    0 if the statistics-based page management algorithm is in use or 1 if the near-LRU algorithm is in use.
    VM_SWAPPING_ENABLED
    1 if process swapping is enabled or 0 if disabled. This variable is permanently set to 0 if the kernel was built with swapping disabled.
    VM_V_CACHE_MAX
    Maximum desired size of the cache queue.
    VM_V_CACHE_MIN
    Minimum desired size of the cache queue. If the cache queue size falls very far below this value, the pageout daemon is awakened.
    VM_V_FREE_MIN
    Minimum amount of memory (cache memory plus free memory) required to be available before a process waiting on memory will be awakened.
    VM_V_FREE_RESERVED
    Processes will awaken the pageout daemon and wait for memory if the number of free and cached pages drops below this value.
    VM_V_FREE_TARGET
    The total amount of free memory (including cache memory) that the pageout daemon tries to maintain.
    VM_V_INACTIVE_TARGET
    The desired number of inactive pages that the pageout daemon should achieve when it runs. Inactive pages can be quickly inserted into process address space when needed.
    VM_V_PAGEOUT_FREE_MIN
    If the amount of free and cache memory falls below this value, the pageout daemon will enter "memory conserving mode" to avoid deadlock.

     

    RETURN VALUES

    Rv -std  

    FILES

    In sys/sysctl.h
    definitions for top level identifiers, second level kernel and hardware identifiers, and user level identifiers
    In sys/socket.h
    definitions for second level network identifiers
    In sys/gmon.h
    definitions for third level profiling identifiers
    In vm/vm_param.h
    definitions for second level virtual memory identifiers
    In netinet/in.h
    definitions for third level IPv4/IPv6 identifiers and fourth level IPv4/v6 identifiers
    In netinet/icmp_var.h
    definitions for fourth level ICMP identifiers
    In netinet/icmp6.h
    definitions for fourth level ICMPv6 identifiers
    In netinet/udp_var.h
    definitions for fourth level UDP identifiers

     

    ERRORS

    The following errors may be reported:

    Bq Er EFAULT
    The buffer Fa name , Fa oldp , Fa newp , or length pointer Fa oldlenp contains an invalid address.
    Bq Er EINVAL
    The Fa name array is less than two or greater than CTL_MAXNAME.
    Bq Er EINVAL
    A non-null Fa newp is given and its specified length in Fa newlen is too large or too small.
    Bq Er ENOMEM
    The length pointed to by Fa oldlenp is too short to hold the requested value.
    Bq Er ENOMEM
    The smaller of either the length pointed to by Fa oldlenp or the estimated size of the returned data exceeds the system limit on locked memory.
    Bq Er ENOMEM
    Locking the buffer Fa oldp , or a portion of the buffer if the estimated size of the data to be returned is smaller, would cause the process to exceed its per-process locked memory limit.
    Bq Er ENOTDIR
    The Fa name array specifies an intermediate rather than terminal name.
    Bq Er EISDIR
    The Fa name array specifies a terminal name, but the actual name is not terminal.
    Bq Er ENOENT
    The Fa name array specifies a value that is unknown.
    Bq Er EPERM
    An attempt is made to set a read-only value.
    Bq Er EPERM
    A process without appropriate privilege attempts to set a value.

     

    SEE ALSO

    sysconf(3), sysctl(8)  

    HISTORY

    The sysctl ();
    function first appeared in BSD 4.4


     

    Index

    NAME
    LIBRARY
    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CTL_DEBUG
    CTL_VFS
    CTL_HW
    CTL_KERN
    CTL_MACHDEP
    CTL_NET
    CTL_USER
    CTL_VM
    RETURN VALUES
    FILES
    ERRORS
    SEE ALSO
    HISTORY


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