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qsort (3)
  • qsort (3) ( Solaris man: Библиотечные вызовы )
  • >> qsort (3) ( FreeBSD man: Библиотечные вызовы )
  • qsort (3) ( Русские man: Библиотечные вызовы )
  • qsort (3) ( Linux man: Библиотечные вызовы )
  • qsort (3) ( POSIX man: Библиотечные вызовы )

  • BSD mandoc


    qsort , qsort_r , heapsort , mergesort
     - sort functions


    Lb libc


       #include <stdlib.h>
    void Fo qsort Fa void *base Fa size_t nmemb Fa size_t size Fa int lp]*comparrp]lp]const void *, const void *rp] Fc Ft void Fo qsort_r Fa void *base Fa size_t nmemb Fa size_t size Fa void *thunk Fa int lp]*comparrp]lp]void *, const void *, const void *rp] Fc Ft int Fo heapsort Fa void *base Fa size_t nmemb Fa size_t size Fa int lp]*comparrp]lp]const void *, const void *rp] Fc Ft int Fo mergesort Fa void *base Fa size_t nmemb Fa size_t size Fa int lp]*comparrp]lp]const void *, const void *rp] Fc  


    The qsort ();
    function is a modified partition-exchange sort, or quicksort. The heapsort ();
    function is a modified selection sort. The mergesort ();
    function is a modified merge sort with exponential search intended for sorting data with pre-existing order.

    The qsort ();
    and heapsort ();
    functions sort an array of Fa nmemb objects, the initial member of which is pointed to by Fa base . The size of each object is specified by Fa size . The mergesort ();
    function behaves similarly, but requires that Fa size be greater than ``sizeof(void *) / 2''

    The contents of the array Fa base are sorted in ascending order according to a comparison function pointed to by Fa compar , which requires two arguments pointing to the objects being compared.

    The comparison function must return an integer less than, equal to, or greater than zero if the first argument is considered to be respectively less than, equal to, or greater than the second.

    The qsort_r ();
    function behaves identically to qsort (,);
    except that it takes an additional argument, Fa thunk , which is passed unchanged as the first argument to function pointed to Fa compar . This allows the comparison function to access additional data without using global variables, and thus qsort_r ();
    is suitable for use in functions which must be reentrant.

    The algorithms implemented by qsort (,);
    qsort_r (,);
    and heapsort ();
    are not stable, that is, if two members compare as equal, their order in the sorted array is undefined. The mergesort ();
    algorithm is stable.

    The qsort ();
    and qsort_r ();
    functions are an implementation of C.A.R. Hoare's ``quicksort'' algorithm, a variant of partition-exchange sorting; in particular, see An D.E. Knuth Ns 's "Algorithm Q" . Quicksort takes O N lg N average time. This implementation uses median selection to avoid its O N**2 worst-case behavior.

    The heapsort ();
    function is an implementation of An J.W.J. William Ns 's ``heapsort'' algorithm, a variant of selection sorting; in particular, see An D.E. Knuth Ns 's "Algorithm H" . Heapsort takes O N lg N worst-case time. Its only advantage over qsort ();
    is that it uses almost no additional memory; while qsort ();
    does not allocate memory, it is implemented using recursion.

    The function mergesort ();
    requires additional memory of size Fa nmemb * Fa size bytes; it should be used only when space is not at a premium. The mergesort ();
    function is optimized for data with pre-existing order; its worst case time is O N lg N; its best case is O N.

    Normally, qsort ();
    is faster than mergesort ();
    is faster than heapsort (.);
    Memory availability and pre-existing order in the data can make this untrue.  


    The qsort ();
    and qsort_r ();
    functions return no value.

    Rv -std heapsort mergesort  


    Previous versions of qsort ();
    did not permit the comparison routine itself to call qsort (3 .);
    This is no longer true.  


    The heapsort ();
    and mergesort ();
    functions succeed unless:

    Bq Er EINVAL
    The Fa size argument is zero, or, the Fa size argument to mergesort ();
    is less than ``sizeof(void *) / 2''
    Bq Er ENOMEM
    The heapsort ();
    or mergesort ();
    functions were unable to allocate memory.



    sort(1), radixsort(3)
    Hoare, C.A.R. 1962 "Quicksort" "The Computer Journal" 5:1 pp. 10-15
    Williams, J.W.J 1964 "Heapsort" "Communications of the ACM" 7:1 pp. 347-348
    Knuth, D.E. 1968 "The Art of Computer Programming" Vol. 3 "Sorting and Searching" pp. 114-123, 145-149
    McIlroy, P.M. "Optimistic Sorting and Information Theoretic Complexity" "Fourth Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms" January 1992
    Bentley, J.L. McIlroy, M.D. "Engineering a Sort Function" "Software--Practice and Experience" Vol. 23(11) pp. 1249-1265 November 1993


    The qsort ();
    function conforms to St -isoC .




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