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open (2)
  • open (1) ( Linux man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • >> open (2) ( Solaris man: Системные вызовы )
  • open (2) ( FreeBSD man: Системные вызовы )
  • open (2) ( Русские man: Системные вызовы )
  • open (2) ( Linux man: Системные вызовы )
  • open (3) ( Solaris man: Библиотечные вызовы )
  • open (3) ( Linux man: Библиотечные вызовы )
  • open (3) ( POSIX man: Библиотечные вызовы )
  • open (9) ( Solaris man: Ядро )
  •  

    NAME

    open, openat - open a file
     
    

    SYNOPSIS

    #include <sys/types.h>
    #include <sys/stat.h>
    #include <fcntl.h>
    
    int open(const char *path, int oflag, /* mode_t mode */);
    

    int openat(int fildes, const char *path, int oflag,
        /* mode_t mode */);
    

     

    DESCRIPTION

    The open() function establishes the connection between a file and a file descriptor. It creates an open file description that refers to a file and a file descriptor that refers to that open file description. The file descriptor is used by other I/O functions to refer to that file. The path argument points to a pathname naming the file.

    The openat() function is identical to the open() function except that the path argument is interpreted relative to the starting point implied by the fildes argument. If the fildes argument has the special value AT_FDCWD, a relative path argument will be resolved relative to the current working directory. If the path argument is absolute, the fildes argument is ignored.

    The open() function returns a file descriptor for the named file that is the lowest file descriptor not currently open for that process. The open file description is new, and therefore the file descriptor does not share it with any other process in the system. The FD_CLOEXEC file descriptor flag associated with the new file descriptor is cleared.

    The file offset used to mark the current position within the file is set to the beginning of the file.

    The file status flags and file access modes of the open file description are set according to the value of oflag. The mode argument is used only when O_CREAT is specified (see below.)

    Values for oflag are constructed by a bitwise-inclusive-OR of flags from the following list, defined in <fcntl.h>. Applications must specify exactly one of the first three values (file access modes) below in the value of oflag:

    O_RDONLY

    Open for reading only.

    O_WRONLY

    Open for writing only.

    O_RDWR

    Open for reading and writing. The result is undefined if this flag is applied to a FIFO.

    Any combination of the following may be used:

    O_APPEND

    If set, the file offset is set to the end of the file prior to each write.

    O_CREAT

    Create the file if it does not exist. This flag requires that the mode argument be specified.

    If the file exists, this flag has no effect except as noted under O_EXCL below. Otherwise, the file is created with the user ID of the file set to the effective user ID of the process. The group ID of the file is set to the effective group IDs of the process, or if the S_ISGID bit is set in the directory in which the file is being created, the file's group ID is set to the group ID of its parent directory. If the group ID of the new file does not match the effective group ID or one of the supplementary groups IDs, the S_ISGID bit is cleared. The access permission bits (see <sys/stat.h>) of the file mode are set to the value of mode, modified as follows (see creat(2)): a bitwise-AND is performed on the file-mode bits and the corresponding bits in the complement of the process's file mode creation mask. Thus, all bits set in the process's file mode creation mask (see umask(2)) are correspondingly cleared in the file's permission mask. The "save text image after execution bit" of the mode is cleared (see chmod(2)). O_SYNC Write I/O operations on the file descriptor complete as defined by synchronized I/O file integrity completion (see fcntl.h(3HEAD) definition of O_SYNC.) When bits other than the file permission bits are set, the effect is unspecified. The mode argument does not affect whether the file is open for reading, writing or for both.

    O_DSYNC

    Write I/O operations on the file descriptor complete as defined by synchronized I/O data integrity completion.

    O_EXCL

    If O_CREAT and O_EXCL are set, open() fails if the file exists. The check for the existence of the file and the creation of the file if it does not exist is atomic with respect to other threads executing open() naming the same filename in the same directory with O_EXCL and O_CREAT set. If O_EXCL and O_CREAT are set, and path names a symbolic link, open() fails and sets errno to EEXIST, regardless of the contents of the symbolic link. If O_EXCL is set and O_CREAT is not set, the result is undefined.

    O_LARGEFILE

    If set, the offset maximum in the open file description is the largest value that can be represented correctly in an object of type off64_t.

    O_NOCTTY

    If set and path identifies a terminal device, open() does not cause the terminal device to become the controlling terminal for the process.

    O_NOFOLLOW

    If the path names a symbolic link, open() fails and sets errno to ELOOP.

    O_NOLINKS

    If the link count of the named file is greater than 1, open() fails and sets errno to EMLINK.

    O_NONBLOCK or O_NDELAY

    These flags can affect subsequent reads and writes (see read(2) and write(2)). If both O_NDELAY and O_NONBLOCK are set, O_NONBLOCK takes precedence.

    When opening a FIFO with O_RDONLY or O_WRONLY set:

    o If O_NONBLOCK or O_NDELAY is set, an open() for reading only returns without delay. An open() for writing only returns an error if no process currently has the file open for reading.
    o If O_NONBLOCK and O_NDELAY are clear, an open() for reading only blocks until a thread opens the file for writing. An open() for writing only blocks the calling thread until a thread opens the file for reading.
    After both ends of a FIFO have been opened, there is no guarantee that further calls to open() O_RDONLY (O_WRONLY) will synchronize with later calls to open() O_WRONLY (O_RDONLY) until both ends of the FIFO have been closed by all readers and writers. Any data written into a FIFO will be lost if both ends of the FIFO are closed before the data is read.

    When opening a block special or character special file that supports non-blocking opens:

    o If O_NONBLOCK or O_NDELAY is set, the open() function returns without blocking for the device to be ready or available. Subsequent behavior of the device is device-specific.
    o If O_NONBLOCK and O_NDELAY are clear, the open() function blocks the calling thread until the device is ready or available before returning.
    Otherwise, the behavior of O_NONBLOCK and O_NDELAY is unspecified.

    O_RSYNC

    Read I/O operations on the file descriptor complete at the same level of integrity as specified by the O_DSYNC and O_SYNC flags. If both O_DSYNC and O_RSYNC are set in oflag, all I/O operations on the file descriptor complete as defined by synchronized I/O data integrity completion. If both O_SYNC and O_RSYNC are set in oflag, all I/O operations on the file descriptor complete as defined by synchronized I/O file integrity completion.

    O_SYNC

    Write I/O operations on the file descriptor complete as defined by synchronized I/O file integrity completion.

    O_TRUNC

    If the file exists and is a regular file, and the file is successfully opened O_RDWR or O_WRONLY, its length is truncated to 0 and the mode and owner are unchanged. It has no effect on FIFO special files or terminal device files. Its effect on other file types is implementation-dependent. The result of using O_TRUNC with O_RDONLY is undefined.

    O_XATTR

    If set in openat(), a relative path argument is interpreted as a reference to an extended attribute of the file associated with the supplied file descriptor. This flag therefore requires the presence of a legal fildes argument. If set in open(), the implied file descriptor is that for the current working directory. Extended attributes must be referenced with a relative path; providing an absolute path results in a normal file reference.

    If O_CREAT is set and the file did not previously exist, upon successful completion, open() marks for update the st_atime, st_ctime, and st_mtime fields of the file and the st_ctime and st_mtime fields of the parent directory.

    If O_TRUNC is set and the file did previously exist, upon successful completion, open() marks for update the st_ctime and st_mtime fields of the file.

    If both the O_SYNC and O_DSYNC flags are set, the effect is as if only the O_SYNC flag was set.

    If path refers to a STREAMS file, oflag may be constructed from O_NONBLOCK or O_NODELAY OR-ed with either O_RDONLY, O_WRONLY, or O_RDWR. Other flag values are not applicable to STREAMS devices and have no effect on them. The values O_NONBLOCK and O_NODELAY affect the operation of STREAMS drivers and certain functions (see read(2), getmsg(2), putmsg(2), and write(2)) applied to file descriptors associated with STREAMS files. For STREAMS drivers, the implementation of O_NONBLOCK and O_NODELAY is device-specific.

    When open() is invoked to open a named stream, and the connld module (see connld(7M)) has been pushed on the pipe, open() blocks until the server process has issued an I_RECVFD ioctl() (see streamio(7I)) to receive the file descriptor.

    If path names the master side of a pseudo-terminal device, then it is unspecified whether open() locks the slave side so that it cannot be opened. Portable applications must call unlockpt(3C) before opening the slave side.

    If the file is a regular file and the local file system is mounted with the nbmand mount option, then a mandatory share reservation is automatically obtained on the file. The share reservation is obtained as if fcntl(2) were called with cmd F_SHARE_NBMAND and the fshare_t values set as follows:

    f_access

    Set to the type of read/write access for which the file is opened.

    f_deny

    F_NODNY

    f_id

    The file descriptor value returned from open().

    If path is a symbolic link and O_CREAT and O_EXCL are set, the link is not followed.

    Certain flag values can be set following open() as described in fcntl(2).

    The largest value that can be represented correctly in an object of type off_t is established as the offset maximum in the open file description.  

    RETURN VALUES

    Upon successful completion, the open() function opens the file and return a non-negative integer representing the lowest numbered unused file descriptor. Otherwise, -1 is returned, errno is set to indicate the error, and no files are created or modified.  

    ERRORS

    The open() and openat() functions will fail if:

    EACCES

    Search permission is denied on a component of the path prefix.

    The file exists and the permissions specified by oflag are denied.

    The file does not exist and write permission is denied for the parent directory of the file to be created.

    O_TRUNC is specified and write permission is denied.

    The {PRIV_FILE_DAC_SEARCH} privilege allows processes to search directories regardless of permission bits. The {PRIV_FILE_DAC_WRITE} privilege allows processes to open files for writing regardless of permission bits. See privileges(5) for special considerations when opening files owned by UID 0 for writing. The {PRIV_FILE_DAC_READ} privilege allows processes to open files for reading regardless of permission bits.

    EAGAIN

    A mandatory share reservation could not be obtained because the desired access conflicts with an existing f_deny share reservation.

    EBADF

    The file descriptor provided to openat() is invalid.

    EDQUOT

    The file does not exist, O_CREAT is specified, and either the directory where the new file entry is being placed cannot be extended because the user's quota of disk blocks on that file system has been exhausted, or the user's quota of inodes on the file system where the file is being created has been exhausted.

    EEXIST

    The O_CREAT and O_EXCL flags are set and the named file exists.

    EILSEQ

    The path argument includes non-UTF8 characters and the file system accepts only file names where all characters are part of the UTF-8 character codeset.

    EINTR

    A signal was caught during open().

    EFAULT

    The path argument points to an illegal address.

    EINVAL

    The system does not support synchronized I/O for this file, or the O_XATTR flag was supplied and the underlying file system does not support extended file attributes.

    EIO

    The path argument names a STREAMS file and a hangup or error occurred during the open().

    EISDIR

    The named file is a directory and oflag includes O_WRONLY or O_RDWR.

    ELOOP

    Too many symbolic links were encountered in resolving path.

    A loop exists in symbolic links encountered during resolution of the path argument.

    The O_NOFOLLOW flag is set and the final component of path is a symbolic link.

    EMFILE

    There are currently {OPEN_MAX} file descriptors open in the calling process.

    EMLINK

    The O_NOLINKS flag is set and the named file has a link count greater than 1.

    EMULTIHOP

    Components of path require hopping to multiple remote machines and the file system does not allow it.

    ENAMETOOLONG

    The length of the path argument exceeds {PATH_MAX} or a pathname component is longer than {NAME_MAX}.

    ENFILE

    The maximum allowable number of files is currently open in the system.

    ENOENT

    The O_CREAT flag is not set and the named file does not exist; or the O_CREAT flag is set and either the path prefix does not exist or the path argument points to an empty string.

    ENOLINK

    The path argument points to a remote machine, and the link to that machine is no longer active.

    ENOSR

    The path argument names a STREAMS-based file and the system is unable to allocate a STREAM.

    ENOSPC

    The directory or file system that would contain the new file cannot be expanded, the file does not exist, and O_CREAT is specified.

    ENOSYS

    The device specified by path does not support the open operation.

    ENOTDIR

    A component of the path prefix is not a directory or a relative path was supplied to openat(), the O_XATTR flag was not supplied, and the file descriptor does not refer to a directory.

    ENXIO

    The O_NONBLOCK flag is set, the named file is a FIFO, the O_WRONLY flag is set, and no process has the file open for reading; or the named file is a character special or block special file and the device associated with this special file does not exist or has been retired by the fault management framework .

    EOPNOTSUPP

    An attempt was made to open a path that corresponds to a AF_UNIX socket.

    EOVERFLOW

    The named file is a regular file and either O_LARGEFILE is not set and the size of the file cannot be represented correctly in an object of type off_t or O_LARGEFILE is set and the size of the file cannot be represented correctly in an object of type off64_t.

    EROFS

    The named file resides on a read-only file system and either O_WRONLY, O_RDWR, O_CREAT (if file does not exist), or O_TRUNC is set in the oflag argument.

    The openat() function will fail if:

    EBADF

    The fildes argument is not a valid open file descriptor or is not AT_FTCWD.

    The open() function may fail if:

    EAGAIN

    The path argument names the slave side of a pseudo-terminal device that is locked.

    EINVAL

    The value of the oflag argument is not valid.

    ENAMETOOLONG

    Pathname resolution of a symbolic link produced an intermediate result whose length exceeds {PATH_MAX}.

    ENOMEM

    The path argument names a STREAMS file and the system is unable to allocate resources.

    ETXTBSY

    The file is a pure procedure (shared text) file that is being executed and oflag is O_WRONLY or O_RDWR.

     

    EXAMPLES

    Example 1 Open a file for writing by the owner.

    The following example opens the file /tmp/file, either by creating it if it does not already exist, or by truncating its length to 0 if it does exist. If the call creates a new file, the access permission bits in the file mode of the file are set to permit reading and writing by the owner, and to permit reading only by group members and others.

    If the call to open() is successful, the file is opened for writing.

    #include <fcntl.h>
    ...
    int fd;
    mode_t mode = S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR | S_IRGRP | S_IROTH;
    char *filename = "/tmp/file";
    ...
    fd = open(filename, O_WRONLY | O_CREAT | O_TRUNC, mode);
    ...
    

    Example 2 Open a file using an existence check.

    The following example uses the open() function to try to create the LOCKFILE file and open it for writing. Since the open() function specifies the O_EXCL flag, the call fails if the file already exists. In that case, the application assumes that someone else is updating the password file and exits.

    #include <fcntl.h>
    #include <stdio.h>
    #include <stdlib.h>                              
    #define LOCKFILE "/etc/ptmp"                     
    ...
    int pfd; /* Integer for file descriptor returned by open() call. */
    ...
    if ((pfd = open(LOCKFILE, O_WRONLY | O_CREAT | O_EXCL,
           S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR | S_IRGRP | S_IROTH)) == -1)
    {
           fprintf(stderr, "Cannot open /etc/ptmp. Try again later.\n");
           exit(1);
    }
    ...
    

    Example 3 Open a file for writing.

    The following example opens a file for writing, creating the file if it does not already exist. If the file does exist, the system truncates the file to zero bytes.

    #include <fcntl.h>
    #include <stdio.h>
    #include <stdlib.h>
    #define LOCKFILE "/etc/ptmp"
    ...
    int pfd;
    char filename[PATH_MAX+1];
    ...
    if ((pfd = open(filename, O_WRONLY | O_CREAT | O_TRUNC,
           S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR | S_IRGRP | S_IROTH)) == -1)
    {
           perror("Cannot open output file\n"); exit(1);
    }
    ...
    

     

    USAGE

    The open() function has a transitional interface for 64-bit file offsets. See lf64(5). Note that using open64() is equivalent to using open() with O_LARGEFILE set in oflag.  

    ATTRIBUTES

    See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

    ATTRIBUTE TYPEATTRIBUTE VALUE

    Interface StabilityCommitted

    MT-Level

    Standard

     

    SEE ALSO

    Intro(2), chmod(2), close(2), creat(2), dup(2), exec(2), fcntl(2), getmsg(2), getrlimit(2), lseek(2), putmsg(2), read(2), stat(2), umask(2), write(2), attropen(3C), fcntl.h(3HEAD), stat.h(3HEAD), unlockpt(3C), attributes(5), lf64(5), privileges(5), standards(5), connld(7M), streamio(7I)  

    NOTES

    Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) file systems can sometimes cause long delays when opening a file, since HSM files must be recalled from secondary storage.


     

    Index

    NAME
    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    RETURN VALUES
    ERRORS
    EXAMPLES
    USAGE
    ATTRIBUTES
    SEE ALSO
    NOTES


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