named, in.named - Internet domain name server
named [-fgsv] [-c config-file] [-d debug-level] [-n #cpus] [-p port] [-t directory] [-u user] [-x cache-file] [-4 | -6]
The named utility is a Domain Name System (DNS) server, part of the BIND 9 distribution from ISC. For more information on the DNS, see RFCs 1033, 1034, and 1035.
When invoked without arguments, named reads the default configuration file /etc/named.conf, reads any initial data, and listens for queries.
in.named is a link to named.
The following options are supported:
This option is mainly of interest to BIND 9 developers and might be removed or changed in a future release.
This option should be used in conjunction with the -u option, as chrooting a process running as root doesn't enhance security on most systems; the way chroot() is defined allows a process with root privileges to escape a chroot jail.
On Linux, named uses the kernel's capability mechanism to drop all root privileges except the ability to use bind(3SOCKET) to bind to a privileged port and set process resource limits. Unfortunately, this means that the -u option works only when named is run on kernel 2.2.18 or later, or kernel 2.3.99-pre3 or later, since previous kernels did not allow privileges to be retained after setuid().
This option must not be used. It is of interest only to BIND 9 developers and might be removed or changed in a future release.
This section describes additional attributes of named.
When starting named from the service management facility, smf(5), named configuration is read from the service configuration repository. Use svcprop(1) to list the properties and svccfg(1M) to make changes.
The following application configuration properties are available to administrators:
When using chroot(2), named is unable to disable itself when receiving rndc(1M) stop or halt commands. Instead, you must use the svcadm(1M) disable command.
In the event of a configuration error originating in one of the above SMF application options, named displays a message providing information about the error and the parameters that need correcting. The process then exits with exit code SMF_EXIT_ERR_CONFIG.
At startup, in the event of an error other than a configuration error, named exits with exit code SMF_EXIT_ERR_FATAL. Both of this code and SMF_EXIT_ERR_CONFIG cause the start method, smf_method(5), to place the service in the maintenance state, which can be observed with the svcs(1) command svcs -x.
In addition to the properties listed above, the following property can be used to invoke named as a user other than root:
In routine operation, signals should not be used to control the nameserver; rndc(1M) should be used instead.
The result of sending any other signals to the server is undefined.
The named configuration file is too complex to describe in detail here. A complete description is provided in the BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual. See SEE ALSO.
Example 1 Configuring named to Transmit Only over IPv4 Networks
The following command sequence configures named such that it will transmit only over IPv4 networks.
# svccfg -s svc:network/dns/server:default setprop \ > options/ip_interfaces=IPv4 # svcadm refresh svc:network/dns/server:default #
Example 2 Listing Current Configuration File and Setting an Alternative File
The following sequence of commands lists the current named configuration file and sets an alternative file.
# svcprop -p options/configuration_file dns/server:default /etc/named.conf # svccfg -s dns/server:default setprop \ > options/configuration_file=/var/named/named.conf # svcadm refresh dns/server:default # svcprop -p options/configuration_file dns/server:default /var/named/named.conf
See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:
svcs(1), rndc(1M), rndc-confgen(1M), svcadm(1M), svccfg(1M), svcprop(1), chroot(2), setuid(2), bind(3SOCKET), attributes(5), smf(5), smf_method(5)
RFC 1033, RFC 1034, RFC 1035
BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual, published by the Internet Systems Consortium and accessible at www.bind9.net
Source for BIND9 is available in the SUNWbind9S package.
By default, named attempts to contact remote name servers by either their IPv4 or IPv6 address, even though the host system does not have either IPv4 or IPv6 connectivity (that is, a configured and active interface). To address this issue, either provide the missing connectivity or use the relevant -4 or -6 command line option. When using svccfg(1M), set application property options/ip_interfaces to either IPv4 or IPv6.
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Created 1996-2020 by Maxim Chirkov
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