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Интерактивная система просмотра системных руководств (man-ов)

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ls (1)
  • ls (1) ( Solaris man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • ls (1) ( FreeBSD man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • ls (1) ( Русские man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • >> ls (1) ( Linux man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • ls (1) ( POSIX man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )


    ls - list directory contents


    ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...  


    List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default). Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort.

    Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

    -a, --all
    do not ignore entries starting with .
    -A, --almost-all
    do not list implied . and ..
    with -l, print the author of each file
    -b, --escape
    print octal escapes for nongraphic characters
    use SIZE-byte blocks
    -B, --ignore-backups
    do not list implied entries ending with ~
    with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of file status information) with -l: show ctime and sort by name otherwise: sort by ctime
    list entries by columns
    control whether color is used to distinguish file types. WHEN may be `never', `always', or `auto'
    -d, --directory
    list directory entries instead of contents, and do not dereference symbolic links
    -D, --dired
    generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode
    do not sort, enable -aU, disable -lst
    -F, --classify
    append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries
    likewise, except do not append `*'
    across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C
    like -l --time-style=full-iso
    like -l, but do not list owner
    -G, --no-group
    like -l, but do not list group
    -h, --human-readable
    with -l, print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)
    likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024
    -H, --dereference-command-line
    follow symbolic links listed on the command line
    follow each command line symbolic link that points to a directory
    do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden by -a or -A)
    --indicator-style=WORD append indicator with style WORD to entry names:
    none (default), slash (-p), file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)
    -i, --inode
    with -l, print the index number of each file
    -I, --ignore=PATTERN
    do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
    like --block-size=1K
    use a long listing format
    -L, --dereference
    when showing file information for a symbolic link, show information for the file the link references rather than for the link itself
    fill width with a comma separated list of entries
    -n, --numeric-uid-gid
    like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs
    -N, --literal
    print raw entry names (don't treat e.g. control characters specially)
    like -l, but do not list group information
    -p, --indicator-style=slash
    append / indicator to directories
    -q, --hide-control-chars
    print ? instead of non graphic characters
    show non graphic characters as-is (default unless program is `ls' and output is a terminal)
    -Q, --quote-name
    enclose entry names in double quotes
    use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell, shell-always, c, escape
    -r, --reverse
    reverse order while sorting
    -R, --recursive
    list subdirectories recursively
    -s, --size
    with -l, print size of each file, in blocks
    sort by file size
    extension -X, none -U, size -S, time -t, version -v, status -c, time -t, atime -u, access -u, use -u
    with -l, show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime, access, use, ctime or status; use specified time as sort key if --sort=time
    with -l, show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale, +FORMAT. FORMAT is interpreted like `date'; if FORMAT is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, FORMAT1 applies to non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is prefixed with `posix-', STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX locale
    sort by modification time
    -T, --tabsize=COLS
    assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8
    with -lt: sort by, and show, access time with -l: show access time and sort by name otherwise: sort by access time
    do not sort; list entries in directory order
    sort by version
    -w, --width=COLS
    assume screen width instead of current value
    list entries by lines instead of by columns
    sort alphabetically by entry extension
    list one file per line

    SELinux options:

    Display security context. Enable -l. Lines will probably be too wide for most displays.
    -Z, --context
    Display security context so it fits on most displays. Displays only mode, user, group, security context and file name.
    Display only security context and file name.
    display this help and exit
    output version information and exit

    SIZE may be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of following: kB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G, T, P, E, Z, Y.

    By default, color is not used to distinguish types of files. That is equivalent to using --color=none. Using the --color option without the optional WHEN argument is equivalent to using --color=always. With --color=auto, color codes are output only if standard output is connected to a terminal (tty). The environment variable LS_COLORS can influence the colors, and can be set easily by the dircolors command.

    Exit status is 0 if OK, 1 if minor problems, 2 if serious trouble.  


    Written by Richard Stallman and David MacKenzie.  


    Report bugs to <>.  


    Copyright © 2006 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
    This is free software. You may redistribute copies of it under the terms of the GNU General Public License <>. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.  


    The full documentation for ls is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the info and ls programs are properly installed at your site, the command
    info ls

    should give you access to the complete manual.




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