The OpenNET Project / Index page

[ новости /+++ | форум | теги | ]

Интерактивная система просмотра системных руководств (man-ов)

 [Cписок руководств | Печать]

gethostbyname (3)
  • gethostbyname (3) ( Solaris man: Библиотечные вызовы )
  • >> gethostbyname (3) ( FreeBSD man: Библиотечные вызовы )
  • gethostbyname (3) ( Русские man: Библиотечные вызовы )
  • gethostbyname (3) ( Linux man: Библиотечные вызовы )
  • gethostbyname (3) ( POSIX man: Библиотечные вызовы )

  • BSD mandoc


     - get network host entry


    Lb libc


       #include <netdb.h>
    Vt int h_errno ; struct hostent * gethostbyname (const char *name);
    struct hostent * gethostbyname2 (const char *name int af);
    struct hostent * gethostbyaddr (const void *addr socklen_t len int type);
    struct hostent * gethostent (void);
    void sethostent (int stayopen);
    void endhostent (void);
    void herror (const char *string);
    const char * hstrerror (int err);


    Bf -symbolic The getaddrinfo(3) and getnameinfo(3) functions are preferred over the gethostbyname (,);
    gethostbyname2 (,);
    and gethostbyaddr ();
    functions. Ef

    The gethostbyname (,);
    gethostbyname2 ();
    and gethostbyaddr ();
    functions each return a pointer to an object with the following structure describing an internet host referenced by name or by address, respectively.

    The Fa name argument passed to gethostbyname ();
    or gethostbyname2 ();
    should point to a NUL -terminated hostname. The Fa addr argument passed to gethostbyaddr ();
    should point to an address which is Fa len bytes long, in binary form (i.e., not an IP address in human readable ASCII form). The Fa type argument specifies the address family (e.g. AF_INET , AF_INET6 etc.) of this address.

    The structure returned contains either the information obtained from the name server, named(8), broken-out fields from a line in /etc/hosts or database entries supplied by the yp(8) system. The order of the lookups is controlled by the `hosts' entry in nsswitch.conf5.

    struct  hostent {
            char    *h_name;        /* official name of host */
            char    **h_aliases;    /* alias list */
            int     h_addrtype;     /* host address type */
            int     h_length;       /* length of address */
            char    **h_addr_list;  /* list of addresses from name server */
    #define h_addr  h_addr_list[0]  /* address, for backward compatibility */

    The members of this structure are:

    Official name of the host.
    A NULL -terminated array of alternate names for the host.
    The type of address being returned; usually AF_INET
    The length, in bytes, of the address.
    A NULL -terminated array of network addresses for the host. Host addresses are returned in network byte order.
    The first address in h_addr_list this is for backward compatibility.

    When using the nameserver, gethostbyname ();
    and gethostbyname2 ();
    will search for the named host in the current domain and its parents unless the name ends in a dot. If the name contains no dot, and if the environment variable ``HOSTALIASES '' contains the name of an alias file, the alias file will first be searched for an alias matching the input name. See hostname(7) for the domain search procedure and the alias file format.

    The gethostbyname2 ();
    function is an evolution of gethostbyname ();
    which is intended to allow lookups in address families other than AF_INET for example AF_INET6

    The sethostent ();
    function may be used to request the use of a connected TCP socket for queries. If the Fa stayopen flag is non-zero, this sets the option to send all queries to the name server using TCP and to retain the connection after each call to gethostbyname (,);
    gethostbyname2 ();
    or gethostbyaddr (.);
    Otherwise, queries are performed using UDP datagrams.

    The endhostent ();
    function closes the TCP connection.

    The herror ();
    function writes a message to the diagnostic output consisting of the string argument Fa string , the constant string Qq Li :  , and a message corresponding to the value of h_errno

    The hstrerror ();
    function returns a string which is the message text corresponding to the value of the Fa err argument.  





    Print out the hostname associated with a specific IP address:
    const char *ipstr = "";
    struct in_addr ip;
    struct hostent *hp;
    if (!inet_aton(ipstr, &ip))
            errx(1, "can't parse IP address %s", ipstr);
    if ((hp = gethostbyaddr((const void *)&ip,
        sizeof ip, AF_INET)) == NULL)
            errx(1, "no name associated with %s", ipstr);
    printf("name associated with %s is %s\n", ipstr, hp->h_name);


    Error return status from gethostbyname (,);
    gethostbyname2 ();
    and gethostbyaddr ();
    is indicated by return of a NULL pointer. The integer h_errno may then be checked to see whether this is a temporary failure or an invalid or unknown host. The routine herror ();
    can be used to print an error message describing the failure. If its argument Fa string is non- NULL it is printed, followed by a colon and a space. The error message is printed with a trailing newline.

    The variable h_errno can have the following values:

    No such host is known.
    This is usually a temporary error and means that the local server did not receive a response from an authoritative server. A retry at some later time may succeed.
    Some unexpected server failure was encountered. This is a non-recoverable error.
    The requested name is valid but does not have an IP address; this is not a temporary error. This means that the name is known to the name server but there is no address associated with this name. Another type of request to the name server using this domain name will result in an answer; for example, a mail-forwarder may be registered for this domain.



    getaddrinfo(3), getnameinfo(3), inet_aton3, resolver(3), hosts(5), hostname(7), named(8)  


    The gethostent ();
    function is defined, and sethostent ();
    and endhostent ();
    are redefined, when Lb libc is built to use only the routines to lookup in /etc/hosts and not the name server.

    The gethostent ();
    function reads the next line of /etc/hosts opening the file if necessary.

    The sethostent ();
    function opens and/or rewinds the file /etc/hosts If the Fa stayopen argument is non-zero, the file will not be closed after each call to gethostbyname (,);
    gethostbyname2 ();
    or gethostbyaddr (.);

    The endhostent ();
    function closes the file.  


    The herror ();
    function appeared in BSD 4.3 The endhostent (,);
    gethostbyaddr (,);
    gethostbyname (,);
    gethostent (,);
    and sethostent ();
    functions appeared in BSD 4.2 The gethostbyname2 ();
    function first appeared in BIND version 4.9.4.  


    These functions use a thread-specific data storage; if the data is needed for future use, it should be copied before any subsequent calls overwrite it.

    Though these functions are thread-safe, still it is recommended to use the getaddrinfo(3) family of functions, instead.

    Only the Internet address format is currently understood.




    Поиск по тексту MAN-ов: 

    Inferno Solutions
    Hosting by

    Закладки на сайте
    Проследить за страницей
    Created 1996-2024 by Maxim Chirkov
    Добавить, Поддержать, Вебмастеру