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getdents (2)
  • getdents (2) ( Solaris man: Системные вызовы )
  • getdents (2) ( FreeBSD man: Системные вызовы )
  • getdents (2) ( Русские man: Системные вызовы )
  • >> getdents (2) ( Linux man: Системные вызовы )
  •  

    NAME

    getdents - get directory entries
     
    

    SYNOPSIS

    int getdents(unsigned int fd, struct linux_dirent *dirp,
                 unsigned int count);
    
     

    DESCRIPTION

    This is not the function you are interested in. Look at readdir(3) for the POSIX conforming C library interface. This page documents the bare kernel system call interface.

    The system call getdents() reads several linux_dirent structures from the directory referred to by the open file descriptor fd into the buffer pointed to by dirp. The argument count is specifies the size of that buffer.

    The linux_dirent structure is declared as follows:

    struct linux_dirent {
        unsigned long  d_ino;     /* Inode number */
        unsigned long  d_off;     /* Offset to next linux_dirent */
        unsigned short d_reclen;  /* Length of this linux_dirent */
        char           d_name[];  /* Filename (null-terminated) */
                            /* length is actually (d_reclen - 2 -
                               offsetof(struct linux_dirent, d_name) */
        /*
        char           pad;       // Zero padding byte */
        char           d_type;    // File type (only since Linux 2.6.4;
                                  // offset is (d_reclen - 1))
        */
    
    }
    

    d_ino is an inode number. d_off is the distance from the start of the directory to the start of the next linux_dirent. d_reclen is the size of this entire linux_dirent. d_name is a null-terminated filename.

    d_type is a byte at the end of the structure that indicates the file type. It contains one of the following values (defined in <dirent.h>):

    DT_BLK
    This is a block device.
    DT_CHR
    This is a character device.
    DT_DIR
    This is a directory.
    DT_FIFO
    This is a named pipe (FIFO).
    DT_LNK
    This is a symbolic link.
    DT_REG
    This is a regular file.
    DT_SOCK
    This is a Unix domain socket.
    DT_UNKNOWN
    The file type is unknown.

    Currently, only some file systems (among them: ext2, etx3, and ext4) have full support returning the file type in d_type. All applications must properly handle a return of DT_UNKNOWN.  

    RETURN VALUE

    On success, the number of bytes read is returned. On end of directory, 0 is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.  

    ERRORS

    EBADF
    Invalid file descriptor fd.
    EFAULT
    Argument points outside the calling process's address space.
    EINVAL
    Result buffer is too small.
    ENOENT
    No such directory.
    ENOTDIR
    File descriptor does not refer to a directory.
     

    CONFORMING TO

    SVr4.  

    NOTES

    Glibc does not provide a wrapper for this system call; call it using syscall(2). You will need to define the linux_dirent structure yourself.

    This call supersedes readdir(2).  

    EXAMPLE

    The program below demonstrates the use of getdents(). The following output shows an example of what we see when running this program on an ext2 directory:

    $ ./a.out /testfs/
    --------------- nread=120 ---------------
    i-node#  file type  d_reclen  d_off   d_name
           2  directory    16         12  .
           2  directory    16         24  ..
          11  directory    24         44  lost+found
          12  regular      16         56  a
      228929  directory    16         68  sub
       16353  directory    16         80  sub2
      130817  directory    16       4096  sub3
    
     

    Program source

    #define HAVE_D_TYPE     /* Remove for kernels < 2.6.4 */
    #define _GNU_SOURCE
    #include <dirent.h>     /* Defines DT_* constants */
    #include <fcntl.h>
    #include <stdio.h>
    #include <unistd.h>
    #include <stdlib.h>
    #include <sys/stat.h>
    #include <sys/syscall.h>
    
    #define handle_error(msg) \
            do { perror(msg); exit(EXIT_FAILURE); } while (0)
    
    struct linux_dirent {
        long           d_ino;
        off_t          d_off;
        unsigned short d_reclen;
        char           d_name[];
    };
    
    #define BUF_SIZE 1024
    
    int
    main(int argc, char *argv[])
    {
        int fd, nread;
        char buf[BUF_SIZE];
        struct linux_dirent *d;
        int bpos;
    #ifdef HAVE_D_TYPE
        char d_type;
    #endif
    
        fd = open(argc > 1 ? argv[1] : ".", O_RDONLY | O_DIRECTORY);
        if (fd == -1)
            handle_error("open");
    
        for ( ; ; ) {
            nread = syscall(SYS_getdents, fd, buf, BUF_SIZE);
            if (nread == -1)
                handle_error("getdents");
    
            if (nread == 0)
                break;
    
            printf("--------------- nread=%d ---------------\n", nread);
            printf("i-node#  file type  d_reclen  d_off   d_name\n");
            for (bpos = 0; bpos < nread;) {
                d = (struct linux_dirent *) (buf + bpos);
                printf("%8ld  ", d->d_ino);
    #ifdef HAVE_D_TYPE
                d_type = *(buf + bpos + d->d_reclen - 1);
                printf("%-10s ", (d_type == DT_REG) ?  "regular" :
                                 (d_type == DT_DIR) ?  "directory" :
                                 (d_type == DT_FIFO) ? "FIFO" :
                                 (d_type == DT_SOCK) ? "socket" :
                                 (d_type == DT_LNK) ?  "symlink" :
                                 (d_type == DT_BLK) ?  "block dev" :
                                 (d_type == DT_CHR) ?  "char dev" : "???");
    #endif
                printf("%4d %10lld  %s\n", d->d_reclen,
                        (long long) d->d_off, (char *) d->d_name);
                bpos += d->d_reclen;
            }
        }
    
        exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
    }
    
     

    SEE ALSO

    readdir(2), readdir(3)  

    COLOPHON

    This page is part of release 3.14 of the Linux man-pages project. A description of the project, and information about reporting bugs, can be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.


     

    Index

    NAME
    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    RETURN VALUE
    ERRORS
    CONFORMING TO
    NOTES
    EXAMPLE
    Program source
    SEE ALSO
    COLOPHON


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