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chmod (2)
  • chmod (1) ( Solaris man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • chmod (1) ( FreeBSD man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • chmod (1) ( Русские man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • chmod (1) ( Linux man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • chmod (1) ( POSIX man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • >> chmod (2) ( Solaris man: Системные вызовы )
  • chmod (2) ( FreeBSD man: Системные вызовы )
  • chmod (2) ( Русские man: Системные вызовы )
  • chmod (2) ( Linux man: Системные вызовы )
  • chmod (3) ( Solaris man: Библиотечные вызовы )
  • chmod (3) ( POSIX man: Библиотечные вызовы )
  •  

    NAME

    chmod, fchmod - change access permission mode of file
     
    

    SYNOPSIS

    #include <sys/types.h>
    #include <sys/stat.h>
    
    int chmod(const char *path, mode_t mode);
    

    int fchmod(int fildes, mode_t mode);
    

     

    DESCRIPTION

    The chmod() and fchmod() functions set the access permission portion of the mode of the file whose name is given by path or referenced by the open file descriptor fildes to the bit pattern contained in mode. Access permission bits are interpreted as follows:

    S_ISUID04000Set user ID on execution.
    S_ISGID020#0 Set group ID on execution if # is 7, 5, 3, or 1. Enable mandatory file/record locking if # is 6, 4, 2, or 0.
    S_ISVTX
    S_IRWXU
    S_IRUSR
    S_IWUSR
    S_IXUSR
    S_IRWXG
    S_IRGRP
    S_IWGRP
    S_IXGRP
    S_IRWXO
    S_IROTH
    S_IWOTH
    S_IXOTH

    Modes are constructed by the bitwise OR operation of the access permission bits.

    The effective user ID of the process must match the owner of the file or the process must have the appropriate privilege to change the mode of a file.

    If the process is not a privileged process and the file is not a directory, mode bit 01000 (save text image on execution) is cleared.

    If neither the process is privileged nor the file's group is a member of the process's supplementary group list, and the effective group ID of the process does not match the group ID of the file, mode bit 02000 (set group ID on execution) is cleared.

    If a directory is writable and has S_ISVTX (the sticky bit) set, files within that directory can be removed or renamed only if one or more of the following is true (see unlink(2) and rename(2)):

    o the user owns the file
    o the user owns the directory
    o the file is writable by the user
    o the user is a privileged user

    If a regular file is not executable and has S_ISVTX set, the file is assumed to be a swap file. In this case, the system's page cache will not be used to hold the file's data. If the S_ISVTX bit is set on any other file, the results are unspecified.

    If a directory has the set group ID bit set, a given file created within that directory will have the same group ID as the directory. Otherwise, the newly created file's group ID will be set to the effective group ID of the creating process.

    If the mode bit 02000 (set group ID on execution) is set and the mode bit 00010 (execute or search by group) is not set, mandatory file/record locking will exist on a regular file, possibly affecting future calls to open(2), creat(2), read(2), and write(2) on this file.

    If fildes references a shared memory object, fchmod() need only affect the S_IRUSR, S_IRGRP, S_IROTH, S_IWUSR, S_IWGRP, S_IWOTH, S_IXUSR, S_IXGRP, and S_IXOTH file permission bits.

    If fildes refers to a socket, fchmod() does not fail but no action is taken.

    If fildes refers to a STREAM that is attached to an object in the file system name space with fattach(3C), the fchmod() call performs no action and returns successfully.

    Upon successful completion, chmod() and fchmod() mark for update the st_ctime field of the file.  

    RETURN VALUES

    Upon successful completion, 0 is returned. Otherwise, -1 is returned, the file mode is unchanged, and errno is set to indicate the error.  

    ERRORS

    The chmod() and fchmod() functions will fail if:

    EIO

    An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to the file system.

    EPERM

    The effective user ID does not match the owner of the file and the process does not have appropriate privilege.

    The {PRIV_FILE_OWNER} privilege overrides constraints on ownership when changing permissions on a file.

    The {PRIV_FILE_SETID} privilege overrides constraints on ownership when adding the setuid or setgid bits to an executable file or a directory. When adding the setuid bit to a root owned executable, additional restrictions apply. See privileges(5).

    The chmod() function will fail if:

    EACCES

    Search permission is denied on a component of the path prefix of path. The privilege {FILE_DAC_SEARCH} overrides file permissions restrictions in that case.

    EFAULT

    The path argument points to an illegal address.

    ELOOP

    A loop exists in symbolic links encountered during the resolution of the path argument.

    ENAMETOOLONG

    The length of the path argument exceeds PATH_MAX, or the length of a path component exceeds NAME_MAX while _POSIX_NO_TRUNC is in effect.

    ENOENT

    Either a component of the path prefix or the file referred to by path does not exist or is a null pathname.

    ENOLINK

    The fildes argument points to a remote machine and the link to that machine is no longer active.

    ENOTDIR

    A component of the prefix of path is not a directory.

    EROFS

    The file referred to by path resides on a read-only file system.

    The fchmod() function will fail if:

    EBADF

    The fildes argument is not an open file descriptor

    ENOLINK

    The path argument points to a remote machine and the link to that machine is no longer active.

    EROFS

    The file referred to by fildes resides on a read-only file system.

    The chmod() and fchmod() functions may fail if:

    EINTR

    A signal was caught during execution of the function.

    EINVAL

    The value of the mode argument is invalid.

    The chmod() function may fail if:

    ELOOP

    More than {SYMLOOP_MAX} symbolic links were encountered during the resolution of the path argument.

    ENAMETOOLONG

    As a result of encountering a symbolic link in resolution of thepath argument, the length of the substituted pathname strings exceeds {PATH_MAX}.

    The fchmod() function may fail if:

    EINVAL

    The fildes argument refers to a pipe and the system disallows execution of this function on a pipe.

     

    EXAMPLES

    Example 1 Set Read Permissions for User, Group, and Others

    The following example sets read permissions for the owner, group, and others.

    #include <sys/stat.h>
    const char *path;
    ...
    chmod(path, S_IRUSR|S_IRGRP|S_IROTH);
    

    Example 2 Set Read, Write, and Execute Permissions for the Owner Only

    The following example sets read, write, and execute permissions for the owner, and no permissions for group and others.

    #include <sys/stat.h>
    const char *path;
    ...
    chmod(path, S_IRWXU);
    

    Example 3 Set Different Permissions for Owner, Group, and Other

    The following example sets owner permissions for CHANGEFILE to read, write, and execute, group permissions to read and execute, and other permissions to read.

    #include <sys/stat.h>
    #define CHANGEFILE "/etc/myfile" 
    ...
    chmod(CHANGEFILE, S_IRWXU|S_IRGRP|S_IXGRP|S_IROTH);
    

    Example 4 Set and Checking File Permissions

    The following example sets the file permission bits for a file named /home/cnd/mod1, then calls the stat(2) function to verify the permissions.

    #include <sys/types.h>
    #include <sys/stat.h>
    int status;
    struct stat buffer
    ...
    chmod("home/cnd/mod1", S_IRWXU|S_IRWXG|S_IROTH|S_IWOTH);
    status = stat("home/cnd/mod1", &buffer;);
    

     

    USAGE

    If chmod() or fchmod() is used to change the file group owner permissions on a file with non-trivial ACL entries, only the ACL mask is set to the new permissions and the group owner permission bits in the file's mode field (defined in mknod(2)) are unchanged. A non-trivial ACL entry is one whose meaning cannot be represented in the file's mode field alone. The new ACL mask permissions might change the effective permissions for additional users and groups that have ACL entries on the file.  

    ATTRIBUTES

    See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

    ATTRIBUTE TYPEATTRIBUTE VALUE

    Interface StabilityStandard

    MT-Level

     

    SEE ALSO

    chmod(1), chown(2), creat(2), fcntl(2), mknod(2), open(2), read(2), rename(2), stat(2), write(2), fattach(3C), mkfifo(3C), stat.h(3HEAD), attributes(5), privileges(5), standards(5)

    Programming Interfaces Guide


     

    Index

    NAME
    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    RETURN VALUES
    ERRORS
    EXAMPLES
    USAGE
    ATTRIBUTES
    SEE ALSO


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