The OpenNET Project / Index page

[ новости /+++ | форум | wiki | теги | ]

Поиск:  Каталог документации

            Notes on Linux's SG driver version 2.1.36
            -----------------------------------------
                                                        20000110

Introduction
============
The SCSI Generic driver (sg) is one of the four "high level" SCSI device
drivers along with sd, st and sr (disk, tape and CDROM respectively). Sg
is more generalized (but lower level) than its siblings and tends to be
used on SCSI devices that don't fit into the already serviced categories.
Thus sg is used for scanners, cd writers and reading audio cds digitally
amongst other things.

These are notes on the Linux SCSI generic packet device driver (sg)
describing version 2.1.36 . The original driver was written by Lawrence
Foard and remained in place with minimal changes since circa 1992.
Version 2 of this driver remains backward compatible (binary and
source **) with the original. It adds scatter gather, command queuing,
per file descriptor sequencing, asynchronous notification and better
error reporting.

A shorter (abridged) form of this document can be found at
http://www.torque.net/sg/p/scsi-generic.txt . It can also be found in the
kernel source: linux/Documentation/scsi-generic.txt .

The interface and usage of the original sg driver have been documented
by Heiko Eissfeldt in a HOWTO called SCSI-Programming-HOWTO. My copy
of the document is version 1.5 dated 7th May 1996. It can found at
ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO-SCSI-Programming-HOWTO .
A copy of this document can be found at:
http://www.torque.net/sg/p/original/HOWTO-SCSI-Programming-HOWTO.txt .

** It is possible to write applications that perform differently
depending on whether they are using the original or this version of
the sg device driver. The author is not aware of any useful
pre-existing applications that have problems with version 2.
It may indeed be useful to distinguish between the original and the
new driver and a following section discusses that subject.


Architecture
============
The SCSI generic packet device driver (sg) is a character based device.
It is one of the four high level device driver in the SCSI sub-system;
the others are sd (for direct-access devices - disks), st (for tapes)
and sr (for data cdroms). The other three devices are block devices.

The unifying layer of the SCSI sub-system is the so-called mid-level.
Below that are the "low level" drivers which are the drivers for the
various adapters supported by Linux. Also at this level are pseudo
adapter drivers such as ide-scsi which converts the SCSI protocol to
ATAPI (which are similar to one another) for use by IDE devices.

Since sg is a character device it supports the traditional Unix
system calls of open(), close(), read(), write() and ioctl(). Two other
related system calls: poll() and fcntl() are added to this list and
how they interact with the sg device driver is documented later.

An SG device is accessed by write()ing SCSI commands plus any associated
outgoing data to it; the resulting status codes and any incoming data are
then obtained by a read() call. The device can be opened O_NONBLOCK
(non-blocking) and poll() used to monitor its progress. The device may be
opened O_EXCL which excludes other "sg" users from this device (but not
"sd", "st" or "sr" users). The buffer given to the write() call is made
up as follows:
        - struct sg_header image (see below)
        - scsi command (6, 10 or 12 bytes long)
        - data to be written to the device (if any)

The buffer received from the corresponding read() call contains:
        - struct sg_header image (check status/errors + sense_buffer)
        - data read back from device (if any)

The given SCSI command has its LUN field overwritten by the LUN value of
the associated sg device that has been open()ed.

SCSI commands are only attempted once (i.e. there are no internal
retries). If appropriate (e.g. a SCSI READ) the data buffer is copied back
to user space irrespective of the values of the various SCSI related
error/status codes. [Some adapters that use an old error interface in
the SCSI mid level ignore the retry count and retry certain errors.]


sg_header
=========
This is the name of the control structure that conveys information
about the length of data to be read/written by the associated SCSI
command. It also conveys error and status information from the
read() call. An instance of this structure is the first thing that
is placed in the data buffers of both write() and read().

In its original form it looked like this:
struct sg_header {
    int pack_len;
    int reply_len;
    int pack_id;
    int result;
    unsigned int twelve_byte:1;
    unsigned int other_flags:31;
    unsigned char sense_buffer[16];
}; /* this structure is 36 bytes long */

The 'pack_len' is bizarre and ends up having the 'reply_len' put in it
(perhaps it had a use at some stage). Even though it looks like an
input variable, it is not read by sg internally (only written).

The 'reply_len' is the length of the data the corresponding read()
will/should request (including the sg_header).

The 'pack_id' is not acted upon by the sg device driver but is conveyed
back to the corresponding read() so it can be used for sequencing by an
application.

The 'result' is also bizarre, turning certain types of host codes to 0 (no
error), EBUSY or EIO. With better error reporting now available, the
'result' is best ignored.

The 'twelve_byte' field overrides the internal SCSI command length detection
algorithm for group 6 and 7 commands (ie when 1st byte >= 0xc0) and forces
a command length of 12 bytes.
The command length detection algorithm is as follows:
Group:  0    1    2    3    4    5    6    7
Length: 6   10   10   12   12   12   10   10

'other_flags' was originally documented as "not used" but some current
applications assume it has 0 placed in it.

The 'sense_buffer' is the first 16 bytes of SCSI sense buffer that is
returned when the target returns a SCSI status code of CHECK_CONDITION
or COMMAND_TERMINATED [or (driver_status & DRIVER_SENSE) is true]. This
buffer should be at least 18 bytes long and arguably 32 bytes; unfortunately
this is unlikely to happen in the 2.2.x series of kernels.

The new sg_header offered in this driver is:
#define SG_MAX_SENSE 16
struct sg_header
{
    int pack_len;    /* [o] reply_len (ie useless) ignored as input */
    int reply_len;   /* [i] max length of expected reply (inc. sg_header) */
    int pack_id;     /* [io] id number of packet (use ints >= 0) */
    int result;      /* [o] 0==ok, else (+ve) Unix errno (best ignored) */
    unsigned int twelve_byte:1;
        /* [i] Force 12 byte command length for group 6 & 7 commands  */
    unsigned int target_status:5;   /* [o] scsi status from target */
    unsigned int host_status:8;     /* [o] host status (see "DID" codes) */
    unsigned int driver_status:8;   /* [o] driver status+suggestion */
    unsigned int other_flags:10;    /* unused */
    unsigned char sense_buffer[SG_MAX_SENSE]; /* [o] Output in 3 cases:
           when target_status is CHECK_CONDITION or
           when target_status is COMMAND_TERMINATED or
           when (driver_status & DRIVER_SENSE) is true. */
};      /* This structure is 36 bytes long on i386 */

Firstly the new header is binary compatible with the original. This is
important for keeping existing apps working without recompilation.

Only those elements (or fields) that are new or in some way different
from the original are documented below.

'pack_id' becomes input to a read() when ioctl(sg_fd, SG_SET_FORCE_PACK_ID,
&one) is active. A 'pack_id' of -1 is interpreted as fetch the oldest
waiting packet; any other value will cause the read() to wait (or yield
EAGAIN) until a packet with that 'pack_id' becomes available. In all cases
the value of 'pack_id' available after a read() is the value given to that
variable in the prior, corresponding write().

The SCSI command length can now be given directly using the SG_NEXT_CMD_LEN
ioctl().

The 'target_status' field is always output and is the (masked and shifted
1 bit right) SCSI status code from the target device. The allowable
values are (found in ):
/* N.B. 1 bit offset from usual SCSI status values */
#define GOOD                 0x00
#define CHECK_CONDITION      0x01
#define CONDITION_GOOD       0x02
#define BUSY                 0x04
#define INTERMEDIATE_GOOD    0x08
#define INTERMEDIATE_C_GOOD  0x0a
#define RESERVATION_CONFLICT 0x0c
#define COMMAND_TERMINATED   0x11
#define QUEUE_FULL           0x14
When the 'target_status' is CHECK_CONDITION or COMMAND_TERMINATED the
'sense_buffer' is output. Note that when (driver_status & DRIVER_SENSE)
is true then the 'sense_buffer' is also output (this seems to occur when
the ide-scsi emulation is used). When the 'sense_buffer' is output the
SCSI Sense Key can be found at (sense_buffer[2] & 0x0f) .

The 'host_status' field is always output and has the following values
whose "defines" are not visible outside the kernel. A copy of these
defines can be found in sg_err.h (see the utilities section):
#define DID_OK          0x00 /* NO error                                */
#define DID_NO_CONNECT  0x01 /* Couldn't connect before timeout period  */
#define DID_BUS_BUSY    0x02 /* BUS stayed busy through time out period */
#define DID_TIME_OUT    0x03 /* TIMED OUT for other reason              */
#define DID_BAD_TARGET  0x04 /* BAD target, device not responding       */
#define DID_ABORT       0x05 /* Told to abort for some other reason     */
#define DID_PARITY      0x06 /* Parity error                            */
#define DID_ERROR       0x07 /* Internal error [DMA underrun on aic7xxx]*/
#define DID_RESET       0x08 /* Reset by somebody.                      */
#define DID_BAD_INTR    0x09 /* Got an interrupt we weren't expecting.  */
#define DID_PASSTHROUGH 0x0a /* Force command past mid-layer            */
#define DID_SOFT_ERROR  0x0b /* The low level driver wants a retry      */

The 'driver_status' field is always output. When ('driver_status' &
DRIVER_SENSE) is true the 'sense_buffer' is also output. A copy of these
defines can be found in sg_err.h (see the utilities section):
#define DRIVER_OK           0x00 /* Typically no suggestion */
#define DRIVER_BUSY         0x01
#define DRIVER_SOFT         0x02
#define DRIVER_MEDIA        0x03
#define DRIVER_ERROR        0x04
#define DRIVER_INVALID      0x05
#define DRIVER_TIMEOUT      0x06
#define DRIVER_HARD         0x07
#define DRIVER_SENSE        0x08 /* Implies sense_buffer output */
/* above status 'or'ed with one of the following suggestions */
#define SUGGEST_RETRY       0x10
#define SUGGEST_ABORT       0x20
#define SUGGEST_REMAP       0x30
#define SUGGEST_DIE         0x40
#define SUGGEST_SENSE       0x80

'other_flags' still remains as a 10 bit field (reduced from 31 bits), so
code that places 0 in it will still be happy. It is not used.


Memory issues
=============
This driver uses a double-handling technique to move data from a SCSI
device to the user's buffer. This technique will be termed as "indirect IO"
here ("direct IO" is discussed in the Future Directions section). Indirect
IO involves DMAing data from SCSI device to kernel buffers then using the
CPU to move it from these kernel buffers to the user space (or vice versa
in the case of writing data to a SCSI device).

Obtaining memory for the kernel buffers for this indirect IO technique is
the main theme of this section. These kernel buffers are needed during
the write()-read() sequence associated with each SCSI command. The size
of each buffer will be the maximum of the data written to the SCSI device
(ie [write_count - sizeof(struct sg_header) - scsi_cmd_len]) or the data
read from the SCSI device (ie [hdr.reply_len - sizeof(struct sg_header)]).
Note that the 'read_count' does not affect the size of the kernel buffers
but does affect the amount of data actually transferred back to the user
space (if any).

A "reserved" buffer is obtained when a file descriptor is opened. An attempt
is made to find SG_DEF_RESERVED_SIZE bytes for the reserved buffer. The
actual amount obtained (which may be as little as 0 bytes) can be found by
calling the SG_GET_RESERVED_SIZE ioctl(). The size of the reserved buffer
can subsequently be altered by calling the SG_SET_RESERVED_SIZE ioctl().
This reserved buffer becomes the kernel buffer for a given write()-read()
sequence if
 1) the reserved buffer is not already in use (eg during command queuing)
 2) the reserved buffer is large enough.
If either of these condition is not met then the write() will attempt to
allocate a kernel buffer of the requested size and free it during the
corresponding read(). The reserved buffer is freed when the file descriptor
is close()d. Each buffer faces the following constraints:
 a) only "real" memory can be used (ie not swap) and must not be
    subsequently swapped out [this is what makes direct IO so interesting]
 b) in the case of ISA cards, only memory below the 16MB mark can be used
    (this is a good reason to buy a PCI adapter)
 c) if the adapter does not support scatter gather then the buffer must
    be one contiguous piece of memory, otherwise it can be made up of
    several contiguous pieces of memory
 d) The biggest contiguous piece of memory in Linux 2.2 is (32 * PAGE_SIZE)
    and there are not many of these (3 on my machine at the moment)
PAGE_SIZE is 4096 bytes on i386 and 8192 on the alpha. Its value can be
found by calling the getpagesize() function declared in  .

Linux 2.2 does not put aside any memory for drivers; they just compete for
memory with user processes and other drivers. Given the above constraints
there are no guarantees that suitable memory will be available when
requested. [Even drivers that grab memory while the kernel is being loaded
could be thwarted by another driver doing the same thing!]

The original sg driver uses the following technique: grab a SG_BIG_BUFF
sized (contiguous) buffer at driver initialization and use it for all
requests greater than PAGE_SIZE. By default SG_BIG_BUFF is set to 32 KBytes
in the original driver but many applications suggest that the user increases
this number. Unfortunately if the sg driver is a module then there is a high
chance that a contiguous block of memory will not be available at module
initialization. This results in a kernel "OOPS" in the original driver.

The author has found no "silver bullet" solution but uses multiple
techniques hoping that at least one is able provide memory at the critical
time. Listed below are some of these techniques:
        - obtain a reserved buffer at open() and use it if is available and
          of sufficient size
        - use scatter gather: then instead of one large buffer needing to
          be found, multiple smaller buffers can be used
        - use memory above the 16MByte level: the original driver limited
          itself to obtaining memory below the 16MByte level (on the i386)
          due to the shortcomings of DMA on ISA adapters. Yet more and more
          people use PCI adapters that don't have this problem. So make
          the decision based on the capabilities of the host adapter
          associated with the current SCSI device at runtime
        - if the kernel is short of memory then dip into the SCSI DMA
          pool (maintained by the mid-level driver) to a limited extent

The safest strategy for limiting memory problems is:
  1) after open() on the sg device, if the SG_DEF_RESERVED_SIZE is not large
     enough, then use the SG_SET_RESERVED_SIZE ioctl() and attempt to
     increase it
  2) in all cases now call the SG_GET_RESERVED_SIZE ioctl() and see how much
     was actually reserved; if this is not enough exit
  3) don't use command queuing
  4) make sure no write()-read() sequence is requesting a buffer size larger
     than the actual reserved buffer size

Alternatively, applications can be written in such a way to do something
sensible (eg request a smaller buffer) when a write() returns an ENOMEM
error.

A discussion on tuning SG_BIG_BUFF, SG_DEF_RESERVED_SIZE and SG_SCATTER_SZ
is in a later section.


System Calls
============
What follows are descriptions of the characteristics of the standard
Unix operating system calls when applied to a SCSI generic device
using this version of the device driver.

open(const char * filename, int flags)
--------------------------------------
The filename should be an 'sg' device such as
/dev/sg[a-z]
/dev/sg[0,1,2,...]
or a symbolic link to one of these. [Devfs has its own sub-directory for
sg devices with entries like: /dev/sg/c1b2t3u4 .] It seems as though SCSI
devices are allocated to sg minor numbers in the same order as they appear
in 'cat /proc/scsi/scsi'. Sg is a "character" based Linux device driver.
This means it has an open/close/read/write/ioctl type interface.

Flags can be either O_RDONLY or O_RDWR or-ed with either
O_EXCL          waits for other opens on sg device to be closed before
                proceeding. If O_NONBLOCK is set then yields EBUSY when
                someone else has the sg device open. The combination of
                O_RDONLY and O_EXCL is disallowed.
O_NONBLOCK      Sets non-blocking mode. Calls that would otherwise block
                yield EAGAIN (eg read() ) or EBUSY (eg open() ).

The original version of sg did not allow the O_RDONLY (yielding a EACCES
error). This version allows it for accessing ioctls (e.g. doing an sg
device scan with the SG_GET_SCSI_ID ioctl) but write()s will not be
allowed. These flags are found in  .

By default, sequencing is per file descriptor in this version of sg. This
means, for example that 2 processes can independently manipulate the same
sg device at the same time. This may or may not make sense depending on
the application: 2 processes (logically) reading from the same direct access
device (ie a disk) is ok while running 2 instances of cd writing software
on the same device at the same time probably wouldn't be a good idea. The
previous version of sg supported only per device sequencing and this can
still be selected with the SG_SET_MERGE_FD,1 ioctl().

The driver will attempt to reserve SG_DEF_RESERVED_SIZE bytes (32KBytes in
the current sg.h) on open(). The size of this reserved buffer can
subsequently be modified with the SG_SET_RESERVED_SIZE ioctl(). In both
cases these are requests subject to various dynamic constraints. The actual
amount of memory obtained can be found by the SG_GET_RESERVED_SIZE ioctl().
The reserved buffer will be used if:
    -  it is not already in use (eg when command queuing is in use)
    -  a write() does not call for a buffer size larger than the
       reserved size.

Returns a file descriptor if >= 0 , otherwise -1 implies an error.

Error codes (value in 'errno' after -1 returned):
EACCES          Either the user doesn't have appropriate permissions on
                'filename' or attempted to use both O_RDONLY and O_EXCL
EBUSY           O_NONBLOCK set and some user of this sg device has O_EXCL
                set while someone is already using this device
EINTR           while waiting for an "exclusive" lock to clear, a signal
                is received, just try again ...
ENODEV          sg not compiled into kernel or the kernel cannot find the
                sg module (or it can't initialize itself (low memory??))
ENOENT          given filename not found
ENOMEM          An attempt to get memory to store this open's context
                failed (this was _not_ a request to reserve DMA memory)
ENXIO           either there is no attached device corresponding to given
                filename or scsi sub-system is currently processing some
                error (eg doing a device reset) or the sg driver/module
                removed or corrupted


write(int sg_fd, const void * buffer, size_t count)
---------------------------------------------------
Even though sg is a character-based device driver it sends and receives
packets to/from the associated scsi device. Write() is used to send a
packet containing 2 mandatory parts and 1 optional part. The mandatory
parts are:
  - a control block (an instance of struct sg_header)
  - a SCSI command (6, 10 or 12 bytes long)
The optional part is:
  - outgoing data (eg if a SCSI write command is being sent)
These should appear as one contiguous string in the buffer given to
write() in the above order with no pad characters.

If a write() accepts this packet then at some later time the user should
call a read() to get the result of the SCSI command. The previous sg
driver enforced a strict write()/read()/write()/read() regime so that a
second write() would block until first read() was finished. This sg
driver relaxes that condition and thereby allows command queuing
(limit is SG_MAX_QUEUE (16) outstanding packets per file descriptor).
However, for backward compatibility, command queuing is turned off
by default (#define SG_DEF_COMMAND_Q 0 in sg.h). This can be changed
via the the SG_SET_COMMAND_Q ioctl() [or by recompiling after changing
the above define to 1].

In this sg driver a write() should return more or less immediately.

Returns number of bytes written if > 0 , otherwise -1 implies an error.

Error codes (value in 'errno' after -1 returned):
EACCES          opened with RD_ONLY flag
EAGAIN          SCSI mid-level out of command blocks (rare), try again.
                This is more likely to happen when queuing commands,
                so wait a bit (eg usleep(10000) ) before trying again
EDOM            a) command queuing off: a packet is already queued
                b) command queuing on: too many packets queued
                   (SG_MAX_QUEUE exceeded)
EFAULT          'buffer' for 'count' bytes is an invalid memory range
EIO             a) incoming buffer too short. It should be at least
                   (6 + sizeof(struct sg_header))==42 bytes long
                b) SCSI command length given in SG_NEXT_CMD_LEN too long
                c) reply_len negative
ENOMEM          can't get memory for DMA. Take evasive action ...
                (see section on memory)
ENXIO           either scsi sub-system is currently processing some error
                (eg doing a device reset) or the sg driver/module removed
                or corrupted


read(int sg_fd, void * buffer, size_t count)
--------------------------------------------
Read() is used to receive a packet containing 1 mandatory part and 1
optional part. The mandatory part is:
  - a control block (an instance of struct sg_header)
The optional part is:
  - incoming data (eg if a SCSI read command was sent by earlier write() )
The buffer given to a read() and its corresponding count should be
sufficient to accommodate this packet to avoid truncation. Truncation occurs
if count < sg_header::replylen .

By default, read() will return the oldest packet queued up. If the
SG_SET_FORCE_PACK_ID,1 ioctl() is active then read() will attempt to
fetch the packet whose pack_id (given earlier to write()) matches the
sg_header::pack_id given to this read(). If not available it will either
wait or yield EAGAIN. As a special case, -1 in sg_header::pack_id given
to read() will match the oldest packet.

Returns number of bytes read if > 0 , otherwise -1 implies an error.
Unfortunately the return value in the non-error case is simply the
same as the count argument. It is not the actual number of bytes
DMA-ed by the SCSI device. This driver is currently unable to provide
such an underrun indication.

If the SCSI device reports an error then a REQUEST SENSE is automatically
done and the output is placed in the sense_buffer array which is in the
control block. This action is sometimes called "auto-sense".

Error codes (value in 'errno' after -1 returned):
EAGAIN          either no waiting packet or requested packet is not
                available while O_NONBLOCK flag was set
EFAULT          'buffer' for 'count' bytes is an invalid memory range
EINTR           while waiting for a packet, a signal is received, just
                try again ...
EIO             if the 'count' given to read() is < sizeof(struct sg_header)
                and the 'result' element in sg_header is non-zero. Not a
                recommended error reporting technique
ENXIO           either scsi sub-system is currently processing some error
                (eg doing a device reset) or the sg driver/module removed
                or corrupted


close(int sg_fd)
----------------
Preferably a close() should be done after all issued write()s have had
their corresponding read() calls completed. Unfortunately this is not
always possible. The semantics of close() in Unix are to return more
or less immediately (ie not wait on any event) so the driver needs to
arrange for an orderly cleanup of those packets that are still "in
flight".

A process that has an open file descriptor to an sg device may be aborted
(eg by a kill signal). In this case, the kernel automatically calls close
(which is called 'sg_release()' in the version 2 driver) to facilitate
the cleanup mentioned above.

A problem persists in version 2.1.36 if the sg driver is a module and is
removed while packets are still "in flight".

Returns 0 if successful, otherwise -1 implies an error.

Error codes (value in 'errno' after -1 returned):
ENXIO           sg driver/module removed or corrupted

ioctl(int sg_fd, int command, ...)  [sg specific]
-------------------------------------------------
Ken Thompson (or perhaps some other Unix luminary) described ioctl() as
the "garbage bin of Unix". This driver compounds the situation by adding
more ...
If a ioctl command is not recognized by sg (and the various lower levels
that it may pass the command on to) then the error EINVAL occurs. If an
invalid address is given (in the 3rd argument) then the error EFAULT occurs.

Those commands with an appended "+" are new in version 2.

Those commands with an appended "W" are only accessible from file
descriptors opened with O_RDWR. They will yield EACCES otherwise.

SG_GET_TIMEOUT:
Ignores its 3rd argument and _returns_ the timeout value (which will be
>= 0 ). The unit of this timeout is "jiffies" which are currently 10
millisecond intervals on i386 (less on an alpha). Linux supplies
a manifest constant HZ which is the number of "jiffies" in 1 second.

SG_SET_TIMEOUT:
Assumes 3rd argument points to an int containing the new timeout value
for this file descriptor. The unit is a "jiffy". Packets that are
already "in flight" will not be affected. The default value is set
on open() and is SG_DEFAULT_TIMEOUT (defined in sg.h). This default is
currently 1 minute and may not be long enough for formats. Negative
values will yield an EIO error.

SG_EMULATED_HOST:
Assumes 3rd argument points to an int and outputs a flag indicating
whether the host (adapter) is connected to a real SCSI bus or is an
emulated one (eg ide-scsi device driver). A value of 1 means emulated
while 0 is not.

SG_SET_TRANSFORM  W:
Only is meaningful when SG_EMULATED host has yielded 1 (i.e. the low-level
is the ide-scsi device driver); otherwise an EINVAL error occurs. The
default state is to _not_ transform SCSI commands to the corresponding
ATAPI commands but pass them straight through as is. [Only certain classes
of SCSI commands need to be transformed to their ATAPI equivalents.]
The third argument is interpreted as an integer. When it is non-zero then
a flag is set inside the ide-scsi driver that transforms subsequent
commands sent to this driver. When zero is passed as the 3rd argument to
this ioctl then the flag within the ide-scsi driver is cleared and
subsequent commands are not transformed. Beware, this state will affect
all devices (and hence all related sg file descriptors) associated with
this ide-scsi "bus".

SG_GET_TRANSFORM:
Third argument is ignored. Only is meaningful when SG_EMULATED host has
yielded 1 (ie the low-level is the ide-scsi device driver); otherwise
an EINVAL error occurs. Returns 0 to indicate _not_ transforming SCSI
to ATAPI commands (default). Returns 1 when it is transforming them.

SG_SET_FORCE_LOW_DMA +:
Assumes 3rd argument points to an int containing 0 or 1. 0 (default)
means sg decides whether to use memory above 16 Mbyte level (on i386)
based on the host adapter being used by this SCSI device. Typically
PCI SCSI adapters will indicate they can DMA to the whole 32 bit address
space.
If 1 is given then the host adapter is overridden and only memory below
the 16MB level is used for DMA. A requirement for this should be
extremely rare. If the "reserved" buffer allocated on open() is not in
use then it will be de-allocated and re-allocated under the 16MB level
(and the latter operation could fail yielding ENOMEM).
Only the current file descriptor is affected.

SG_GET_LOW_DMA +:
Assumes 3rd argument points to an int and places 0 or 1 in it. 0
indicates the whole 32 bit address space is being used for DMA transfers
on this file descriptor. 1 indicates the memory below the 16MB level
(on i386) is being used (and this may be the case because the host
adapters setting has been overridden by SG_SET_FORCE_LOW_DMA,1 .

SG_GET_SCSI_ID +:
Assumes 3rd argument is pointing to an object of type Sg_scsi_id (see
sg.h) and populates it. That structure contains ints for host_no,
channel, scsi_id, lun, scsi_type, allowable commands per lun and
queue_depth. Most of this information is available from other sources
(eg SCSI_IOCTL_GET_IDLUN and SCSI_IOCTL_GET_BUS_NUMBER) but tends to be
awkward to collect.
Allowable commands per lun and queue_depth give an insight to the
command queuing capabilities of the adapters and the device. The latter
overrides the former (logically) and the former is only of interest
if it is equal to queue_depth which probably indicates the device
does not support queueing commands (e.g. most scanners).

SG_SET_FORCE_PACK_ID +:
Assumes 3rd argument is pointing to an int. 0 (default) instructs read()
to return the oldest (written) packet if multiple packets are
waiting to be read (when command queuing is being used).
1 instructs read() to view the sg_header::pack_id as input and return the
oldest packet matching that pack_id or wait until it arrives (or yield
EAGAIN if O_NONBLOCK is in force). As a special case the pack_id of -1
given to read() in the mode will match the oldest packet.
Only the current file descriptor is affected by this command.

SG_GET_PACK_ID +:
Assumes 3rd argument points to an int and places the pack_id of the
oldest (written) packet in it. If no packet is waiting to be read then
yields -1.

SG_GET_NUM_WAITING +:
Assumes 3rd argument points to an int and places the number of packets
waiting to be read in it.

SG_GET_SG_TABLESIZE +:
Assumes 3rd argument points to an int and places the maximum number of
scatter gather elements supported by the host adapter. 0 indicates that
the adapter does support scatter gather.

SG_SET_RESERVED_SIZE +W:
Assumes 3rd argument is pointing to an int. That value will be used to
request a new reserved buffer of that size. The previous reserved buffer
is freed (if it is not in use; if it was in use -EBUSY is returned).
A new reserved buffer is then allocated and its actual size can be found by
calling the SG_GET_RESERVED_SIZE ioctl(). The reserved buffer is then used
for DMA purposes by subsequent write() commands if it is not already in
use and if the write() is not calling for a buffer size larger than that
reserved. The reserved buffer may well be a series of kernel buffers if the
adapter supports scatter-gather. Large buffers can be requested (eg 1 MB).

SG_GET_RESERVED_SIZE +:
Assumes 3rd argument points to an int and places the size in bytes of
the reserved buffer from open() or the most recent SG_SET_RESERVED_SIZE
ioctl() call on this fd. The result can be 0 if memory is very tight. In
this case it may not be wise to attempt something like burning a CD on
this file descriptor.

SG_SET_MERGE_FD +W:
Assumes 3rd argument is pointing to an int. 0 (the default) causes all
subsequent sequencing to be per file descriptor. 1 causes all subsequent
sequencing to be per device. If this command tries to change the current
state and there is one or more _other_ file descriptors using this sg
device then an EBUSY error occurs.  Per device sequencing was the original
semantics and allowed, for example different processes to "share" the
device, one perhaps write()ing with the other one read()ing. This command
is supplied if anyone needs those semantics. Per file descriptor
sequencing, perhaps with the use of the O_EXCL flag, seems more sensible.

SG_GET_MERGE_FD +:
Assumes 3rd argument points to an int and places 0 or 1 in it. 0 implies
sequencing is per file descriptor. 1 implies sequencing is per device
(original sg driver's semantics).

SG_SET_COMMAND_Q +:
Assumes 3rd argument is pointing to an int. 0 (current default, set by
SG_DEF_COMMAND_Q in sg.h) disables command queuing. Attempts to write()
a packet while one is already queued will result in a EDOM error.
1 turns command queuing on.
Changing the queuing state only affects write()s done after the change.
Only the current file descriptor is affected by this command.

SG_GET_COMMAND_Q +:
Assumes 3rd argument points to an int and places 0 or 1 in it. 0 implies
that command queuing is off on this file descriptor. 1 implies command
queuing is on.

SG_SET_UNDERRUN_FLAG +:
Assumes 3rd argument is pointing to an int. 0 (current default, set by
SG_DEF_UNDERRUN_FLAG in sg.h) requests underruns be ignored. 1 requests
that underruns be flagged. [The only low level driver that acts on this
at the moment is the aic7xxx which yields a DID_ERROR error on underrun.]
Only the current file descriptor is affected by this command (unless
"per device" sequencing has been selected).

SG_GET_UNDERRUN_FLAG +:
Assumes 3rd argument points to an int and places 0 or 1 in it. 0 implies
that underruns are not being reported. 1 implies that underruns are being
reported (see SG_SET_UNDERRUN_FLAG for more details).

SG_NEXT_CMD_LEN +:
Assumes 3rd argument is pointing to an int. The value of the int (if > 0)
will be used as the SCSI command length of the next SCSI command sent to
a write() on this fd. After that write() the SCSI command length logic is
reset to use automatic length detection (ie depending on SCSI command group
and the 'twelve_byte' field). If the current SCSI command length maximum of
12 is exceeded then the affected write() will yield an EDOM error.
Giving this ioctl() a value of 0 will set automatic length detection for
the next write(). N.B. Only the following write() on this fd is affected by
this ioctl().

SG_GET_VERSION_NUM +:
Assumes 3rd argument points to an int. The version number is then placed
in that int. A sg version such as 2.1.36 will yield "20136" from this ioctl.

SG_SCSI_RESET +:
Assumes 3rd argument points to an int. Unfortunately doesn't currently
do much (may in the future after other issues are resolved). Yields an
EBUSY error if the SCSI bus or the associated device is being reset
when this ioctl() is called, otherwise returns 0.

SG_SET_DEBUG +:
Assumes 3rd argument is pointing to an int. 0 (default) turns debugging
off. Values > 0 cause the SCSI sense buffer to be decoded and output
to the console/log when a SCSI device error occurs. Values > 8 cause
the current sg device driver's state to be output to the console/log
(this is a "one off" effect).
If you need a _lot_ of the SCSI sub-system debug information (mainly from
the mid-level) then try 'echo "scsi dump 0" > /proc/scsi/scsi' and lots of
debug will appear in your console/log.

ioctl(int s_fd, int command, ...)  [in common with sd, st + sr]
---------------------------------------------------------------
The following ioctl()s can be called from any high-level scsi device
driver (ie sd, st, sr + sg). Access permissions may differ a little from
one device to another, the access information given below is specific to
the sg device driver.

SCSI_IOCTL_GET_IDLUN:
This ioctl takes a pointer to a "struct scsi_idlun" object as its third
argument. The "struct scsi_idlun" definition is found in .
It gets populated with scsi channel, device id and lun data for the given
device. Unfortunately that header file "hides" that structure behind a
"#ifdef __KERNEL__" block. This probably indicates that this ioctl command
is deprecated. To use this, that structure needs to be replicated in
the user's program. Something like:
typedef struct my_scsi_idlun {
    int four_in_one;    /* 4 separate bytes of info compacted into 1 int */
    int host_unique_id; /* distinguishes adapter cards from same supplier */
} My_scsi_idlun;
"four_in_one" is made up as follows:
(scsi_device_id | (lun << 8) | (channel << 16) | (low_inode << 24))
These 4 components are assumed (or masked) to be 1 byte each. The first
3 should be obvious while 'low_inode' is a /proc pseudo file system entry
for the adapter. Best not to use 'low_inode', it seems that
SCSI_IOCTL_GET_BUS_NUMBER offers a more reliable service. The
'host_unique_id' assigns a different number to each controller from the
same manufacturer/low-level device driver. Most of the information
provided by this command is more easily obtained from SG_GET_SCSI_ID.

SCSI_IOCTL_GET_BUS_NUMBER:
Takes an 'int *' as its third argument and places the bus number associated
with a device in the associated "int". Bus numbers are allocated sequentially
from 0 by the SCSI mid-level and are roughly one bus number per physical
SCSI host adapter in the machine. Things like the ide-scsi emulation driver
get their own bus number after "real" SCSI adapters. Loading a low-level
SCSI device driver as a module will add a new bus number to the end of
the existing sequence.

SCSI_IOCTL_SEND_COMMAND   W:
This command is forwarded onto the SCSI mid-level driver for processing.
Essentially it is an alternate way to send a SCSI command (optionally
with associated data), wait till the command is executed then return
the SCSI error/status information (optionally with associated data).
Comments in the kernel code suggest that this ioctl is deprecated.

Here is a summary. The 3rd argument points to a structure looking like:
struct sdata {
  unsigned int inlen;      [i] Length of data to be written to device
  unsigned int outlen;     [i] Length of data to be read from device
  unsigned char cmd[x];    [i] SCSI command (6 <= x <= 12).
                           [o] Data read from device starts here.
                           [o] On error, sense buffer starts here.
  unsigned char wdata[y];  [i] Data written to device starts here.
};
Notes:
   -  The SCSI command length is determined by examining the 1st byte
      of the given command. There is no way to override this.
   -  Data transfers are limited to PAGE_SIZE (4K on i386, 8K on alpha).
   -  The length (x + y) must be at least OMAX_SB_LEN bytes long to
      accomodate the sense buffer when an error occurs.
      The sense buffer is truncated to OMAX_SB_LEN (16) bytes so that
      old code will not be surprised.
   -  If a Unix error occurs (e.g. ENOMEM) then the user will receive
      a negative return and the Unix error code in 'errno'.
      If the SCSI command succeeds then 0 is returned.
      Positive numbers returned are the compacted SCSI error codes (4
      bytes in one int) where the lowest byte is the SCSI status.
      See the drivers/scsi/scsi.h file for more information on this.

One difference between SCSI commands sent to a device by this ioctl
compared to via sg is that SCSI_IOCTL_SEND_COMMAND will do internal
retries. Failed retries can lead to SCSI bus resets. Also if any
status/error is detected then the sense buffer is copied back to the
user space rather than data. For example: on a SCSI READ with
CHECK CONDITION set and a RECOVERED ERROR indicated, you receive a
sense buffer with that information rather than the data.


SCSI_IOCTL_TAGGED_ENABLE  W:
SCSI_IOCTL_TAGGED_DISABLE  W:
SCSI_IOCTL_DOORLOCK  W:
SCSI_IOCTL_DOORUNLOCK  W:
SCSI_IOCTL_TEST_UNIT_READY  W:
SCSI_IOCTL_START_UNIT  W:
SCSI_IOCTL_STOP_UNIT  W:
These commands ignore their third argument and do what their name suggests
returning a compacted scsi error/status code as the result. A returned
value of 0 means no error occurred. These commands are performed by the
the SCSI mid-level driver.

SCSI_IOCTL_PROBE_HOST:
This command should be given a pointer to a 'char' array as its 3rd
argument.  That array should be at least sizeof(int) long and have the
length of the array as an 'int' at the beginning of the array! An ASCII
string of no greater than that length containing "information" (or the
name) of SCSI host (ie adapter) associated with this file descriptor is
then placed in the given byte array. The number of such adapters
present is returned.

  W:
Any command that "falls though" and doesn't compare to one of the above
will be passed onto the mid level and if not resolved there will be
passed on to the low level SCSI driver before being rejected. Some
low level SCSI drivers support ioctls specific to their hardware.


poll(struct pollfd * udfds, unsigned int nfds, int timeout_ms)
--------------------------------------------------------------
This is a native call in Linux 2.2 but most of its capabilities are available
through the older select() call. Given a choice poll() should probably be
used. Typically poll() is used when a sg scsi device is open()ed O_NONBLOCK
for polling; and optionally with asynchronous notification as well using
the fcntl() system call (below) and the SIGPOLL (aka SIGIO) signal.
Only if something drastically is wrong (eg file handle gone stale) will
POLLERR ever be set. POLLPRI, POLLHUP and POLLNVAL are never set.
POLLIN is set when there is one or more packets waiting to be read.
When POLLIN is set it implies that a read() will not block (nor yield
EAGAIN in non-blocking mode) but return a packet immediately.
POLLOUT (aka POLLWRNORM) is set when write() is able to accept a packet
(ie will _not_ yield an EDOM error). The setting of POLLOUT is affected
by the SG_SET_COMMAND_Q state: if the state is on then POLLOUT will remain
set until the number of queued packets reaches SG_MAX_QUEUE, if the
state is off then POLLOUT is only set when no packets are queued.
Note that a packet can be queued after write()ing but not available to be
read(); this typically happens when a SCSI read command is issued while
the data is being retrieved.
Poll() is per file descriptor unless SG_SET_MERGE_FD is set in which case
it is per device.


fcntl(int sg_fd, int cmd) or fcntl(int sg_fd, int cmd, long arg)
----------------------------------------------------------------
There are several uses for this system call in association with a sg
file descriptor. The following pseudo code shows code that is useful for
scanning the sg devices, taking care not to be caught in a wait for
an O_EXCL lock by another process, and when the appropriate device is
found, switching to normal blocked io. A working example of this logic
is in the sg_scan utility program.

open("/dev/sga", O_RDONLY | O_NONBLOCK)
/* check device, EBUSY means some other process has O_EXCL lock on it */
/* when the device you want is found then ... */
flags = fcntl(sg_fd, F_GETFL)
fcntl(sg_fd, F_SETFL, flags & (~ O_NONBLOCK))
/* ince, or simple apps, it is easier to use normal blocked io */


Some work has to be done in Linux to set up for asynchronous notification.
This is a non-blocking mode of operation in which, when the driver receives
data back from a device so that a read() can be done, it sends a SIGPOLL
(aka SIGIO) signal to the owning process. A working example of this logic
is in the sg_poll test program.

sigemptyset(&sig_set)
sigaddset(&sig_set, SIGPOLL)
sigaction(SIGPOLL, &s_action, 0)
fcntl(sg_fd, F_SETOWN, getpid())
flags = fcntl(sg_fd, F_GETFL);
fcntl(sg_fd, F_SETFL, flags | O_ASYNC)


Utility and Test Programs
=========================
See the README file in the sg_utils.tgz tarball. Look on the
http://www.torque.net/sg website for the latest version.

Briefly, that tarball contains the following utilities:
sg_dd512        'dd' like program that assumes 512 byte blocks size
sg_dd2048       'dd' like program that assumes 2048 byte blocks size
sg_dd2352       'dd' like program that assumes 2352 byte blocks size
sgq_dd512       like 'sg_dd512' but does command queuing on "if"
sgp_dd          probably the most flexible 'dd' variant. It uses POSIX
                threads, block size set by "bs=..." plus other options.
sg_scan         outputs information (optionally Inquiry) on SCSI devices
sg_rbuf         tests SCSI bus transfer speed (without physical IO)
sg_whoami       outputs info (optionally capacity) of given SCSI device
sginfo          outputs "mode" information about SCSI devices (it is a
                  re-port of the scsiinfo program onto the sg interface)

It also contains the following test programs:
sg_debug        outputs sg driver state to console/log file
sg_poll         tests asynchronous notification
sg_runt_ex      example run time selection program for application authors
sg_simple1      example program first time users
sg_simple2      like sg_simple1 but with more primitive error processing
sg_inquiry      does a SCSI Inquiry command (from original HOWTO)
sg_tst_med      checks presence of media (from original HOWTO)

There are also 2 source files (sg_err.[hc]) for outputting and categorizing
SCSI 2 errors and warnings. This code is used by most of the above
utility and test programs.

The following programs: sg_dd512, sg_dd2048, sg_dd2352, sg_scan, sg_runt_ex,
sg_rbuf, sg_tst_med, sg_inquiry and sginfo, can be compiled either for this
new sg driver _or_ the original sg driver (in 2.0 or 2.2 series kernels).
sg_runt_ex can be run on 2.0, 2.2 or 2.3 series kernels even if it is
compiled on a different series (eg compiled on 2.0, run on 2.2).


Header files
============
User applications need to find the correct "sg.h" header file matching
their kernel in order to write code using the sg device driver. This is
sometimes more difficult than it should be. The correct "sg.h" will usually
be found at /usr/src/linux/include/scsi/sg.h . Another important header
file is "scsi.h" which will be in the same directory.

Several distributions have taken their own copies of these files and placed
them in /usr/include/scsi which is where "#include " would go
looking. The directory /usr/include/scsi _should_ be a symbolic link to
/usr/src/linux/include/scsi/ . It was is Redhat 5.1 and 5.2 but it is
not is Redhat 6.0 . Some other distributions have the same problem. To
solve this (as root) do the following:

# cd /usr/include
# mv scsi scsi_orig
# ln -s ../src/linux/include/scsi scsi

This doesn't seem to be a problem with /usr/include/linux (at least in
Redhat where it is a symbolic link) so it is hard to understand why
/usr/include/scsi is defined the way it is. The fact the
/usr/include/linux is a symbolic link opens up the following solution
proposed by the author of cdparanoia (Monty):
#include 


Distinguishing the original from the new driver
===============================================
People writing applications have to cope with the existing Linux code
base in the field. Hence there are literally millions of systems
running Linux with the original sg driver. So the problem arises:
how to write applications that can take advantage of the new
features (or at least better error reporting) of this sg driver but
still run with the original sg driver?

This can be addressed at 2 levels: run time and compile time. Even
though run time identification is a little more difficult it is more
flexible and minimizes backward compatibility problems and thus is
recommended.

For compile time selection "#ifdef  #else  #endif" style conditional
compilation can be used. The SG_GET_RESERVED_SIZE "#define" in sg.h
is suitable for this purpose (ie its presence indicates the new sg driver
while its absence indicates the original).

Run time selection is more flexible and can be based on whether a
simple ioctl() command works or not. This is best demonstrated by
a code fragment:

#ifndef SG_GET_RESERVED_SIZE
#define SG_GET_RESERVED_SIZE 0x2272
#endif

/* Assume sg device open and fd is called 'sg_fd' */

    int reserved_size = 0;
    if (ioctl(sg_fd, SG_GET_RESERVED_SIZE, &reserved_size) < 0) {
        reserved_size = SG_BIG_BUFF;
        /* So we have the original sg driver ... */
        .........
    }
    else {
        /* So we have the new enhanced sg driver */
        if (reserved_size <= 4096)
            /* Probably should not be cutting CDs with this fd ... */
        .........
    }

As of sg version 2.1.36 an ioctl() called SG_GET_VERSION_NUM has been
added. It yields the version with 2 decimal digits per component. Hence
20136 is the value associated with version 2.1.36 . The ioctl SG_SET_DEBUG
outputs a version string to the console/log file (amongst other information).
The two versions of the new sg driver to appear in the 2.2 series of
kernels are: 2.1.31 (kernels 2.2.6 and 2.2.7) and 2.1.32 (kernels 2.2.8
and 2.2.9).


SG_BIG_BUFF and friends
=======================
Open source seems to attract people who like to tweak the source code
to get (a little) extra performance. In the case of the original
sg driver this meant increasing the value of the #define SG_BIG_BUFF
to the maximum value of (32 * PAGE_SIZE). Even the writers of the major
applications based on sg could not resist suggesting such a modification
to the users. Worse still, their applications acted on that value.

In the original sg driver the SG_BIG_BUFF value modified the behaviour of
the sg driver (see "memory issues" section) and many applications based on
sg used it as well. In this driver SG_BIG_BUFF is _not_ used internally by
the driver. In a sense it has been decoupled.

There are 3 relevant "#define"s in this driver (found in ):

#define SG_SCATTER_SZ (8 * 4096)
#define SG_DEF_RESERVED_SIZE SG_SCATTER_SZ
#define SG_BIG_BUFF SG_DEF_RESERVED_SIZE

SG_SCATTER_SZ is the size of the largest contiguous piece of kernel memory
that the driver will attempt to obtain. It has that value for backward
compatibility. If a SCSI host adapter does not support scatter gather then
it represents the largest buffer than can be used. If anything its value
should be reduced! Best to leave it alone.

SG_DEF_RESERVED_SIZE is the size of the reserved buffer that the driver
will attempt to obtain on open(). If you have plenty of memory on your
box, a PCI SCSI adapter that does scatter gather, then this is the one
to play with. Try it at 512KB (524288) and see what happens. If you
wish to find the scatter gather table size for your SCSI adapter then
you can use the sg utility 'sg_whoami ' and look at the value
of sg_tablesize. If it is 0 then your SCSI adapter does not support
scatter gather. If it is > 0 then the maximum (theoretical) sized buffer
that can be obtained is (sg_tablesize * SG_SCATTER_SZ). This could be
a large number (eg 8MB on this machine) and it probably makes no sense
to try and obtain such a large buffer.

SG_BIG_BUFF is not used internally by the driver. As can be seen above
it is set to the same value as SG_DEF_RESERVED_SIZE. This can be changed
with no adverse effect on the driver. However changing its value may well
affect a sg-based application compiled using it. Changing its value to be
larger than SG_DEF_RESERVED_SIZE may not be a good idea for some classes
of applications (eg those that burn CDs). In this case the reserved
buffer will often not be large enough forcing each write() to attempt to
find memory; an attempt that may fail with ENOMEM in adverse situations.

There is a variable in the "proc" pseudo file system related to the
sg device. It is only visible when sg is built into the kernel (ie
not when it is a module). It can be accessed with:
 # cat /proc/sys/kernel/sg-big-buf
and if present yields the size of the reserved buffer of the most recently
opened sg device. It is deprecated as this information is available
from the SG_GET_RESERVED_SIZE ioctl(). It only remains for backward
compatibility.


Shortcomings
============
Most real world programs need to make compromises to be implementable
and usable. Very little software works in a vacuum especially device
drivers. Sg is constrained by its former interface, the capabilities
of Linux and the services offered by the Linux SCSI mid level layer.

Taking the last point first, the mid level layer is the unifying layer.
It defines most of the interfaces for both the high level drivers
(ie sd, st, sr and sg) and the low level drivers (host adapters of which
there are 50 or more). Given that investment, especially in those low
level drivers, changing the mid level's interfaces is not something
that is done lightly. It is planned that the next major changes to
occur in that area will be in the Linux 2.3 development kernel project.

The following shortcomings are listed in point form:
      - the sense buffer array is only 16 bytes long which seems to have
        come from SCSI 1 days. SCSI 2 requires a minimum of 18 bytes and
        preferably 32 bytes.
      - the actual number of bytes transferred to or from the device (eg
        SCSI write or read respectively) is not reported. This transfer
        is typically done by DMA independently of the main processor.
        Underruns and overruns are potentially silently ignored.
      - there is no (non-deprecated) way to send a device or a bus
        reset (which may be a blessing in disguise).
      - there is no (non-deprecated) way to abort an unfinished command
        or shorten its timeout. A Unix close() can occur at any time
        and coping with unfinished commands adds considerable complexity
        to the device driver.
      - the O_EXCL lock only prevents access by others via a sg device
        handle. Users may still be able to access that device via sd,
        st or sr (ie the other 3 high level SCSI device drivers).

Some people would prefer a unified space for SCSI device handles in
which packet commands could be sent to a disk via /dev/sd? or a cdrom
via /dev/sr? , for example. It is interesting that this was previously
attempted in Linux and some remnants still remain (eg the ioctl
SCSI_IOCTL_SEND_COMMAND) but has comments indicating it is deprecated.
There are arguments both ways, but from a device driver writer's
point of view a separate character driver controlling its owns state
is probably easier, making command queuing, non-blocking operation and
asynchronous notification easier to implement. Remember also that Linux
does not have the block+raw device handle model of some other Unixes.
The downside of the separate space is that each SCSI device potentially
appears as 2 device handles (eg often /dev/sda and /dev/sga will be the
same device). Note that devices such as scanners will only be found in
the "sg space". The difficulty for those devices that appear in both is
what is the mapping. Various ioctls in this driver can be used to
determine what this mapping is. Ultimately the introduction of the
devfs pseudo file system will make this easier.


Future Directions
=================
One area that may warrant investigation is "direct IO" which bypasses
the double handling of data between the kernel buffers and the user
space. This is not as simple as it seems and only one Linux driver
(bttv) is currently using this technique. Recent experiments indicate
that the maximum throughput of the sg driver run on typical hardware is
about 20MBytes per second. This is more than sufficient for most current
sg-based applications. Some people are interested in significantly
higher bandwidths (eg 100MB per second) and for this direct IO would
be required. If this sg driver was to be used for both existing
"indirect IO"-based applications and "direct IO" experimentation
then the latter would (most likely) be having a significantly different
"sg_header" structure. This could be distinguished by having a negative
number in its second integer position (ie 'reply_len's position).

Investigate CAM (in FreeBSD 3.2).


References
==========
http://www.t10.org      Very important site for SCSI related information.
                        Contains SCSI 2 and 3 draft standards.
http://www.andante.org/scsi.html
                        This is Eric Youngdale's site. Eric is primarily
                        responsible for the Linux SCSI architecture and
                        its mid-level implementation.
http://www.kernel.dk    Jens Axboe's site for Linux cdrom matters including
                        the SCSI "sr" driver.
http://www.torque.net/sg
                        My site with sg related information.
newsgroup:linux-scsi@vger.rutgers.edu
                        Newsgroup for Linux related SCSI matters
/usr/src/linux/MAINTAINERS
                        This is a file in the Linux kernel source that
                        contains up to date information about who maintains
                        what and where information can be found. Links to
                        SCSI adapter information are also here.


Conclusion
==========
The SCSI generic packet device driver attempts to make as few assumptions
as possible about the device it is connected to while giving applications
using it as much flexibility as possible on the SCSI command level. Sg
needs to hide the "messy" kernel related details while protecting
the integrity of the kernel against sg "abuse". Some of these aims are
contradictory and some compromises need to be made. For example: should
a sg based application be able to reset a SCSI bus when that could cause
collateral damage to a disk holding the root file system? There is no
easy answer to this and many other related questions.

If you have any suggestion about sg (or improving (the accuracy of) this
document) please contact me.






Appendix
========
The following ASCII art is obtained from draft copies (and copies of
copies) of the SCSI 2 standard. Hopefully they are accurate.

Summary of SCSI commands
------------------------
Shown are group 0, 1, 2 and 5 commands. [The "group" is the top 3 bits
of the SCSI command byte.] The other groups (3, 4, 6 or 7) are reserved
or vendor specific.

                          SCSI-2 Operation Codes

+=========================================================================+
|           D - DIRECT ACCESS DEVICE                   Device Column Key  |
|           .T - SEQUENTIAL ACCESS DEVICE              M = Mandatory      |
|           . L - PRINTER DEVICE                       O = Optional       |
|           .  P - PROCESSOR DEVICE                    V = Vendor Specific|
|           .  .W - WRITE ONCE READ MULTIPLE DEVICE    R = Reserved       |
|           .  . R - READ ONLY (CD-ROM) DEVICE         . = Place holder   |
|           .  .  S - SCANNER DEVICE                                      |
|           .  .  .O - OPTICAL MEMORY DEVICE                              |
|           .  .  . M - MEDIA CHANGER DEVICE                              |
|           .  .  .  C - COMMUNICATION DEVICE                             |
|           .  .  .  .                                                    |
|        OP DTLPWRSOMC Description                                        |
|----------+----------+---------------------------------------------------|
|        00 MMMMMMMMMM TEST UNIT READY                                    |
|        01  M         REWIND                                             |
|        01 O V OO OO  REZERO UNIT                                        |
|        02 VVVVVV  V                                                     |
|        03 MMMMMMMMMM REQUEST SENSE                                      |
|        04   O        FORMAT                                             |
|        04 M      O   FORMAT UNIT                                        |
|        05 VMVVVV  V  READ BLOCK LIMITS                                  |
|        06 VVVVVV  V                                                     |
|        07         O  INITIALIZE ELEMENT STATUS                          |
|        07 OVV O  OV  REASSIGN BLOCKS                                    |
|        08 .........M GET MESSAGE(06)                                    |
|        08 OMV OO OV  READ(06)                                           |
|        08    O       RECEIVE                                            |
|        09 VVVVVV  V                                                     |
|        0A   M        PRINT                                              |
|        0A          M SEND MESSAGE(06)                                   |
|        0A    M       SEND(06)                                           |
|        0A OM  O  OV  WRITE(06)                                          |
|        0B O   OO OV  SEEK(06)                                           |
|        0B   O        SLEW AND PRINT                                     |
|        0C VVVVVV  V                                                     |
|        0D VVVVVV  V                                                     |
|        0E VVVVVV  V                                                     |
|        0F VOVVVV  V  READ REVERSE                                       |
|        10 ..O.O..... SYNCHRONIZE BUFFER                                 |
|        10 VM VVV     WRITE FILEMARKS                                    |
|        11 VMVVVV     SPACE                                              |
|        12 MMMMMMMMMM INQUIRY                                            |
|        13 VOVVVV     VERIFY(06)                                         |
|        14 VOOVVV     RECOVER BUFFERED DATA                              |
|        15 OMO OOOOOO MODE SELECT(06)                                    |
|        16 M   MM MO  RESERVE                                            |
|        16  MM   M    RESERVE UNIT                                       |
|        17 M   MM MO  RELEASE                                            |
|        17  MM   M    RELEASE UNIT                                       |
|        18 OOOOOOOO.. COPY                                               |
|        19 VMVVVV     ERASE                                              |
|        1A OMO OOOOOO MODE SENSE(06)                                     |
|        1B  O         LOAD UNLOAD                                        |
|        1B       O    SCAN                                               |
|        1B   O        STOP PRINT                                         |
|        1B O   OO O   STOP START UNIT                                    |
|        1C OOOOOOOOOO RECEIVE DIAGNOSTIC RESULTS                         |
|        1D MMMMMMMMMM SEND DIAGNOSTIC                                    |
|        1E OO  OO OO  PREVENT ALLOW MEDIUM REMOVAL                       |
|        1F                                                               |
|----------+----------+---------------------------------------------------|
|        OP DTLPWRSOMC Description                                        |
|----------+----------+---------------------------------------------------|
|        20 V   VV V                                                      |
|        21 V   VV V                                                      |
|        22 V   VV V                                                      |
|        23 V   VV V                                                      |
|        24 V   VVM    SET WINDOW                                         |
|        25       O    GET WINDOW                                         |
|        25 M   M  M   READ CAPACITY                                      |
|        25      M     READ CD-ROM CAPACITY                               |
|        26 V   VV                                                        |
|        27 V   VV                                                        |
|        28 .........O GET MESSAGE(10)                                    |
|        28 M   MMMM   READ(10)                                           |
|        29 V   VV O   READ GENERATION                                    |
|        2A          O SEND MESSAGE(10)                                   |
|        2A       O    SEND(10)                                           |
|        2A M   M  M   WRITE(10)                                          |
|        2B  O         LOCATE                                             |
|        2B         O  POSITION TO ELEMENT                                |
|        2B O   OO O   SEEK(10)                                           |
|        2C V      O   ERASE(10)                                          |
|        2D V   O  O   READ UPDATED BLOCK                                 |
|        2E O   O  O   WRITE AND VERIFY(10)                               |
|        2F O   OO O   VERIFY(10)                                         |
|        30 O...OO.O.. SEARCH DATA HIGH(10)                               |
|        31       O    OBJECT POSITION                                    |
|        31 O   OO O   SEARCH DATA EQUAL(10)                              |
|        32 O   OO O   SEARCH DATA LOW(10)                                |
|        33 O   OO O   SET LIMITS(10)                                     |
|        34       O    GET DATA BUFFER STATUS                             |
|        34 O   OO O   PRE-FETCH                                          |
|        34  O         READ POSITION                                      |
|        35 O   OO O   SYNCHRONIZE CACHE                                  |
|        36 O   OO O   LOCK UNLOCK CACHE                                  |
|        37 O      O   READ DEFECT DATA(10)                               |
|        38 ....O..O.. MEDIUM SCAN                                        |
|        39 OOOOOOOO   COMPARE                                            |
|        3A OOOOOOOO   COPY AND VERIFY                                    |
|        3B OOOOOOOOOO WRITE BUFFER                                       |
|        3C OOOOOOOOOO READ BUFFER                                        |
|        3D     O  O   UPDATE BLOCK                                       |
|        3E O   OO O   READ LONG                                          |
|        3F O   O  O   WRITE LONG                                         |
|----------+----------+---------------------------------------------------|
|        OP DTLPWRSOMC Description                                        |
|----------+----------+---------------------------------------------------|
|        40 OOOOOOOOOO CHANGE DEFINITION                                  |
|        41 O          WRITE SAME                                         |
|        42      O     READ SUB-CHANNEL                                   |
|        43      O     READ TOC                                           |
|        44      O     READ HEADER                                        |
|        45      O     PLAY AUDIO(10)                                     |
|        46                                                               |
|        47      O     PLAY AUDIO MSF                                     |
|        48 .....O.... PLAY AUDIO TRACK INDEX                             |
|        49      O     PLAY TRACK RELATIVE(10)                            |
|        4A                                                               |
|        4B      O     PAUSE RESUME                                       |
|        4C OOOOOOOOOO LOG SELECT                                         |
|        4D OOOOOOOOOO LOG SENSE                                          |
|        4E                                                               |
|        4F                                                               |
|        50 ..........                                                    |
|        51                                                               |
|        52                                                               |
|        53                                                               |
|        54                                                               |
|        55 OOO OOOOOO MODE SELECT(10)                                    |
|        56                                                               |
|        57                                                               |
|        58 ..........                                                    |
|        59                                                               |
|        5A OOO OOOOOO MODE SENSE(10)                                     |
|        5B                                                               |
|        5C                                                               |
|        5D                                                               |
|        5E                                                               |
|        5F                                                               |
|----------+----------+---------------------------------------------------|
|        OP DTLPWRSOMC Description                                        |
|----------+----------+---------------------------------------------------|
|        A0                                                               |
|        A1                                                               |
|        A2                                                               |
|        A3                                                               |
|        A4                                                               |
|        A5         M  MOVE MEDIUM                                        |
|        A5      O     PLAY AUDIO(12)                                     |
|        A6         O  EXCHANGE MEDIUM                                    |
|        A7                                                               |
|        A8          O GET MESSAGE(12)                                    |
|        A8     OO O   READ(12)                                           |
|        A9      O     PLAY TRACK RELATIVE(12)                            |
|        AA          O SEND MESSAGE(12)                                   |
|        AA     O  O   WRITE(12)                                          |
|        AB                                                               |
|        AC        O   ERASE(12)                                          |
|        AD                                                               |
|        AE     O  O   WRITE AND VERIFY(12)                               |
|        AF     OO O   VERIFY(12)                                         |
|        B0 ....OO.O.. SEARCH DATA HIGH(12)                               |
|        B1     OO O   SEARCH DATA EQUAL(12)                              |
|        B2     OO O   SEARCH DATA LOW(12)                                |
|        B3     OO O   SET LIMITS(12)                                     |
|        B4                                                               |
|        B5                                                               |
|        B5         O  REQUEST VOLUME ELEMENT ADDRESS                     |
|        B6                                                               |
|        B6         O  SEND VOLUME TAG                                    |
|        B7        O   READ DEFECT DATA(12)                               |
|        B8                                                               |
|        B8         O  READ ELEMENT STATUS                                |
|        B9                                                               |
|        BA                                                               |
|        BB                                                               |
|        BC                                                               |
|        BD                                                               |
|        BE                                                               |
|        BF                                                               |
|----------+----------+---------------------------------------------------|
|        OP DTLPWRSOMC Description                                        |
+=========================================================================+



Example of a SCSI command: READ(10) [for a direct access device]
----------------------------------------------------------------
As an example, here is probably the most common SCSI command sent to
a direct access device. Given a 512 byte block size it can access
anywhere on a 2 TeraByte disk from 1 to 65535 contiguous blocks
(ie a maximum of 32 MBytes). That should satisfy most requirements.


==============================================================================
  Bit|   7    |   6    |   5    |   4    |   3    |   2    |   1    |   0    |
Byte |        |        |        |        |        |        |        |        |
==============================================================================
 0   |                  READ(10) Operation Code (28h)                        |
-----|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
 1   |   Logical Unit Number    |   DPO  |   FUA  |     Reserved    | RelAdr |
-----|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
 2   | (MSB)                                                                 |
- - -|- -                        Logical Block Address                    - -|
 5   |                                                                 (LSB) |
-----|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
 6   |                           Reserved                                    |
-----|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
 7   | (MSB)                                                                 |
-----|---                        Transfer Length                             |
 8   |                                                                 (LSB) |
-----|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
 9   |                           Control                                     |
==============================================================================

"A disable page out (DPO) bit of one indicates that the target shall assign
the logical blocks accessed by this command the lowest priority for being
fetched into or retained by the cache."

"A force unit access (FUA) bit of one indicates that the target shall access
the media in performing the command prior to returning GOOD status."

The 'Control' byte and other 'Reserved' fields should be set to 0 in
commands passed to sg. The 'Logical Unit Number' is set internally by
the sg driver so any value given by the user is overwritten.



Example of a SCSI command: INQUIRY
----------------------------------
It is mandatory that all SCSI targets (ie devices) support this command.

==============================================================================
  Bit|   7    |   6    |   5    |   4    |   3    |   2    |   1    |   0    |
Byte |        |        |        |        |        |        |        |        |
==============================================================================
 0   |                  INQUIRY  Operation Code (12h)                        |
-----|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
 1   | Logical Unit Number      |                  Reserved         |  EVPD  |
-----|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
 2   |                           Page Code                                   |
-----|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
 3   |                           Reserved                                    |
-----|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
 4   |                           Allocation Length                           |
-----|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
 5   |                           Control                                     |
==============================================================================


"An enable vital product data (EVPD) bit of one specifies that the target
shall return the optional vital product data specified by the page code field.
...  An EVPD bit of zero specifies that the target shall return the standard
INQUIRY data."

Unless EVPD is set 'Page Code' should be 0.

"The allocation length field specifies the maximum number of bytes that an
initiator has allocated for returned data." 36 bytes of returned data are
mandated by the standard as shown by the following table:

==============================================================================
  Bit|   7    |   6    |   5    |   4    |   3    |   2    |   1    |   0    |
Byte |        |        |        |        |        |        |        |        |
==============================================================================
 0   | Peripheral Qualifier     |           Peripheral Device Type           |
-----|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
 1   |  RMB   |                  Device-Type Modifier                        |
-----|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
 2   |   ISO Version   |       ECMA Version       |  ANSI-Approved Version   |
-----|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
 3   |  AENC  | TrmIOP |     Reserved    |         Response Data Format      |
-----|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
 4   |                           Additional Length (n-4)                     |
-----|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
 5   |                           Reserved                                    |
-----|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
 6   |                           Reserved                                    |
-----|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
 7   | RelAdr | WBus32 | WBus16 |  Sync  | Linked |Reserved| CmdQue | SftRe  |
-----|-+---------------------------------------------------------------------|
 8   | (MSB)                                                                 |
- - -|- -                        Vendor Identification                    - -|
 15  |                                                                 (LSB) |
-----|-+---------------------------------------------------------------------|
 16  | (MSB)                                                                 |
- - -|- -                        Product Identification                   - -|
 31  |                                                                 (LSB) |
-----|-+---------------------------------------------------------------------|
 32  | (MSB)                                                                 |
- - -|- -                        Product Revision Level                   - -|
 35  |                                                                 (LSB) |
-----|-+---------------------------------------------------------------------|
 36  |                                                                       |
- - -|- -                        Vendor Specific                          - -|
 55  |                                                                       |
-----|-+---------------------------------------------------------------------|
 56  |                                                                       |
- - -|- -                        Reserved                                 - -|
 95  |                                                                       |
==============================================================================
     |                       Vendor-Specific Parameters                      |
==============================================================================
96 to|                           Vendor-Specific                             |
 n   |                           Parameter Bytes                             |
==============================================================================


SCSI Status Byte
----------------
SCSI commands return a status byte. It is related to but not exactly the
same as the 'target_status' placed in the sg_header structure passed to
the user when a sg device handle is read(). The difference is that the
SCSI status byte has its reserved bits masked off and it is shifted once
right to yield the 5 bit number (ie in the range 0 to 31) that is
'target_status'. The use of such a masked and shifted 'target_status" seems
to be the intention of earlier Linux SCSI designers since the "Status codes"
defines in  are then appropriate (eg "#define CHECK_CONDITION
0x01"). The following table and explanation is from the SCSI 2 standard:

+=================================-==============================+
|       Bits of Status Byte       |  Status                      |
|  7   6   5   4   3   2   1   0  |                              |
|---------------------------------+------------------------------|
|  R   R   0   0   0   0   0   R  |  GOOD                        |
|  R   R   0   0   0   0   1   R  |  CHECK CONDITION             |
|  R   R   0   0   0   1   0   R  |  CONDITION MET               |
|  R   R   0   0   1   0   0   R  |  BUSY                        |
|  R   R   0   1   0   0   0   R  |  INTERMEDIATE                |
|  R   R   0   1   0   1   0   R  |  INTERMEDIATE-CONDITION MET  |
|  R   R   0   1   1   0   0   R  |  RESERVATION CONFLICT        |
|  R   R   1   0   0   0   1   R  |  COMMAND TERMINATED          |
|  R   R   1   0   1   0   0   R  |  QUEUE FULL                  |
|                                 |                              |
|       All Other Codes           |  Reserved                    |
|----------------------------------------------------------------|
|  Key: R = Reserved bit                                         |
+================================================================+

GOOD.  This status indicates that the target has successfully completed the
command.

CHECK CONDITION.  This status indicates that a contingent allegiance
condition has occurred. [This means the sense_buffer has been ouput.]

CONDITION MET.  This status or INTERMEDIATE-CONDITION MET is returned whenever
the requested operation is satisfied (see the SEARCH DATA and PRE-FETCH
commands).

BUSY.  This status indicates that the target is busy.  This status shall be
returned whenever a target is unable to accept a command from an otherwise
acceptable initiator (i.e., no reservation conflicts).  The recommended
initiator recovery action is to issue the command again at a later time.

INTERMEDIATE.  This status or INTERMEDIATE-CONDITION MET shall be returned for
every successfully completed command in a series of linked commands (except
the last command), unless the command is terminated with CHECK CONDITION,
RESERVATION CONFLICT, or COMMAND TERMINATED status.  If INTERMEDIATE or
INTERMEDIATE-CONDITION MET status is not returned, the series of linked
commands is terminated and the I/O process is ended.

INTERMEDIATE-CONDITION MET.  This status is the combination of the CONDITION
MET and INTERMEDIATE statuses.

RESERVATION CONFLICT.  This status shall be returned whenever an initiator
attempts to access a logical unit or an extent within a logical unit that is
reserved with a conflicting reservation type for another SCSI device (see the
RESERVE and RESERVE UNIT commands).  The recommended initiator recovery action
is to issue the command again at a later time.

COMMAND TERMINATED.  This status shall be returned whenever the target
terminates the current I/O process after receiving a TERMINATE I/O PROCESS
message (see 5.6.22).  This status also indicates that a contingent allegiance
condition has occurred. [This means the sense_buffer has been output.]

QUEUE FULL.  This status shall be implemented if tagged queuing is
implemented.  This status is returned when a SIMPLE QUEUE TAG, ORDERED QUEUE
TAG, or HEAD OF QUEUE TAG message is received and the command queue is full.
The I/O process is not placed in the command queue.


Note that there are 2 status codes indicating the 'sense_buffer' is output:
CHECK CONDITION and COMMAND TERMINATED. In addition, the 'sense_buffer' is
also written when the DRIVER_SENSE mask is set in the 'driver_status'.
The latter case occurs in Linux since low level drivers that emulate a
SCSI device (eg ide-scsi) have problems "faking" the status code.

Also CHECK CONDITION does not necessarily imply an error. For example,
if the associated "sense key" (found in (sense_buffer[2] & 0xf)) is
RECOVERED_ERROR then the requested SCSI command was completed
successfully after the target (device) performed some remedial action.


SCSI Sense buffer
-----------------
As noted above the 'sense_buffer' is output (and accessed via a read())
when 'target_status' is CHECK_CONDITION or COMMAND_TERMINATED or when
('driver_status' & DRIVER_SENSE) is true. Only 16 of the required 18
bytes of the sense buffer are output.

What actually happens is that when a SCSI target (device) returns a SCSI
status code indicating the sense buffer needs to be checked, the Linux
SCSI mid level automatically issues a follow up SCSI REQUEST SENSE command
and conveys the ouput of this command (ie the truncated sense buffer) back
to the 'sense_buffer' in sg's sg_header structure and thus back to the user
via a read() call. [When a SCSI device is being emulated things are
obviously a bit different.]

The sense buffer returned by the REQUEST SENSE command looks like this:

==============================================================================
  Bit|   7    |   6    |   5    |   4    |   3    |   2    |   1    |   0    |
Byte |        |        |        |        |        |        |        |        |
==============================================================================
 0   | Valid  |                  Error Code (70h or 71h)                     |
-----|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
 1   |                           Segment Number                              |
-----|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
 2   |Filemark|  EOM   |  ILI   |Reserved|         Sense Key                 |
-----|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
 3   | (MSB)                                                                 |
- - -|- -                        Information                              - -|
 6   |                                                                 (LSB) |
-----|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
 7   |                           Additional Sense Length (n-7)               |
-----|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
 8   | (MSB)                                                                 |
- - -|- -                        Command-Specific Information             - -|
 11  |                                                                 (LSB) |
-----|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
 12  |                           Additional Sense Code [ASC]                 |
-----|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
 13  |                           Additional Sense Code Qualifier [ASCQ]      |
-----|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
 14  |                           Field Replaceable Unit Code                 |
-----|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
15 to|  SKSV  |                                                              |
- - -|---------- -               Sense-Key Specific                       - -|
 17  |                                                                       |
-----|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
18 to|                                                                       |
- - -|- -                        Additional Sense Bytes                   - -|
 n   |                                                                       |
==============================================================================

This is a complicated beast and the reader is referred to the SCSI 2
standard for the complete interpretation. A brief summary of the important
fields and some rather long tables follow.

The 'Valid' but is rather deceptively named and just indicates whether
the Information field has anything in it and if so whether that value
conforms with the standard. The important fields are the Sense Key, the
Additional Sense Code (ASC) and the Additional Sense Code Qualifier (ASCQ)
in that order. The Sense Key values follow:

==============================================================================
Sense Key  Description
---------  -------------------------------------------------------------------
   0h      NO SENSE.  Indicates that there is no specific sense key
           information to be reported for the designated logical unit.  This
           would be the case for a successful command or a command that
           received CHECK CONDITION or COMMAND TERMINATED status because one
           of the filemark, EOM, or ILI bits is set to one.

   1h      RECOVERED ERROR.  Indicates that the last command completed
           successfully with some recovery action performed by the target.
           Details may be determinable by examining the additional sense bytes
           and the information field.  When multiple recovered errors occur
           during one command, the choice of which error to report (first,
           last, most severe, etc.) is device specific.

   2h      NOT READY.  Indicates that the logical unit addressed cannot be
           accessed.  Operator intervention may be required to correct this
           condition.

   3h      MEDIUM ERROR.  Indicates that the command terminated with a non-
           recovered error condition that was probably caused by a flaw in the
           medium or an error in the recorded data.  This sense key may also
           be returned if the target is unable to distinguish between a flaw
           in the medium and a specific hardware failure (sense key 4h).

   4h      HARDWARE ERROR.  Indicates that the target detected a non-
           recoverable hardware failure (for example, controller failure,
           device failure, parity error, etc.) while performing the command or
           during a self test.

   5h      ILLEGAL REQUEST.  Indicates that there was an illegal parameter in
           the command descriptor block or in the additional parameters
           supplied as data for some commands (FORMAT UNIT, SEARCH DATA,
           etc.).  If the target detects an invalid parameter in the command
           descriptor block, then it shall terminate the command without
           altering the medium.  If the target detects an invalid parameter in
           the additional parameters supplied as data, then the target may
           have already altered the medium.  This sense key may also indicate
           that an invalid IDENTIFY message was received (5.6.7).

   6h      UNIT ATTENTION.  Indicates that the removable medium may have been
           changed or the target has been reset.  See 6.9 for more detailed
           information about the unit attention condition.

   7h      DATA PROTECT.  Indicates that a command that reads or writes the
           medium was attempted on a block that is protected from this
           operation.  The read or write operation is not performed.

   8h      BLANK CHECK.  Indicates that a write-once device or a sequential-
           access device encountered blank medium or format-defined end-of-
           data indication while reading or a write-once device encountered a
           non-blank medium while writing.

   9h      Vendor Specific.  This sense key is available for reporting vendor
           specific conditions.

   Ah      COPY ABORTED.  Indicates a COPY, COMPARE, or COPY AND VERIFY
           command was aborted due to an error condition on the source device,
           the destination device, or both.  (See 7.2.3.2 for additional
           information about this sense key.)

   Bh      ABORTED COMMAND.  Indicates that the target aborted the command.
           The initiator may be able to recover by trying the command again.

   Ch      EQUAL.  Indicates a SEARCH DATA command has satisfied an equal
           comparison.

   Dh      VOLUME OVERFLOW.  Indicates that a buffered peripheral device has
           reached the end-of-partition and data may remain in the buffer that
           has not been written to the medium.  A RECOVER BUFFERED DATA
           command(s) may be issued to read the unwritten data from the
           buffer.

   Eh      MISCOMPARE.  Indicates that the source data did not match the data
           read from the medium.

   Fh      RESERVED.

==============================================================================


2 long tables of Additional Sense Codes (ASC) and their associated Additional
Sense Code Qualifiers (ASCQ) follow. The same information is presented in 2
forms: first in numerical order (by ASC then ASCQ) and then in alphabetical
order (by description).

ASC and ASCQ in numerical order
+============================================================================+
|           D - DIRECT ACCESS DEVICE                                         |
|           .T - SEQUENTIAL ACCESS DEVICE                                    |
|           . L - PRINTER DEVICE                                             |
|           .  P - PROCESSOR DEVICE                                          |
|           .  .W - WRITE ONCE READ MULTIPLE DEVICE                          |
|           .  . R - READ ONLY (CD-ROM) DEVICE                               |
|           .  .  S - SCANNER DEVICE                                         |
|           .  .  .O - OPTICAL MEMORY DEVICE                                 |
|           .  .  . M - MEDIA CHANGER DEVICE                                 |
|           .  .  .  C - COMMUNICATION DEVICE                                |
|           .  .  .  .                                                       |
| ASC ASCQ  DTLPWRSOMC  DESCRIPTION                                          |
| --- ----              -----------------------------------------------------|
|  00  00   DTLPWRSOMC  NO ADDITIONAL SENSE INFORMATION                      |
|  00  01    T          FILEMARK DETECTED                                    |
|  00  02    T    S     END-OF-PARTITION/MEDIUM DETECTED                     |
|  00  03    T          SETMARK DETECTED                                     |
|  00  04    T    S     BEGINNING-OF-PARTITION/MEDIUM DETECTED               |
|  00  05    T    S     END-OF-DATA DETECTED                                 |
|  00  06   DTLPWRSOMC  I/O PROCESS TERMINATED                               |
|  00  11   R           AUDIO PLAY OPERATION IN PROGRESS                     |
|  00  12   R           AUDIO PLAY OPERATION PAUSED                          |
|  00  13   R           AUDIO PLAY OPERATION SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETED          |
|  00  14   R           AUDIO PLAY OPERATION STOPPED DUE TO ERROR            |
|  00  15   R           NO CURRENT AUDIO STATUS TO RETURN                    |
|  01  00   DW  O       NO INDEX/SECTOR SIGNAL                               |
|  02  00   DWR OM      NO SEEK COMPLETE                                     |
|  03  00   DTL W SO    PERIPHERAL DEVICE WRITE FAULT                        |
|  03  01    T          NO WRITE CURRENT                                     |
|  03  02    T          EXCESSIVE WRITE ERRORS                               |
|  04  00   DTLPWRSOMC  LOGICAL UNIT NOT READY, CAUSE NOT REPORTABLE         |
|  04  01   DTLPWRSOMC  LOGICAL UNIT IS IN PROCESS OF BECOMING READY         |
|  04  02   DTLPWRSOMC  LOGICAL UNIT NOT READY, INITIALIZING COMMAND REQUIRED|
|  04  03   DTLPWRSOMC  LOGICAL UNIT NOT READY, MANUAL INTERVENTION REQUIRED |
|  04  04   DTL    O    LOGICAL UNIT NOT READY, FORMAT IN PROGRESS           |
|  05  00   DTL WRSOMC  LOGICAL UNIT DOES NOT RESPOND TO SELECTION           |
|  06  00   DWR OM  NO  REFERENCE POSITION FOUND                             |
|  07  00   DTL WRSOM   MULTIPLE PERIPHERAL DEVICES SELECTED                 |
|  08  00   DTL WRSOMC  LOGICAL UNIT COMMUNICATION FAILURE                   |
|  08  01   DTL WRSOMC  LOGICAL UNIT COMMUNICATION TIME-OUT                  |
|  08  02   DTL WRSOMC  LOGICAL UNIT COMMUNICATION PARITY ERROR              |
|  09  00   DT  WR O    TRACK FOLLOWING ERROR                                |
|  09  01       WR O    TRACKING SERVO FAILURE                               |
|  09  02       WR O    FOCUS SERVO FAILURE                                  |
|  09  03       WR O    SPINDLE SERVO FAILURE                                |
|  0A  00   DTLPWRSOMC  ERROR LOG OVERFLOW                                   |
|  0C  00    T     S    WRITE ERROR                                          |
|  0C  01   D   W  O    WRITE ERROR RECOVERED WITH AUTO REALLOCATION         |
|  0C  02   D   W  O    WRITE ERROR - AUTO REALLOCATION FAILED               |
|  10  00   D   W  O    ID CRC OR ECC ERROR                                  |
|  11  00   DT  WRSO    UNRECOVERED READ ERROR                               |
|  11  01   DT  W SO    READ RETRIES EXHAUSTED                               |
|  11  02   DT  W SO    ERROR TOO LONG TO CORRECT                            |
|  11  03   DT  W SO    MULTIPLE READ ERRORS                                 |
|  11  04   D   W  O    UNRECOVERED READ ERROR - AUTO REALLOCATE FAILED      |
|  11  05       WR O    L-EC UNCORRECTABLE ERROR                             |
|  11  06       WR O    CIRC UNRECOVERED ERROR                               |
|  11  07       W  O    DATA RESYCHRONIZATION ERROR                          |
|  11  08    T          INCOMPLETE BLOCK READ                                |
|  11  09    T          NO GAP FOUND                                         |
|  11  0A   DT     O    MISCORRECTED ERROR                                   |
|  11  0B   D   W  O    UNRECOVERED READ ERROR - RECOMMEND REASSIGNMENT      |
|  11  0C   D   W  O    UNRECOVERED READ ERROR - RECOMMEND REWRITE THE DATA  |
|  12  00   D   W  O    ADDRESS MARK NOT FOUND FOR ID FIELD                  |
|  13  00   D   W  O    ADDRESS MARK NOT FOUND FOR DATA FIELD                |
|  14  00   DTL WRSO    RECORDED ENTITY NOT FOUND                            |
|  14  01   DT  WR O    RECORD NOT FOUND                                     |
|  14  02    T          FILEMARK OR SETMARK NOT FOUND                        |
|  14  03    T          END-OF-DATA NOT FOUND                                |
|  14  04    T          BLOCK SEQUENCE ERROR                                 |
|  15  00   DTL WRSOM   RANDOM POSITIONING ERROR                             |
|  15  01   DTL WRSOM   MECHANICAL POSITIONING ERROR                         |
|  15  02   DT  WR O    POSITIONING ERROR DETECTED BY READ OF MEDIUM         |
|  16  00   DW     O    DATA SYNCHRONIZATION MARK ERROR                      |
|  17  00   DT  WRSO    RECOVERED DATA WITH NO ERROR CORRECTION APPLIED      |
|  17  01   DT  WRSO    RECOVERED DATA WITH RETRIES                          |
|  17  02   DT  WR O    RECOVERED DATA WITH POSITIVE HEAD OFFSET             |
|  17  03   DT  WR O    RECOVERED DATA WITH NEGATIVE HEAD OFFSET             |
|  17  04       WR O    RECOVERED DATA WITH RETRIES AND/OR CIRC APPLIED      |
|  17  05   D   WR O    RECOVERED DATA USING PREVIOUS SECTOR ID              |
|  17  06   D   W  O    RECOVERED DATA WITHOUT ECC - DATA AUTO-REALLOCATED   |
|  17  07   D   W  O    RECOVERED DATA WITHOUT ECC - RECOMMEND REASSIGNMENT  |
|  17  08   D   W  O    RECOVERED DATA WITHOUT ECC - RECOMMEND REWRITE       |
|  18  00   DT  WR O    RECOVERED DATA WITH ERROR CORRECTION APPLIED         |
|  18  01   D   WR O    RECOVERED DATA WITH ERROR CORRECTION & RETRIES APPLIE|
|  18  02   D   WR O    RECOVERED DATA - DATA AUTO-REALLOCATED               |
|  18  03        R      RECOVERED DATA WITH CIRC                             |
|  18  04        R      RECOVERED DATA WITH LEC                              |
|  18  05   D   WR O    RECOVERED DATA - RECOMMEND REASSIGNMENT              |
|  18  06   D   WR O    RECOVERED DATA - RECOMMEND REWRITE                   |
|  19  00   D      O    DEFECT LIST ERROR                                    |
|  19  01   D      O    DEFECT LIST NOT AVAILABLE                            |
|  19  02   D      O    DEFECT LIST ERROR IN PRIMARY LIST                    |
|  19  03   D      O    DEFECT LIST ERROR IN GROWN LIST                      |
|  1A  00   DTLPWRSOMC  PARAMETER LIST LENGTH ERROR                          |
|  1B  00   DTLPWRSOMC  SYNCHRONOUS DATA TRANSFER ERROR                      |
|  1C  00   D      O    DEFECT LIST NOT FOUND                                |
|  1C  01   D      O    PRIMARY DEFECT LIST NOT FOUND                        |
|  1C  02   D      O    GROWN DEFECT LIST NOT FOUND                          |
|  1D  00   D   W  O    MISCOMPARE DURING VERIFY OPERATION                   |
|  1E  00   D   W  O    RECOVERED ID WITH ECC                                |
|  20  00   DTLPWRSOMC  INVALID COMMAND OPERATION CODE                       |
|  21  00   DT  WR OM   LOGICAL BLOCK ADDRESS OUT OF RANGE                   |
|  21  01           M   INVALID ELEMENT ADDRESS                              |
|  22  00   D           ILLEGAL FUNCTION (SHOULD USE 20 00, 24 00, OR 26 00) |
|  24  00   DTLPWRSOMC  INVALID FIELD IN CDB                                 |
|  25  00   DTLPWRSOMC  LOGICAL UNIT NOT SUPPORTED                           |
|  26  00   DTLPWRSOMC  INVALID FIELD IN PARAMETER LIST                      |
|  26  01   DTLPWRSOMC  PARAMETER NOT SUPPORTED                              |
|  26  02   DTLPWRSOMC  PARAMETER VALUE INVALID                              |
|  26  03   DTLPWRSOMC  THRESHOLD PARAMETERS NOT SUPPORTED                   |
|  27  00   DT  W  O    WRITE PROTECTED                                      |
|  28  00   DTLPWRSOMC  NOT READY TO READY TRANSITION(MEDIUM MAY HAVE CHANGED|
|  28  01           M   IMPORT OR EXPORT ELEMENT ACCESSED                    |
|  29  00   DTLPWRSOMC  POWER ON, RESET, OR BUS DEVICE RESET OCCURRED        |
|  2A  00   DTL WRSOMC  PARAMETERS CHANGED                                   |
|  2A  01   DTL WRSOMC  MODE PARAMETERS CHANGED                              |
|  2A  02   DTL WRSOMC  LOG PARAMETERS CHANGED                               |
|  2B  00   DTLPWRSO C  COPY CANNOT EXECUTE SINCE HOST CANNOT DISCONNECT     |
|  2C  00   DTLPWRSOMC  COMMAND SEQUENCE ERROR                               |
|  2C  01         S     TOO MANY WINDOWS SPECIFIED                           |
|  2C  02         S     INVALID COMBINATION OF WINDOWS SPECIFIED             |
|  2D  00    T          OVERWRITE ERROR ON UPDATE IN PLACE                   |
|  2F  00   DTLPWRSOMC  COMMANDS CLEARED BY ANOTHER INITIATOR                |
|  30  00   DT  WR OM   INCOMPATIBLE MEDIUM INSTALLED                        |
|  30  01   DT  WR O    CANNOT READ MEDIUM - UNKNOWN FORMAT                  |
|  30  02   DT  WR O    CANNOT READ MEDIUM - INCOMPATIBLE FORMAT             |
|  30  03   DT          CLEANING CARTRIDGE INSTALLED                         |
|  31  00   DT  W  O    MEDIUM FORMAT CORRUPTED                              |
|  31  01   D L    O    FORMAT COMMAND FAILED                                |
|  32  00   D   W  O    NO DEFECT SPARE LOCATION AVAILABLE                   |
|  32  01   D   W  O    DEFECT LIST UPDATE FAILURE                           |
|  33  00    T          TAPE LENGTH ERROR                                    |
|  36  00     L         RIBBON, INK, OR TONER FAILURE                        |
|  37  00   DTL WRSOMC  ROUNDED PARAMETER                                    |
|  39  00   DTL WRSOMC  SAVING PARAMETERS NOT SUPPORTED                      |
|  3A  00   DTL WRSOM   MEDIUM NOT PRESENT                                   |
|  3B  00    TL         SEQUENTIAL POSITIONING ERROR                         |
|  3B  01    T          TAPE POSITION ERROR AT BEGINNING-OF-MEDIUM           |
|  3B  02    T          TAPE POSITION ERROR AT END-OF-MEDIUM                 |
|  3B  03     L         TAPE OR ELECTRONIC VERTICAL FORMS UNIT NOT READY     |
|  3B  04     L         SLEW FAILURE                                         |
|  3B  05     L         PAPER JAM                                            |
|  3B  06     L         FAILED TO SENSE TOP-OF-FORM                          |
|  3B  07     L         FAILED TO SENSE BOTTOM-OF-FORM                       |
|  3B  08    T          REPOSITION ERROR                                     |
|  3B  09         S     READ PAST END OF MEDIUM                              |
|  3B  0A         S     READ PAST BEGINNING OF MEDIUM                        |
|  3B  0B         S     POSITION PAST END OF MEDIUM                          |
|  3B  0C         S     POSITION PAST BEGINNING OF MEDIUM                    |
|  3B  0D           M   MEDIUM DESTINATION ELEMENT FULL                      |
|  3B  0E           M   MEDIUM SOURCE ELEMENT EMPTY                          |
|  3D  00   DTLPWRSOMC  INVALID BITS IN IDENTIFY MESSAGE                     |
|  3E  00   DTLPWRSOMC  LOGICAL UNIT HAS NOT SELF-CONFIGURED YET             |
|  3F  00   DTLPWRSOMC  TARGET OPERATING CONDITIONS HAVE CHANGED             |
|  3F  01   DTLPWRSOMC  MICROCODE HAS BEEN CHANGED                           |
|  3F  02   DTLPWRSOMC  CHANGED OPERATING DEFINITION                         |
|  3F  03   DTLPWRSOMC  INQUIRY DATA HAS CHANGED                             |
|  40  00   D           RAM FAILURE (SHOULD USE 40 NN)                       |
|  40  NN   DTLPWRSOMC  DIAGNOSTIC FAILURE ON COMPONENT NN (80H-FFH)         |
|  41  00   D           DATA PATH FAILURE (SHOULD USE 40 NN)                 |
|  42  00   D           POWER-ON OR SELF-TEST FAILURE (SHOULD USE 40 NN)     |
|  43  00   DTLPWRSOMC  MESSAGE ERROR                                        |
|  44  00   DTLPWRSOMC  INTERNAL TARGET FAILURE                              |
|  45  00   DTLPWRSOMC  SELECT OR RESELECT FAILURE                           |
|  46  00   DTLPWRSOMC  UNSUCCESSFUL SOFT RESET                              |
|  47  00   DTLPWRSOMC  SCSI PARITY ERROR                                    |
|  48  00   DTLPWRSOMC  INITIATOR DETECTED ERROR MESSAGE RECEIVED            |
|  49  00   DTLPWRSOMC  INVALID MESSAGE ERROR                                |
|  4A  00   DTLPWRSOMC  COMMAND PHASE ERROR                                  |
|  4B  00   DTLPWRSOMC  DATA PHASE ERROR                                     |
|  4C  00   DTLPWRSOMC  LOGICAL UNIT FAILED SELF-CONFIGURATION               |
|  4E  00   DTLPWRSOMC  OVERLAPPED COMMANDS ATTEMPTED                        |
|  50  00    T          WRITE APPEND ERROR                                   |
|  50  01    T          WRITE APPEND POSITION ERROR                          |
|  50  02    T          POSITION ERROR RELATED TO TIMING                     |
|  51  00    T     O    ERASE FAILURE                                        |
|  52  00    T          CARTRIDGE FAULT                                      |
|  53  00   DTL WRSOM   MEDIA LOAD OR EJECT FAILED                           |
|  53  01    T          UNLOAD TAPE FAILURE                                  |
|  53  02   DT  WR OM   MEDIUM REMOVAL PREVENTED                             |
|  54  00      P        SCSI TO HOST SYSTEM INTERFACE FAILURE                |
|  55  00      P        SYSTEM RESOURCE FAILURE                              |
|  57  00        R      UNABLE TO RECOVER TABLE-OF-CONTENTS                  |
|  58  00     O         GENERATION DOES NOT EXIST                            |
|  59  00     O         UPDATED BLOCK READ                                   |
|  5A  00   DTLPWRSOM   OPERATOR REQUEST OR STATE CHANGE INPUT (UNSPECIFIED) |
|  5A  01   DT  WR OM   OPERATOR MEDIUM REMOVAL REQUEST                      |
|  5A  02   DT  W  O    OPERATOR SELECTED WRITE PROTECT                      |
|  5A  03   DT  W  O    OPERATOR SELECTED WRITE PERMIT                       |
|  5B  00   DTLPWRSOM   LOG EXCEPTION                                        |
|  5B  01   DTLPWRSOM   THRESHOLD CONDITION MET                              |
|  5B  02   DTLPWRSOM   LOG COUNTER AT MAXIMUM                               |
|  5B  03   DTLPWRSOM   LOG LIST CODES EXHAUSTED                             |
|  5C  00   D   O       RPL STATUS CHANGE                                    |
|  5C  01   D   O       SPINDLES SYNCHRONIZED                                |
|  5C  02   D   O       SPINDLES NOT SYNCHRONIZED                            |
|  60  00         S     LAMP FAILURE                                         |
|  61  00         S     VIDEO ACQUISITION ERROR                              |
|  61  01         S     UNABLE TO ACQUIRE VIDEO                              |
|  61  02         S     OUT OF FOCUS                                         |
|  62  00         S     SCAN HEAD POSITIONING ERROR                          |
|  63  00        R      END OF USER AREA ENCOUNTERED ON THIS TRACK           |
|  64  00        R      ILLEGAL MODE FOR THIS TRACK                          |
|                                                                            |
|  80  xxh \                                                                 |
|   THROUGH >  VENDOR SPECIFIC.                                              |
|  FF  xxh /                                                                 |
|                                                                            |
|  xxh 80 \                                                                  |
|  THROUGH >  VENDOR SPECIFIC QUALIFICATION OF STANDARD ASC.                 |
|  xxh FF /                                                                  |
|               ALL CODES NOT SHOWN OR BLANK ARE RESERVED.                   |
+============================================================================+



ASC and ASCQ in alphabetical order by description
+============================================================================+
|           D - DIRECT ACCESS DEVICE                                         |
|           .T - SEQUENTIAL ACCESS DEVICE                                    |
|           . L - PRINTER DEVICE                                             |
|           .  P - PROCESSOR DEVICE                                          |
|           .  .W - WRITE ONCE READ MULTIPLE DEVICE                          |
|           .  . R - READ ONLY (CD-ROM) DEVICE                               |
|           .  .  S - SCANNER DEVICE                                         |
|           .  .  .O - OPTICAL MEMORY DEVICE                                 |
|           .  .  . M - MEDIA CHANGER DEVICE                                 |
|           .  .  .  C - COMMUNICATION DEVICE                                |
|           .  .  .  .                                                       |
| ASC ASCQ  DTLPWRSOMC  DESCRIPTION                                          |
| --- ----              -----------------------------------------------------|
| 13h  00h  D   W  O    ADDRESS MARK NOT FOUND FOR DATA FIELD                |
| 12h  00h  D   W  O    ADDRESS MARK NOT FOUND FOR ID FIELD                  |
| 00h  11h       R      AUDIO PLAY OPERATION IN PROGRESS                     |
| 00h  12h       R      AUDIO PLAY OPERATION PAUSED                          |
| 00h  14h       R      AUDIO PLAY OPERATION STOPPED DUE TO ERROR            |
| 00h  13h       R      AUDIO PLAY OPERATION SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETED          |
| 00h  04h   T    S     BEGINNING-OF-PARTITION/MEDIUM DETECTED               |
| 14h  04h   T          BLOCK SEQUENCE ERROR                                 |
| 30h  02h  DT  WR O    CANNOT READ MEDIUM - INCOMPATIBLE FORMAT             |
| 30h  01h  DT  WR O    CANNOT READ MEDIUM - UNKNOWN FORMAT                  |
| 52h  00h   T          CARTRIDGE FAULT                                      |
| 3Fh  02h  DTLPWRSOMC  CHANGED OPERATING DEFINITION                         |
| 11h  06h      WR O    CIRC UNRECOVERED ERROR                               |
| 30h  03h  DT          CLEANING CARTRIDGE INSTALLED                         |
| 4Ah  00h  DTLPWRSOMC  COMMAND PHASE ERROR                                  |
| 2Ch  00h  DTLPWRSOMC  COMMAND SEQUENCE ERROR                               |
| 2Fh  00h  DTLPWRSOMC  COMMANDS CLEARED BY ANOTHER INITIATOR                |
| 2Bh  00h  DTLPWRSO C  COPY CANNOT EXECUTE SINCE HOST CANNOT DISCONNECT     |
| 41h  00h  D           DATA PATH FAILURE (SHOULD USE 40 NN)                 |
| 4Bh  00h  DTLPWRSOMC  DATA PHASE ERROR                                     |
| 11h  07h      W  O    DATA RESYCHRONIZATION ERROR                          |
| 16h  00h  D   W  O    DATA SYNCHRONIZATION MARK ERROR                      |
| 19h  00h  D      O    DEFECT LIST ERROR                                    |
| 19h  03h  D      O    DEFECT LIST ERROR IN GROWN LIST                      |
| 19h  02h  D      O    DEFECT LIST ERROR IN PRIMARY LIST                    |
| 19h  01h  D      O    DEFECT LIST NOT AVAILABLE                            |
| 1Ch  00h  D      O    DEFECT LIST NOT FOUND                                |
| 32h  01h  D   W  O    DEFECT LIST UPDATE FAILURE                           |
| 40h  NNh  DTLPWRSOMC  DIAGNOSTIC FAILURE ON COMPONENT NN (80H-FFH)         |
| 63h  00h       R      END OF USER AREA ENCOUNTERED ON THIS TRACK           |
| 00h  05h   T    S     END-OF-DATA DETECTED                                 |
| 14h  03h   T          END-OF-DATA NOT FOUND                                |
| 00h  02h   T    S     END-OF-PARTITION/MEDIUM DETECTED                     |
| 51h  00h   T     O    ERASE FAILURE                                        |
| 0Ah  00h  DTLPWRSOMC  ERROR LOG OVERFLOW                                   |
| 11h  02h  DT  W SO    ERROR TOO LONG TO CORRECT                            |
| 03h  02h   T          EXCESSIVE WRITE ERRORS                               |
| 3Bh  07h    L         FAILED TO SENSE BOTTOM-OF-FORM                       |
| 3Bh  06h    L         FAILED TO SENSE TOP-OF-FORM                          |
| 00h  01h   T          FILEMARK DETECTED                                    |
| 14h  02h   T          FILEMARK OR SETMARK NOT FOUND                        |
| 09h  02h      WR O    FOCUS SERVO FAILURE                                  |
| 31h  01h  D L    O    FORMAT COMMAND FAILED                                |
| 58h  00h         O    GENERATION DOES NOT EXIST                            |
| 1Ch  02h  D      O    GROWN DEFECT LIST NOT FOUND                          |
| 00h  06h  DTLPWRSOMC  I/O PROCESS TERMINATED                               |
| 10h  00h  D   W  O    ID CRC OR ECC ERROR                                  |
| 22h  00h  D           ILLEGAL FUNCTION (SHOULD USE 20 00, 24 00, OR 26 00) |
| 64h  00h       R      ILLEGAL MODE FOR THIS TRACK                          |
| 28h  01h          M   IMPORT OR EXPORT ELEMENT ACCESSED                    |
| 30h  00h  DT  WR OM   INCOMPATIBLE MEDIUM INSTALLED                        |
| 11h  08h   T          INCOMPLETE BLOCK READ                                |
| 48h  00h  DTLPWRSOMC  INITIATOR DETECTED ERROR MESSAGE RECEIVED            |
| 3Fh  03h  DTLPWRSOMC  INQUIRY DATA HAS CHANGED                             |
| 44h  00h  DTLPWRSOMC  INTERNAL TARGET FAILURE                              |
| 3Dh  00h  DTLPWRSOMC  INVALID BITS IN IDENTIFY MESSAGE                     |
| 2Ch  02h        S     INVALID COMBINATION OF WINDOWS SPECIFIED             |
| 20h  00h  DTLPWRSOMC  INVALID COMMAND OPERATION CODE                       |
| 21h  01h          M   INVALID ELEMENT ADDRESS                              |
| 24h  00h  DTLPWRSOMC  INVALID FIELD IN CDB                                 |
| 26h  00h  DTLPWRSOMC  INVALID FIELD IN PARAMETER LIST                      |
| 49h  00h  DTLPWRSOMC  INVALID MESSAGE ERROR                                |
| 11h  05h      WR O    L-EC UNCORRECTABLE ERROR                             |
| 60h  00h        S     LAMP FAILURE                                         |
| 5Bh  02h  DTLPWRSOM   LOG COUNTER AT MAXIMUM                               |
| 5Bh  00h  DTLPWRSOM   LOG EXCEPTION                                        |
| 5Bh  03h  DTLPWRSOM   LOG LIST CODES EXHAUSTED                             |
| 2Ah  02h  DTL WRSOMC  LOG PARAMETERS CHANGED                               |
| 21h  00h  DT  WR OM   LOGICAL BLOCK ADDRESS OUT OF RANGE                   |
| 08h  00h  DTL WRSOMC  LOGICAL UNIT COMMUNICATION FAILURE                   |
| 08h  02h  DTL WRSOMC  LOGICAL UNIT COMMUNICATION PARITY ERROR              |
| 08h  01h  DTL WRSOMC  LOGICAL UNIT COMMUNICATION TIME-OUT                  |
| 4Ch  00h  DTLPWRSOMC  LOGICAL UNIT FAILED SELF-CONFIGURATION               |
| 3Eh  00h  DTLPWRSOMC  LOGICAL UNIT HAS NOT SELF-CONFIGURED YET             |
| 04h  01h  DTLPWRSOMC  LOGICAL UNIT IS IN PROCESS OF BECOMING READY         |
| 04h  00h  DTLPWRSOMC  LOGICAL UNIT NOT READY, CAUSE NOT REPORTABLE         |
| 04h  04h  DTL    O    LOGICAL UNIT NOT READY, FORMAT IN PROGRESS           |
| 04h  02h  DTLPWRSOMC  LOGICAL UNIT NOT READY, INITIALIZING COMMAND REQUIRED|
| 04h  03h  DTLPWRSOMC  LOGICAL UNIT NOT READY, MANUAL INTERVENTION REQUIRED |
| 25h  00h  DTLPWRSOMC  LOGICAL UNIT NOT SUPPORTED                           |
| 15h  01h  DTL WRSOM   MECHANICAL POSITIONING ERROR                         |
| 53h  00h  DTL WRSOM   MEDIA LOAD OR EJECT FAILED                           |
| 3Bh  0Dh          M   MEDIUM DESTINATION ELEMENT FULL                      |
| 31h  00h  DT  W  O    MEDIUM FORMAT CORRUPTED                              |
| 3Ah  00h  DTL WRSOM   MEDIUM NOT PRESENT                                   |
| 53h  02h  DT  WR OM   MEDIUM REMOVAL PREVENTED                             |
| 3Bh  0Eh          M   MEDIUM SOURCE ELEMENT EMPTY                          |
| 43h  00h  DTLPWRSOMC  MESSAGE ERROR                                        |
| 3Fh  01h  DTLPWRSOMC  MICROCODE HAS BEEN CHANGED                           |
| 1Dh  00h  D   W  O    MISCOMPARE DURING VERIFY OPERATION                   |
| 11h  0Ah  DT     O    MISCORRECTED ERROR                                   |
| 2Ah  01h  DTL WRSOMC  MODE PARAMETERS CHANGED                              |
| 07h  00h  DTL WRSOM   MULTIPLE PERIPHERAL DEVICES SELECTED                 |
| 11h  03h  DT  W SO    MULTIPLE READ ERRORS                                 |
| 00h  00h  DTLPWRSOMC  NO ADDITIONAL SENSE INFORMATION                      |
| 00h  15h       R      NO CURRENT AUDIO STATUS TO RETURN                    |
| 32h  00h  D   W  O    NO DEFECT SPARE LOCATION AVAILABLE                   |
| 11h  09h   T          NO GAP FOUND                                         |
| 01h  00h  D   W  O    NO INDEX/SECTOR SIGNAL                               |
| 06h  00h  D   WR OM   NO REFERENCE POSITION FOUND                          |
| 02h  00h  D   WR OM   NO SEEK COMPLETE                                     |
| 03h  01h   T          NO WRITE CURRENT                                     |
| 28h  00h  DTLPWRSOMC  NOT READY TO READY TRANSITION, MEDIUM MAY HAVE CHANGE|
| 5Ah  01h  DT  WR OM   OPERATOR MEDIUM REMOVAL REQUEST                      |
| 5Ah  00h  DTLPWRSOM   OPERATOR REQUEST OR STATE CHANGE INPUT (UNSPECIFIED) |
| 5Ah  03h  DT  W  O    OPERATOR SELECTED WRITE PERMIT                       |
| 5Ah  02h  DT  W  O    OPERATOR SELECTED WRITE PROTECT                      |
| 61h  02h        S     OUT OF FOCUS                                         |
| 4Eh  00h  DTLPWRSOMC  OVERLAPPED COMMANDS ATTEMPTED                        |
| 2Dh  00h   T          OVERWRITE ERROR ON UPDATE IN PLACE                   |
| 3Bh  05h    L         PAPER JAM                                            |
| 1Ah  00h  DTLPWRSOMC  PARAMETER LIST LENGTH ERROR                          |
| 26h  01h  DTLPWRSOMC  PARAMETER NOT SUPPORTED                              |
| 26h  02h  DTLPWRSOMC  PARAMETER VALUE INVALID                              |
| 2Ah  00h  DTL WRSOMC  PARAMETERS CHANGED                                   |
| 03h  00h  DTL W SO    PERIPHERAL DEVICE WRITE FAULT                        |
| 50h  02h   T          POSITION ERROR RELATED TO TIMING                     |
| 3Bh  0Ch        S     POSITION PAST BEGINNING OF MEDIUM                    |
| 3Bh  0Bh        S     POSITION PAST END OF MEDIUM                          |
| 15h  02h  DT  WR O    POSITIONING ERROR DETECTED BY READ OF MEDIUM         |
| 29h  00h  DTLPWRSOMC  POWER ON, RESET, OR BUS DEVICE RESET OCCURRED        |
| 42h  00h  D           POWER-ON OR SELF-TEST FAILURE (SHOULD USE 40 NN)     |
| 1Ch  01h  D      O    PRIMARY DEFECT LIST NOT FOUND                        |
| 40h  00h  D           RAM FAILURE (SHOULD USE 40 NN)                       |
| 15h  00h  DTL WRSOM   RANDOM POSITIONING ERROR                             |
| 3Bh  0Ah        S     READ PAST BEGINNING OF MEDIUM                        |
| 3Bh  09h        S     READ PAST END OF MEDIUM                              |
| 11h  01h  DT  W SO    READ RETRIES EXHAUSTED                               |
| 14h  01h  DT  WR O    RECORD NOT FOUND                                     |
| 14h  00h  DTL WRSO    RECORDED ENTITY NOT FOUND                            |
| 18h  02h  D   WR O    RECOVERED DATA - DATA AUTO-REALLOCATED               |
| 18h  05h  D   WR O    RECOVERED DATA - RECOMMEND REASSIGNMENT              |
| 18h  06h  D   WR O    RECOVERED DATA - RECOMMEND REWRITE                   |
| 17h  05h  D   WR O    RECOVERED DATA USING PREVIOUS SECTOR ID              |
| 18h  03h       R      RECOVERED DATA WITH CIRC                             |
| 18h  01h  D   WR O    RECOVERED DATA WITH ERROR CORRECTION & RETRIES APPLIE|
| 18h  00h  DT  WR O    RECOVERED DATA WITH ERROR CORRECTION APPLIED         |
| 18h  04h       R      RECOVERED DATA WITH L-EC                             |
| 17h  03h  DT  WR O    RECOVERED DATA WITH NEGATIVE HEAD OFFSET             |
| 17h  00h  DT  WRSO    RECOVERED DATA WITH NO ERROR CORRECTION APPLIED      |
| 17h  02h  DT  WR O    RECOVERED DATA WITH POSITIVE HEAD OFFSET             |
| 17h  01h  DT  WRSO    RECOVERED DATA WITH RETRIES                          |
| 17h  04h      WR O    RECOVERED DATA WITH RETRIES AND/OR CIRC APPLIED      |
| 17h  06h  D   W  O    RECOVERED DATA WITHOUT ECC - DATA AUTO-REALLOCATED   |
| 17h  07h  D   W  O    RECOVERED DATA WITHOUT ECC - RECOMMEND REASSIGNMENT  |
| 17h  08h  D   W  O    RECOVERED DATA WITHOUT ECC - RECOMMEND REWRITE       |
| 1Eh  00h  D   W  O    RECOVERED ID WITH ECC CORRECTION                     |
| 3Bh  08h   T          REPOSITION ERROR                                     |
| 36h  00h    L         RIBBON, INK, OR TONER FAILURE                        |
| 37h  00h  DTL WRSOMC  ROUNDED PARAMETER                                    |
| 5Ch  00h  D      O    RPL STATUS CHANGE                                    |
| 39h  00h  DTL WRSOMC  SAVING PARAMETERS NOT SUPPORTED                      |
| 62h  00h        S     SCAN HEAD POSITIONING ERROR                          |
| 47h  00h  DTLPWRSOMC  SCSI PARITY ERROR                                    |
| 54h  00h     P        SCSI TO HOST SYSTEM INTERFACE FAILURE                |
| 45h  00h  DTLPWRSOMC  SELECT OR RESELECT FAILURE                           |
| 3Bh  00h   TL         SEQUENTIAL POSITIONING ERROR                         |
| 00h  03h   T          SETMARK DETECTED                                     |
| 3Bh  04h    L         SLEW FAILURE                                         |
| 09h  03h      WR O    SPINDLE SERVO FAILURE                                |
| 5Ch  02h  D      O    SPINDLES NOT SYNCHRONIZED                            |
| 5Ch  01h  D      O    SPINDLES SYNCHRONIZED                                |
| 1Bh  00h  DTLPWRSOMC  SYNCHRONOUS DATA TRANSFER ERROR                      |
| 55h  00h     P        SYSTEM RESOURCE FAILURE                              |
| 33h  00h   T          TAPE LENGTH ERROR                                    |
| 3Bh  03h    L         TAPE OR ELECTRONIC VERTICAL FORMS UNIT NOT READY     |
| 3Bh  01h   T          TAPE POSITION ERROR AT BEGINNING-OF-MEDIUM           |
| 3Bh  02h   T          TAPE POSITION ERROR AT END-OF-MEDIUM                 |
| 3Fh  00h  DTLPWRSOMC  TARGET OPERATING CONDITIONS HAVE CHANGED             |
| 5Bh  01h  DTLPWRSOM   THRESHOLD CONDITION MET                              |
| 26h  03h  DTLPWRSOMC  THRESHOLD PARAMETERS NOT SUPPORTED                   |
| 2Ch  01h        S     TOO MANY WINDOWS SPECIFIED                           |
| 09h  00h  DT  WR O    TRACK FOLLOWING ERROR                                |
| 09h  01h      WR O    TRACKING SERVO FAILURE                               |
| 61h  01h        S     UNABLE TO ACQUIRE VIDEO                              |
| 57h  00h       R      UNABLE TO RECOVER TABLE-OF-CONTENTS                  |
| 53h  01h   T          UNLOAD TAPE FAILURE                                  |
| 11h  00h  DT  WRSO    UNRECOVERED READ ERROR                               |
| 11h  04h  D   W  O    UNRECOVERED READ ERROR - AUTO REALLOCATE FAILED      |
| 11h  0Bh  D   W  O    UNRECOVERED READ ERROR - RECOMMEND REASSIGNMENT      |
| 11h  0Ch  D   W  O    UNRECOVERED READ ERROR - RECOMMEND REWRITE THE DATA  |
| 46h  00h  DTLPWRSOMC  UNSUCCESSFUL SOFT RESET                              |
| 59h  00h         O    UPDATED BLOCK READ                                   |
| 61h  00h        S     VIDEO ACQUISITION ERROR                              |
| 50h  00h   T          WRITE APPEND ERROR                                   |
| 50h  01h   T          WRITE APPEND POSITION ERROR                          |
| 0Ch  00h   T    S     WRITE ERROR                                          |
| 0Ch  02h  D   W  O    WRITE ERROR - AUTO REALLOCATION FAILED               |
| 0Ch  01h  D   W  O    WRITE ERROR RECOVERED WITH AUTO REALLOCATION         |
| 27h  00h  DT  W  O    WRITE PROTECTED                                      |
|----------------------------------------------------------------------------|





Douglas Gilbert
dgilbert@interlog.com or dougg@triode.net.au





Спонсоры:
Слёрм
Inferno Solutions
Hosting by Hoster.ru
Хостинг:

Закладки на сайте
Проследить за страницей
Created 1996-2020 by Maxim Chirkov
Добавить, Поддержать, Вебмастеру