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req (1)
  • >> req (1) ( Solaris man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • req (1) ( Linux man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )


         req - PKCS#10 certificate and certificate generating


         openssl req [-inform PEM|DER] [-outform PEM|DER] [-in
         filename] [-passin arg] [-out filename] [-passout arg]
         [-text] [-noout] [-verify] [-modulus] [-new] [-rand file(s)]
         [-newkey rsa:bits] [-newkey dsa:file] [-nodes] [-key
         filename] [-keyform PEM|DER] [-keyout filename]
         [-[md5|sha1|md2|mdc2]] [-config filename] [-x509] [-days n]
         [-asn1-kludge] [-newhdr] [-extensions section] [-reqexts


         The req command primarily creates and processes certificate
         requests in PKCS#10 format. It can additionally create self
         signed certificates for use as root CAs for example.


         -inform DER|PEM
             This specifies the input format. The DER option uses an
             ASN1 DER encoded form compatible with the PKCS#10. The
             PEM form is the default format: it consists of the DER
             format base64 encoded with additional header and footer
         -outform DER|PEM
             This specifies the output format, the options have the
             same meaning as the -inform option.
         -in filename
             This specifies the input filename to read a request from
             or standard input if this option is not specified. A
             request is only read if the creation options (-new and
             -newkey) are not specified.
         -passin arg
             the input file password source. For more information
             about the format of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS
             section in openssl(1).
         -out filename
             This specifies the output filename to write to or
             standard output by default.
         -passout arg
             the output file password source. For more information
             about the format of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS
             section in openssl(1).
             prints out the certificate request in text form.
             this option prevents output of the encoded version of
             the request.
             this option prints out the value of the modulus of the
             public key contained in the request.
             verifies the signature on the request.
             this option generates a new certificate request. It will
             prompt the user for the relevant field values. The
             actual fields prompted for and their maximum and minimum
             sizes are specified in the configuration file and any
             requested extensions.
             If the -key option is not used it will generate a new
             RSA private key using information specified in the
             configuration file.
         -rand file(s)
             a file or files containing random data used to seed the
             random number generator, or an EGD socket (see
             RAND_egd(3)).  Multiple files can be specified separated
             by a OS-dependent character.  The separator is ; for
             MS-Windows, , for OpenVMS, and : for all others.
         -newkey arg
             this option creates a new certificate request and a new
             private key. The argument takes one of two forms.
             rsa:nbits, where nbits is the number of bits, generates
             an RSA key nbits in size. dsa:filename generates a DSA
             key using the parameters in the file filename.
         -key filename
             This specifies the file to read the private key from. It
             also accepts PKCS#8 format private keys for PEM format
         -keyform PEM|DER
             the format of the private key file specified in the -key
             argument. PEM is the default.
         -keyout filename
             this gives the filename to write the newly created
             private key to.  If this option is not specified then
             the filename present in the configuration file is used.
             if this option is specified then if a private key is
             created it will not be encrypted.
             this specifies the message digest to sign the request
             with. This overrides the digest algorithm specified in
             the configuration file.  This option is ignored for DSA
             requests: they always use SHA1.
         -config filename
             this allows an alternative configuration file to be
             specified, this overrides the compile time filename or
             any specified in the OPENSSL_CONF environment variable.
             this option outputs a self signed certificate instead of
             a certificate request. This is typically used to
             generate a test certificate or a self signed root CA.
             The extensions added to the certificate (if any) are
             specified in the configuration file.
         -days n
             when the -x509 option is being used this specifies the
             number of days to certify the certificate for. The
             default is 30 days.
         -extensions section
         -reqexts section
             these options specify alternative sections to include
             certificate extensions (if the -x509 option is present)
             or certificate request extensions. This allows several
             different sections to be used in the same configuration
             file to specify requests for a variety of purposes.
             by default the req command outputs certificate requests
             containing no attributes in the correct PKCS#10 format.
             However certain CAs will only accept requests containing
             no attributes in an invalid form: this option produces
             this invalid format.
             More precisely the Attributes in a PKCS#10 certificate
             request are defined as a SET OF Attribute. They are not
             OPTIONAL so if no attributes are present then they
             should be encoded as an empty SET OF. The invalid form
             does not include the empty SET OF whereas the correct
             form does.
             It should be noted that very few CAs still require the
             use of this option.
             Adds the word NEW to the PEM file header and footer
             lines on the outputed request. Some software (Netscape
             certificate server) and some CAs need this.


         The configuration options are specified in the req section
         of the configuration file. As with all configuration files
         if no value is specified in the specific section (i.e. req)
         then the initial unnamed or default section is searched too.
         The options available are described in detail below.
         input_password output_password
             The passwords for the input private key file (if
             present) and the output private key file (if one will be
             created). The command line options passin and passout
             override the configuration file values.
             This specifies the default key size in bits. If not
             specified then 512 is used. It is used if the -new
             option is used. It can be overridden by using the
             -newkey option.
             This is the default filename to write a private key to.
             If not specified the key is written to standard output.
             This can be overridden by the -keyout option.
             This specifies a file containing additional OBJECT
             IDENTIFIERS.  Each line of the file should consist of
             the numerical form of the object identifier followed by
             white space then the short name followed by white space
             and finally the long name.
             This specifies a section in the configuration file
             containing extra object identifiers. Each line should
             consist of the short name of the object identifier
             followed by = and the numerical form. The short and long
             names are the same when this option is used.
             This specifies a filename in which random number seed
             information is placed and read from, or an EGD socket
             (see RAND_egd(3)).  It is used for private key
             If this is set to no then if a private key is generated
             it is not encrypted. This is equivalent to the -nodes
             command line option. For compatibility encrypt_rsa_key
             is an equivalent option.
             This option specifies the digest algorithm to use.
             Possible values include md5 sha1 mdc2. If not present
             then MD5 is used. This option can be overridden on the
             command line.
             This option masks out the use of certain string types in
             certain fields. Most users will not need to change this
             It can be set to several values default which is also
             the default option uses PrintableStrings, T61Strings and
             BMPStrings if the pkix value is used then only
             PrintableStrings and BMPStrings will be used. This
             follows the PKIX recommendation in RFC2459. If the
             utf8only option is used then only UTF8Strings will be
             used: this is the PKIX recommendation in RFC2459 after
             2003. Finally the nombstr option just uses
             PrintableStrings and T61Strings: certain software has
             problems with BMPStrings and UTF8Strings: in particular
             this specifies the configuration file section containing
             a list of extensions to add to the certificate request.
             It can be overridden by the -reqexts command line
             this specifies the configuration file section containing
             a list of extensions to add to certificate generated
             when the -x509 switch is used. It can be overridden by
             the -extensions command line switch.
             if set to the value no this disables prompting of
             certificate fields and just takes values from the config
             file directly. It also changes the expected format of
             the distinguished_name and attributes sections.
             this specifies the section containing any request
             attributes: its format is the same as
             distinguished_name. Typically these may contain the
             challengePassword or unstructuredName types. They are
             currently ignored by OpenSSL's request signing utilities
             but some CAs might want them.
             This specifies the section containing the distinguished
             name fields to prompt for when generating a certificate
             or certificate request. The format is described in the
             next section.


         There are two separate formats for the distinguished name
         and attribute sections. If the prompt option is set to no
         then these sections just consist of field names and values:
         for example,
          CN=My Name
          OU=My Organization

         This allows external programs (e.g. GUI based) to generate a
         template file with all the field names and values and just
         pass it to req. An example of this kind of configuration
         file is contained in the EXAMPLES section.
         Alternatively if the prompt option is absent or not set to
         no then the file contains field prompting information. It
         consists of lines of the form:
          fieldName_default="default field value"
          fieldName_min= 2
          fieldName_max= 4
         "fieldName" is the field name being used, for example
         commonName (or CN).  The "prompt" string is used to ask the
         user to enter the relevant details. If the user enters
         nothing then the default value is used if no default value
         is present then the field is omitted. A field can still be
         omitted if a default value is present if the user just
         enters the '.' character.
         The number of characters entered must be between the
         fieldName_min and fieldName_max limits: there may be
         additional restrictions based on the field being used (for
         example countryName can only ever be two characters long and
         must fit in a PrintableString).
         Some fields (such as organizationName) can be used more than
         once in a DN. This presents a problem because configuration
         files will not recognize the same name occurring twice. To
         avoid this problem if the fieldName contains some characters
         followed by a full stop they will be ignored. So for example
         a second organizationName can be input by calling it
         The actual permitted field names are any object identifier
         short or long names. These are compiled into OpenSSL and
         include the usual values such as commonName, countryName,
         localityName, organizationName, organizationUnitName,
         stateOrPrivinceName. Additionally emailAddress is include as
         well as name, surname, givenName initials and dnQualifier.
         Additional object identifiers can be defined with the
         oid_file or oid_section options in the configuration file.
         Any additional fields will be treated as though they were a


         Examine and verify certificate request:
          openssl req -in req.pem -text -verify -noout
         Create a private key and then generate a certificate request
         from it:
          openssl genrsa -out key.pem 1024
          openssl req -new -key key.pem -out req.pem
         The same but just using req:
          openssl req -newkey rsa:1024 -keyout key.pem -out req.pem
         Generate a self signed root certificate:
          openssl req -x509 -newkey rsa:1024 -keyout key.pem -out req.pem
         Example of a file pointed to by the oid_file option:
        shortName       A longer Name
        otherName       Other longer Name
         Example of a section pointed to by oid_section making use of
         variable expansion:
         Sample configuration file prompting for field values:
          [ req ]
          default_bits           = 1024
          default_keyfile        = privkey.pem
          distinguished_name     = req_distinguished_name
          attributes             = req_attributes
          x509_extensions        = v3_ca
          dirstring_type = nobmp
          [ req_distinguished_name ]
          countryName                    = Country Name (2 letter code)
          countryName_default            = AU
          countryName_min                = 2
          countryName_max                = 2
          localityName                   = Locality Name (eg, city)
          organizationalUnitName         = Organizational Unit Name (eg, section)
          commonName                     = Common Name (eg, YOUR name)
          commonName_max                 = 64
          emailAddress                   = Email Address
          emailAddress_max               = 40
          [ req_attributes ]
          challengePassword              = A challenge password
          challengePassword_min          = 4
          challengePassword_max          = 20
          [ v3_ca ]
          basicConstraints = CA:true
         Sample configuration containing all field values:
          RANDFILE               = $ENV::HOME/.rnd
          [ req ]
          default_bits           = 1024
          default_keyfile        = keyfile.pem
          distinguished_name     = req_distinguished_name
          attributes             = req_attributes
          prompt                 = no
          output_password        = mypass
          [ req_distinguished_name ]
          C                      = GB
          ST                     = Test State or Province
          L                      = Test Locality
          O                      = Organization Name
          OU                     = Organizational Unit Name
          CN                     = Common Name
          emailAddress           = test@email.address
          [ req_attributes ]
          challengePassword              = A challenge password


         The header and footer lines in the PEM format are normally:
          -----END CERTIFICATE REQUEST----
         some software (some versions of Netscape certificate server)
         instead needs:
         which is produced with the -newhdr option but is otherwise
         compatible.  Either form is accepted transparently on input.
         The certificate requests generated by Xenroll with MSIE have
         extensions added. It includes the keyUsage extension which
         determines the type of key (signature only or general
         purpose) and any additional OIDs entered by the script in an
         extendedKeyUsage extension.


         The following messages are frequently asked about:
                 Using configuration from /some/path/openssl.cnf
                 Unable to load config info
         This is followed some time later by...
                 unable to find 'distinguished_name' in config
                 problems making Certificate Request
         The first error message is the clue: it can't find the
         configuration file! Certain operations (like examining a
         certificate request) don't need a configuration file so its
         use isn't enforced. Generation of certificates or requests
         however does need a configuration file. This could be
         regarded as a bug.
         Another puzzling message is this:
         this is displayed when no attributes are present and the
         request includes the correct empty SET OF structure (the DER
         encoding of which is 0xa0 0x00). If you just see:
         then the SET OF is missing and the encoding is technically
         invalid (but it is tolerated). See the description of the
         command line option -asn1-kludge for more information.


         The variable OPENSSL_CONF if defined allows an alternative
         configuration file location to be specified, it will be
         overridden by the -config command line switch if it is
         present. For compatibility reasons the SSLEAY_CONF
         environment variable serves the same purpose but its use is


         OpenSSL's handling of T61Strings (aka TeletexStrings) is
         broken: it effectively treats them as ISO-8859-1 (Latin 1),
         Netscape and MSIE have similar behaviour.  This can cause
         problems if you need characters that aren't available in
         PrintableStrings and you don't want to or can't use
         As a consequence of the T61String handling the only correct
         way to represent accented characters in OpenSSL is to use a
         BMPString: unfortunately Netscape currently chokes on these.
         If you have to use accented characters with Netscape and
         MSIE then you currently need to use the invalid T61String
         The current prompting is not very friendly. It doesn't allow
         you to confirm what you've just entered. Other things like
         extensions in certificate requests are statically defined in
         the configuration file. Some of these: like an email address
         in subjectAltName should be input by the user.


         x509(1), ca(1), genrsa(1), gendsa(1), config(5)

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