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pkcs12 (1)
  • >> pkcs12 (1) ( Solaris man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • pkcs12 (1) ( Linux man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
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    NAME

         pkcs12 - PKCS#12 file utility
    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

         openssl pkcs12 [-export] [-chain] [-inkey filename]
         [-certfile filename] [-name name] [-caname name] [-in
         filename] [-out filename] [-noout] [-nomacver] [-nocerts]
         [-clcerts] [-cacerts] [-nokeys] [-info] [-des] [-des3]
         [-idea] [-nodes] [-noiter] [-maciter] [-twopass] [-descert]
         [-certpbe] [-keypbe] [-keyex] [-keysig] [-password arg]
         [-passin arg] [-passout arg] [-rand file(s)]
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

         The pkcs12 command allows PKCS#12 files (sometimes referred
         to as PFX files) to be created and parsed. PKCS#12 files are
         used by several programs including Netscape, MSIE and MS
         Outlook.
    
    
    

    COMMAND OPTIONS

         There are a lot of options the meaning of some depends of
         whether a PKCS#12 file is being created or parsed. By
         default a PKCS#12 file is parsed a PKCS#12 file can be
         created by using the -export option (see below).
    
    
    

    PARSING OPTIONS

         -in filename
             This specifies filename of the PKCS#12 file to be
             parsed. Standard input is used by default.
    
         -out filename
             The filename to write certificates and private keys to,
             standard output by default.  They are all written in PEM
             format.
    
         -pass arg, -passin arg
             the PKCS#12 file (i.e. input file) password source. For
             more information about the format of arg see the PASS
             PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in openssl(1).
    
         -passout arg
             pass phrase source to encrypt any outputed private keys
             with. For more information about the format of arg see
             the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in openssl(1).
    
         -noout
             this option inhibits output of the keys and certificates
             to the output file version of the PKCS#12 file.
    
         -clcerts
             only output client certificates (not CA certificates).
    
    
         -cacerts
             only output CA certificates (not client certificates).
    
         -nocerts
             no certificates at all will be output.
    
         -nokeys
             no private keys will be output.
    
         -info
             output additional information about the PKCS#12 file
             structure, algorithms used and iteration counts.
    
         -des
             use DES to encrypt private keys before outputting.
    
         -des3
             use triple DES to encrypt private keys before
             outputting, this is the default.
    
         -idea
             use IDEA to encrypt private keys before outputting.
    
         -nodes
             don't encrypt the private keys at all.
    
         -nomacver
             don't attempt to verify the integrity MAC before reading
             the file.
    
         -twopass
             prompt for separate integrity and encryption passwords:
             most software always assumes these are the same so this
             option will render such PKCS#12 files unreadable.
    
    
    

    FILE CREATION OPTIONS

         -export
             This option specifies that a PKCS#12 file will be
             created rather than parsed.
    
         -out filename
             This specifies filename to write the PKCS#12 file to.
             Standard output is used by default.
    
         -in filename
             The filename to read certificates and private keys from,
             standard input by default.  They must all be in PEM
             format. The order doesn't matter but one private key and
             its corresponding certificate should be present. If
             additional certificates are present they will also be
             included in the PKCS#12 file.
    
         -inkey filename
             file to read private key from. If not present then a
             private key must be present in the input file.
    
         -name friendlyname
             This specifies the "friendly name" for the certificate
             and private key. This name is typically displayed in
             list boxes by software importing the file.
    
         -certfile filename
             A filename to read additional certificates from.
    
         -caname friendlyname
             This specifies the "friendly name" for other
             certificates. This option may be used multiple times to
             specify names for all certificates in the order they
             appear. Netscape ignores friendly names on other
             certificates whereas MSIE displays them.
    
         -pass arg, -passout arg
             the PKCS#12 file (i.e. output file) password source. For
             more information about the format of arg see the PASS
             PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in openssl(1).
    
         -passin password
             pass phrase source to decrypt any input private keys
             with. For more information about the format of arg see
             the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in openssl(1).
    
         -chain
             if this option is present then an attempt is made to
             include the entire certificate chain of the user
             certificate. The standard CA store is used for this
             search. If the search fails it is considered a fatal
             error.
    
         -descert
             encrypt the certificate using triple DES, this may
             render the PKCS#12 file unreadable by some "export
             grade" software. By default the private key is encrypted
             using triple DES and the certificate using 40 bit RC2.
    
         -keypbe alg, -certpbe alg
             these options allow the algorithm used to encrypt the
             private key and certificates to be selected. Although
             any PKCS#5 v1.5 or PKCS#12 algorithms can be selected it
             is advisable only to use PKCS#12 algorithms. See the
             list in the NOTES section for more information.
    
         -keyex|-keysig
             specifies that the private key is to be used for key
             exchange or just signing.  This option is only
             interpreted by MSIE and similar MS software. Normally
             "export grade" software will only allow 512 bit RSA keys
             to be used for encryption purposes but arbitrary length
             keys for signing. The -keysig option marks the key for
             signing only. Signing only keys can be used for S/MIME
             signing, authenticode (ActiveX control signing)  and SSL
             client authentication, however due to a bug only MSIE
             5.0 and later support the use of signing only keys for
             SSL client authentication.
    
         -nomaciter, -noiter
             these options affect the iteration counts on the MAC and
             key algorithms.  Unless you wish to produce files
             compatible with MSIE 4.0 you should leave these options
             alone.
    
             To discourage attacks by using large dictionaries of
             common passwords the algorithm that derives keys from
             passwords can have an iteration count applied to it:
             this causes a certain part of the algorithm to be
             repeated and slows it down. The MAC is used to check the
             file integrity but since it will normally have the same
             password as the keys and certificates it could also be
             attacked.  By default both MAC and encryption iteration
             counts are set to 2048, using these options the MAC and
             encryption iteration counts can be set to 1, since this
             reduces the file security you should not use these
             options unless you really have to. Most software
             supports both MAC and key iteration counts.  MSIE 4.0
             doesn't support MAC iteration counts so it needs the
             -nomaciter option.
    
         -maciter
             This option is included for compatibility with previous
             versions, it used to be needed to use MAC iterations
             counts but they are now used by default.
    
         -rand file(s)
             a file or files containing random data used to seed the
             random number generator, or an EGD socket (see
             RAND_egd(3)).  Multiple files can be specified separated
             by a OS-dependent character.  The separator is ; for
             MS-Windows, , for OpenVMS, and : for all others.
    
    
    

    NOTES

         Although there are a large number of options most of them
         are very rarely used. For PKCS#12 file parsing only -in and
         -out need to be used for PKCS#12 file creation -export and
         -name are also used.
    
         If none of the -clcerts, -cacerts or -nocerts options are
         present then all certificates will be output in the order
         they appear in the input PKCS#12 files. There is no
         guarantee that the first certificate present is the one
         corresponding to the private key. Certain software which
         requires a private key and certificate and assumes the first
         certificate in the file is the one corresponding to the
         private key: this may not always be the case. Using the
         -clcerts option will solve this problem by only outputing
         the certificate corresponding to the private key. If the CA
         certificates are required then they can be output to a
         separate file using the -nokeys -cacerts options to just
         output CA certificates.
    
         The -keypbe and -certpbe algorithms allow the precise
         encryption algorithms for private keys and certificates to
         be specified. Normally the defaults are fine but
         occasionally software can't handle triple DES encrypted
         private keys, then the option -keypbe PBE-SHA1-RC2-40 can be
         used to reduce the private key encryption to 40 bit RC2. A
         complete description of all algorithms is contained in the
         pkcs8 manual page.
    
    
    

    EXAMPLES

         Parse a PKCS#12 file and output it to a file:
    
          openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -out file.pem
    
         Output only client certificates to a file:
    
          openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -clcerts -out file.pem
    
         Don't encrypt the private key:
    
          openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -out file.pem -nodes
    
         Print some info about a PKCS#12 file:
    
          openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -info -noout
    
         Create a PKCS#12 file:
    
          openssl pkcs12 -export -in file.pem -out file.p12 -name "My Certificate"
    
         Include some extra certificates:
    
          openssl pkcs12 -export -in file.pem -out file.p12 -name "My Certificate" \
           -certfile othercerts.pem
    
    
    
    

    BUGS

         Some would argue that the PKCS#12 standard is one big bug
         :-)
    
         Versions of OpenSSL before 0.9.6a had a bug in the PKCS#12
         key generation routines. Under rare circumstances this could
         produce a PKCS#12 file encrypted with an invalid key. As a
         result some PKCS#12 files which triggered this bug from
         other implementations (MSIE or Netscape) could not be
         decrypted by OpenSSL and similarly OpenSSL could produce
         PKCS#12 files which could not be decrypted by other
         implementations. The chances of producing such a file are
         relatively small: less than 1 in 256.
    
         A side effect of fixing this bug is that any old invalidly
         encrypted PKCS#12 files cannot no longer be parsed by the
         fixed version. Under such circumstances the pkcs12 utility
         will report that the MAC is OK but fail with a decryption
         error when extracting private keys.
    
         This problem can be resolved by extracting the private keys
         and certificates from the PKCS#12 file using an older
         version of OpenSSL and recreating the PKCS#12 file from the
         keys and certificates using a newer version of OpenSSL. For
         example:
    
          old-openssl -in bad.p12 -out keycerts.pem
          openssl -in keycerts.pem -export -name "My PKCS#12 file" -out fixed.p12
    
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

         pkcs8(1)
    
    
    
    


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