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ca (1)
  • >> ca (1) ( Solaris man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
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         ca - sample minimal CA application


         openssl ca [-verbose] [-config filename] [-name section]
         [-gencrl] [-revoke file] [-crldays days] [-crlhours hours]
         [-crlexts section] [-startdate date] [-enddate date] [-days
         arg] [-md arg] [-policy arg] [-keyfile arg] [-key arg]
         [-passin arg] [-cert file] [-in file] [-out file] [-notext]
         [-outdir dir] [-infiles] [-spkac file] [-ss_cert file]
         [-preserveDN] [-batch] [-msie_hack] [-extensions section]


         The ca command is a minimal CA application. It can be used
         to sign certificate requests in a variety of forms and
         generate CRLs it also maintains a text database of issued
         certificates and their status.
         The options descriptions will be divided into each purpose.


         -config filename
             specifies the configuration file to use.
         -in filename
             an input filename containing a single certificate
             request to be signed by the CA.
         -ss_cert filename
             a single self signed certificate to be signed by the CA.
         -spkac filename
             a file containing a single Netscape signed public key
             and challenge and additional field values to be signed
             by the CA. See the NOTES section for information on the
             required format.
             if present this should be the last option, all
             subsequent arguments are assumed to the the names of
             files containing certificate requests.
         -out filename
             the output file to output certificates to. The default
             is standard output. The certificate details will also be
             printed out to this file.
         -outdir directory
             the directory to output certificates to. The certificate
             will be written to a filename consisting of the serial
             number in hex with ".pem" appended.
             the CA certificate file.
         -keyfile filename
             the private key to sign requests with.
         -key password
             the password used to encrypt the private key. Since on
             some systems the command line arguments are visible
             (e.g. Unix with the 'ps' utility) this option should be
             used with caution.
         -passin arg
             the key password source. For more information about the
             format of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in
             openssl(1).  =item -verbose
             this prints extra details about the operations being
             don't output the text form of a certificate to the
             output file.
         -startdate date
             this allows the start date to be explicitly set. The
             format of the date is YYMMDDHHMMSSZ (the same as an ASN1
             UTCTime structure).
         -enddate date
             this allows the expiry date to be explicitly set. The
             format of the date is YYMMDDHHMMSSZ (the same as an ASN1
             UTCTime structure).
         -days arg
             the number of days to certify the certificate for.
         -md alg
             the message digest to use. Possible values include md5,
             sha1 and mdc2.  This option also applies to CRLs.
         -policy arg
             this option defines the CA "policy" to use. This is a
             section in the configuration file which decides which
             fields should be mandatory or match the CA certificate.
             Check out the POLICY FORMAT section for more
             this is a legacy option to make ca work with very old
             versions of the IE certificate enrollment control
             "certenr3". It used UniversalStrings for almost
             everything. Since the old control has various security
             bugs its use is strongly discouraged. The newer control
             "Xenroll" does not need this option.
             Normally the DN order of a certificate is the same as
             the order of the fields in the relevant policy section.
             When this option is set the order is the same as the
             request. This is largely for compatibility with the
             older IE enrollment control which would only accept
             certificates if their DNs match the order of the
             request. This is not needed for Xenroll.
             this sets the batch mode. In this mode no questions will
             be asked and all certificates will be certified
         -extensions section
             the section of the configuration file containing
             certificate extensions to be added when a certificate is
             issued. If no extension section is present then a V1
             certificate is created. If the extension section is
             present (even if it is empty) then a V3 certificate is


             this option generates a CRL based on information in the
             index file.
         -crldays num
             the number of days before the next CRL is due. That is
             the days from now to place in the CRL nextUpdate field.
         -crlhours num
             the number of hours before the next CRL is due.
         -revoke filename
             a filename containing a certificate to revoke.
         -crlexts section
             the section of the configuration file containing CRL
             extensions to include. If no CRL extension section is
             present then a V1 CRL is created, if the CRL extension
             section is present (even if it is empty) then a V2 CRL
             is created. The CRL extensions specified are CRL
             extensions and not CRL entry extensions.  It should be
             noted that some software (for example Netscape) can't
             handle V2 CRLs.


         The options for ca are contained in the ca section of the
         configuration file. Many of these are identical to command
         line options. Where the option is present in the
         configuration file and the command line the command line
         value is used. Where an option is described as mandatory
         then it must be present in the configuration file or the
         command line equivalent (if any) used.
             This specifies a file containing additional OBJECT
             IDENTIFIERS.  Each line of the file should consist of
             the numerical form of the object identifier followed by
             white space then the short name followed by white space
             and finally the long name.
             This specifies a section in the configuration file
             containing extra object identifiers. Each line should
             consist of the short name of the object identifier
             followed by = and the numerical form. The short and long
             names are the same when this option is used.
             the same as the -outdir command line option. It
             specifies the directory where new certificates will be
             placed. Mandatory.
             the same as -cert. It gives the file containing the CA
             certificate. Mandatory.
             same as the -keyfile option. The file containing the CA
             private key. Mandatory.
             a file used to read and write random number seed
             information, or an EGD socket (see RAND_egd(3)).
             the same as the -days option. The number of days to
             certify a certificate for.
             the same as the -startdate option. The start date to
             certify a certificate for. If not set the current time
             is used.
             the same as the -enddate option. Either this option or
             default_days (or the command line equivalents) must be
         default_crl_hours default_crl_days
             the same as the -crlhours and the -crldays options.
             These will only be used if neither command line option
             is present. At least one of these must be present to
             generate a CRL.
             the same as the -md option. The message digest to use.
             the text database file to use. Mandatory. This file must
             be present though initially it will be empty.
             a text file containing the next serial number to use in
             hex. Mandatory.  This file must be present and contain a
             valid serial number.
             the same as -extensions.
             the same as -crlexts.
             the same as -preserveDN
             the same as -msie_hack
             the same as -policy. Mandatory. See the POLICY FORMAT
             section for more information.


         The policy section consists of a set of variables
         corresponding to certificate DN fields. If the value is
         "match" then the field value must match the same field in
         the CA certificate. If the value is "supplied" then it must
         be present. If the value is "optional" then it may be
         present. Any fields not mentioned in the policy section are
         silently deleted, unless the -preserveDN option is set but
         this can be regarded more of a quirk than intended


         The input to the -spkac command line option is a Netscape
         signed public key and challenge. This will usually come from
         the KEYGEN tag in an HTML form to create a new private key.
         It is however possible to create SPKACs using the spkac
         The file should contain the variable SPKAC set to the value
         of the SPKAC and also the required DN components as name
         value pairs.  If you need to include the same component
         twice then it can be preceded by a number and a '.'.


         Note: these examples assume that the ca directory structure
         is already set up and the relevant files already exist. This
         usually involves creating a CA certificate and private key
         with req, a serial number file and an empty index file and
         placing them in the relevant directories.
         To use the sample configuration file below the directories
         demoCA, demoCA/private and demoCA/newcerts would be created.
         The CA certificate would be copied to demoCA/cacert.pem and
         its private key to demoCA/private/cakey.pem. A file
         demoCA/serial would be created containing for example "01"
         and the empty index file demoCA/index.txt.
         Sign a certificate request:
          openssl ca -in req.pem -out newcert.pem
         Sign a certificate request, using CA extensions:
          openssl ca -in req.pem -extensions v3_ca -out newcert.pem
         Generate a CRL
          openssl ca -gencrl -out crl.pem
         Sign several requests:
          openssl ca -infiles req1.pem req2.pem req3.pem
         Certify a Netscape SPKAC:
          openssl ca -spkac spkac.txt
         A sample SPKAC file (the SPKAC line has been truncated for
          CN=Steve Test

          0.OU=OpenSSL Group
          1.OU=Another Group
         A sample configuration file with the relevant sections for
          [ ca ]
          default_ca      = CA_default            # The default ca section
          [ CA_default ]
          dir            = ./demoCA              # top dir
          database       = $dir/index.txt        # index file.
          new_certs_dir  = $dir/newcerts         # new certs dir
          certificate    = $dir/cacert.pem       # The CA cert
          serial         = $dir/serial           # serial no file
          private_key    = $dir/private/cakey.pem# CA private key
          RANDFILE       = $dir/private/.rand    # random number file
          default_days   = 365                   # how long to certify for
          default_crl_days= 30                   # how long before next CRL
          default_md     = md5                   # md to use
          policy         = policy_any            # default policy
          [ policy_any ]
          countryName            = supplied
          stateOrProvinceName    = optional
          organizationName       = optional
          organizationalUnitName = optional
          commonName             = supplied
          emailAddress           = optional


         The ca command is quirky and at times downright unfriendly.
         The ca utility was originally meant as an example of how to
         do things in a CA. It was not supposed be be used as a full
         blown CA itself:  nevertheless some people are using it for
         this purpose.
         The ca command is effectively a single user command: no
         locking is done on the various files and attempts to run
         more than one ca command on the same database can have
         unpredictable results.


         Note: the location of all files can change either by compile
         time options, configuration file entries, environment
         variables or command line options.  The values below reflect
         the default values.
          /usr/local/ssl/lib/openssl.cnf - master configuration file
          ./demoCA                       - main CA directory
          ./demoCA/cacert.pem            - CA certificate
          ./demoCA/private/cakey.pem     - CA private key
          ./demoCA/serial                - CA serial number file
          ./demoCA/serial.old            - CA serial number backup file
          ./demoCA/index.txt             - CA text database file
          ./demoCA/index.txt.old         - CA text database backup file
          ./demoCA/certs                 - certificate output file
          ./demoCA/.rnd                  - CA random seed information


         OPENSSL_CONF reflects the location of master configuration
         file it can be overridden by the -config command line


         The text database index file is a critical part of the
         process and if corrupted it can be difficult to fix. It is
         theoretically possible to rebuild the index file from all
         the issued certificates and a current CRL: however there is
         no option to do this.
         CRL entry extensions cannot currently be created: only CRL
         extensions can be added.
         V2 CRL features like delta CRL support and CRL numbers are
         not currently supported.
         Although several requests can be input and handled at once
         it is only possible to include one SPKAC or self signed


         The use of an in memory text database can cause problems
         when large numbers of certificates are present because, as
         the name implies the database has to be kept in memory.
         Certificate request extensions are ignored: some kind of
         "policy" should be included to use certain static extensions
         and certain extensions from the request.
         It is not possible to certify two certificates with the same
         DN: this is a side effect of how the text database is
         indexed and it cannot easily be fixed without introducing
         other problems. Some S/MIME clients can use two certificates
         with the same DN for separate signing and encryption keys.
         The ca command really needs rewriting or the required
         functionality exposed at either a command or interface level
         so a more friendly utility (perl script or GUI) can handle
         things properly. The scripts and help a little
         but not very much.
         Any fields in a request that are not present in a policy are
         silently deleted. This does not happen if the -preserveDN
         option is used but the extra fields are not displayed when
         the user is asked to certify a request. The behaviour should
         be more friendly and configurable.
         Cancelling some commands by refusing to certify a
         certificate can create an empty file.


         req(1), spkac(1), x509(1),, config(5)

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