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Конфигурация sendmail'а с помощью m4 макросов (eng) (mail sendmail m4)

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From: Georg Wagner Subject: Конфигурация sendmail'а с помощью m4 макросов (eng) Configuring sendmail 8.9 with m4-macros Georg Wagner 29. November 1999 Abstract There exist two possibilities to configure sendmail: the first is to edit the file directly, the second to use a m4-macro file. Most people - including me - are using both methods depending on the their know how. Recently I took the effort to get a single point for applying my changes to the configuration of sendmail: the m4-macro file. 1 Introduction I am using a dialup-account to connect to my ISP. My provider's domain is whereas my domain at home is with a 192.168.x.x-network; the machine has the name mymachine. I will refer to my local username as login. My username at the ISP is g.wagner. This means my internal address is and my external address is 2 Configuring sendmail First change to the directory ../cf/cf and create a copy of # cp Before you start editing your newly created file, some possible pitfalls with the macro language m4 should be mentioned: * m4 uses forward- and backward-quotes * The #-character does not have a special meaning to m4. If you are writing a comment you should do it in the following way: # `your comment here' to prevent the possible interpretation of some words in your comment as a macro. 2.1 Structure of the mc-file The mc-file has the following structure: VERSIONID OSTYPE DOMAIN FEATURE Local Macros MAILER LOCAL_RULESETS 2.2 Basic entries in After the header you should have the entries below the line with divert(0): VERSIONID(`$Id$')dnl OSTYPE(bsd4.4)dnl DOMAIN(generic)dnl FEATURE(relay_entire_domain)dnl MAILER(local)dnl MAILER(smtp)dnl These entries are already sufficient to get a simple forwarding sendmail configuration. 2.3 Masquerading The first problem I want to solve, is to masquerade the internal username and the internal domain. Add the lines MASQUERADE_AS( FEATURE(allmasquerade)dnl FEATURE(masquerade_envelope)dnl FEATURE(nocanonify)dnl define(`confUSERDB_SPEC', `/etc/mail/user.db')dnl in front of the line with MAILER(local). Now you have to populate the user database: makemap hash /etc/mail/user.db < ./user where the file user contains lines like: login:mailname> 9 login 2.4 Anti-Spam measures Relaying Since version 8.9 of sendmail the default is not to (ab)use your machine as mail relay. This is also the reason for the relay_entire_domain entry in Section 2.2. To allow your mail to be relayed at your provider's mailserver add a line like: define(`SMART_HOST', '')dnl Rejecting spam Using the acess database If you want to maintain a spammer database of your own you can use the feature: FEATURE(access_db, hash -o /etc/mail/access.db)dnl Add this entry between the DOMAIN and MAILER directives. Be sure to create the access database using the commands: cd /etc/mail /usr/sbin/makemap hash access.db < ./access Where access is a file which you fill with lines like: REJECT REJECT .... Using the Realtime Blackhole List As alternative, if you don't want to maintain your own access database, you can use the Realtime Blackhole list. If you don't know what the Realtime Blackhole list is, have a look at This is the simplest mechanism for blocking spam. Just add the line: FEATURE(rbl)dnl to your file. Setting the privacy flags Don't allow remote user to ask for any informations on your smtp port: define(`confPRIVACY_FLAGS', `goaway')dnl 3 Generating and Installing the You should now have a file containing the lines: VERSIONID(`$Id$')dnl> OSTYPE(bsd4.4)dnl DOMAIN(generic)dnl FEATURE(relay_entire_domain)dnl MASQERADE_AS( FEATURE(allmasquerade)dnl FEATURE(masquerade_envelope)dnl FEATURE(nocanonify)dnl FEATURE(rbl)dnl define(`confUSERDB_SPEC', `/etc/mail/user.db')dnl define(`SMART_HOST', '')dnl define(`confPRIVACY_FLAGS', `goaway')dnl MAILER(local)dnl MAILER(smtp)dnl With the following commands you can change your current sendmail configuration: m4 ../m4/cf.m4 > cp /etc/ /etc/ cp /etc/ ps -aux| grep sendmail kill -HUP <PID> 4 Conclusion I am not responsible if you spoil your configuration in applying the described actions to your sendmail configuration. Make backups of every file before you start. The mc-file was tested on my private machine and seams to be working so far. If you have any remarks, corrections or additions please send them to me. _________________________________________________________________

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