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>> rrdtool (1) ( Linux man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )Ключ rrdtool обнаружен в базе ключевых слов.
rrdtool - round robin database tool
It is pretty easy to gather status information from all sorts of
things, ranging from the temperature in your office to the number of
octets which have passed through the FDDI
interface of your
router. But it is not so trivial to store this data in a efficient and
systematic manner. This is where rrdtool
kicks in. It lets you
log and analyze
the data you gather from all kinds of data-sources
). The data analysis part of rrdtool is based on the ability to
quickly generate graphical representations of the data values
collected over a definable time period.
In this man page you will find general information on the design and
functionality of the Round Robin Database Tool (rrdtool). For a more
detailed description of how to use the individual functions of the
rrdtool check the corresponding man page.
For an introduction to the usage of rrdtool make sure you check rrdtutorial.
While the man pages talk of command line switches you have to set in
order to make rrdtool
work it is important to note that the
can be 'remote controlled' through a set of pipes. This
saves a considerable amount of startup time when you plan to make
do a lot of things quickly. Check the section on ``Remote Control'' further down. There is also a number of language bindings
for rrdtool which allow you to use it directly from perl, python, tcl,
Set up a new Round Robin Database (RRD). Check rrdcreate.
Store new data values into an RRD. Check rrdupdate.
Create a graph from data stored in one or several RRD. Apart from
generating graphs, data can also be extracted to stdout. Check rrdgraph.
Dump the contents of an RRD in plain ASCII. In connection with
restore you can use it to transport an rrd from one architecture to another.
Restore an RRD in XML format to a binary rrd ... Check rrdrestore
Get data for a certain time period from a RRD. The graph function
uses fetch to retrieve its data from an rrd. Check rrdfetch.
Alter setup of an RRD. Check rrdtune.
Find last update time of an RRD. Check rrdlast.
Display information about an RRD ... Check rrdinfo
Change the size of individual RRAs ... Dangerous! Check rrdresize.
Export data retrieved from one or several RRD. Check rrdxport
This is a standalone tool for producing rrd graphs on the fly. Check
HOW DOES RRDTOOL WORK?
- Data acquisition
When monitoring the state of a system, it is convenient to have the
data available at a constant interval. Unfortunately you may not
always be able to fetch data at exactly the time you want
to. Therefore rrdtool lets you update the logfile at any time you
want. It will automatically interpolate the value of the data-source
(DS) at the latest official time-slot and write this value to the
log. The value you have supplied is stored as well and is also taken
into account when interpolating the next log entry.
You may log data at a 1 minute interval, but you are also be
interested to know the development of the data over the last year. You
could do this by simply storing the data in 1 minute interval, for one
year. While this would take considerable disk space it would also take
a lot of time to analyze the data when you wanted to create a graph
covering the whole year. rrdtool offers a solution to this
problem through its data consolidation feature. When setting up
an Round Robin Database (RRD), you can define at which interval
this consolidation should occur, and what consolidation function
(CF) (average, minimum, maximum, last) should be used to
build the consolidated values (see rrdcreate). You can define any
number of different consolidation setups within one RRD. They will
all be maintained on the fly when new data is loaded into the RRD.
- Round Robin Archives
Data values of the same consolidation setup are stored into Round
Robin Archives (RRA). This is a very efficient manner to store data
for a certain amount of time, while using a known amount of storage
It works like this: If you want to store 1000 values in 5 minute
interval, rrdtool will allocate space for 1000 data values and a
header area. In the header it will store a pointer telling
which one of the values in the storage area was last written to. New
values are written to the Round Robin Archive in a ... you guess it
... round robin manner. This automatically limits the history to the last
1000 values. Because you can define several RRAs within a single RRD,
you can setup another one, storing 750 data values at a 2 hour interval
and thus keeping a log for the last two months although at a lower
The use of RRAs guarantees that the RRD does not grow over
time and that old data is automatically eliminated. By using the
consolidation feature, you can still keep data for a very long time,
while gradually reducing the resolution of the data along the time
axis. Using different consolidation functions (CF) allows you to
store exactly the type of information that actually interests
you. (Maximum one minute traffic on the LAN, minimum temperature of
the wine cellar, total minutes down time ...)
- Unknown Data
As mentioned earlier, the RRD stores data at a constant
interval. Now it may happen that no new data is available when a
value has to be written to the RRD. Data acquisition may not be
possible for one reason or an other. The rrdtool handles these
situations by storing an *UNKNOWN* value into the database. The
value '*UNKNOWN*' is supported through all the functions of the
database. When consolidating the amount of *UNKNOWN* data is
accumulated and when a new consolidated value is ready to be written
to its Round Robin Archive (RRA) a validity check is performed to
make sure that the percentage of unknown data in the new value is
below a configurable level. If so, an *UNKNOWN* value will be
written to the RRA.
The rrdtool also allows one to generate reports in numerical and
graphical form based on the data stored in one or several
RRDs. The graphing feature is fully configurable. Size, color and
contents of the graph can be defined freely. Check rrdgraph
for more information on this.
When you start rrdtool
with the command line option '-
', it waits
for input via standard in. With this feature you can improve
performance by attaching rrdtool
to another process (mrtg is one
example) through a set of pipes. Over the pipes rrdtool
same arguments as on the command line. When a command is completed,
rrdtool will print the string '"OK"
', followed by timing information of
the form u:usertime s:systemtime
both values are running
totals of seconds since rrdtool was started. If an error occurs, a line
of the form '"ERROR:" Description of error
' will be printed. rrdtool
will not abort if possible, but follow the ERROR
line with an OK
rrdcreate, rrdupdate, rrdgraph, rrddump, rrdfetch, rrdtune, rrdlast, rrdxport
Bugs ? Features !
Tobias Oetiker <email@example.com
- HOW DOES RRDTOOL WORK?
- REMOTE CONTROL
- SEE ALSO