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pg_createcluster (8)
  • >> pg_createcluster (8) ( Разные man: Команды системного администрирования )


    pg_createcluster - create a new PostgreSQL cluster


    pg_createcluster [options] version name  


    pg_createcluster creates a new PostgreSQL server cluster (i. e. a collection of databases served by a postmaster(1) instance) and integrates it into the multi-version/multi-cluster architecture of the postgresql-common package.

    Every cluster is uniquely identified by its version and name. The name can be arbitrary. The default cluster that is created on installation of a server package is main
    . However, you might wish to create other clusters for testing, with other superusers, a cluster for each user on a shared server, etc. pg_createcluster
    will abort with an error if you try to create a cluster with a name that already exists for that version.

    Given a major PostgreSQL version (like ``7.4'' or ``8.0'') and a cluster name, it creates the necessary configuration files in /etc/postgresql/
    version /
    name /
    ; in particular these are postgresql.conf
    , pg_ident.conf
    , pg_hba.conf
    , a postgresql-common specific configuration file start.conf
    (see STARTUP CONTROL below), a symbolic link pgdata
    which points to the actual data directory data dir (which defaults to /var/lib/postgresql/
    version /
    name /
    ), and a symbolic link log
    which points to the log file (by default, /var/log/postgresql/postgresql-
    version -
    name .log

    To enable easy integration of pg_autovacuum for Servers prior to 8.1, this program also creates a symbolic link autovacuum_log
    which points to the pg_autuvacuum log file (by default, /var/log/postgresql/pg_autovacuum-
    version -
    name .log
    ). PostgreSQL 8.1 and later has an integrated autovacuuming which does not need this.

    is automatically adapted to use the next available port, i. e. the first port (starting from 5432) which is not yet used by an already existing cluster.

    If the data directory does not yet exist, PostgreSQL's initdb(1) command is used to generate a new cluster structure. If the data directory already exists, it is integrated into the postgresql-common structure by moving the configuration file and creating the pgdata

    If a custom socket directory is given and it does not exist, it is created.

    If the log file does not exist, it is created. In any case the permissions are adjusted to allow write access to the cluster owner. Please note that postgresql.conf
    can be customized to specify log_directory
    and/or log_filename
    ; if at least one of these options is present, then the symbolic link log
    in the cluster configuration directory is ignored.

    If the default snakeoil SSL certificate exists ( /etc/ssl/certs/ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem
    and /etc/ssl/private/ssl-cert-snakeoil.key
    ), this program creates symlinks to these files in the data directory ( server.crt
    and server.key
    ) and enables SSL for that cluster (option ssl in postgresql.conf
    ). Therefore all clusters will use the same SSL certificate by default. Of course you can replace these symlinks with a cluster specific certificate.  


    -u user, --user=user
    Set the user who owns the cluster and becomes the database superuser to the given name or uid. By default, this is the user postgres. A cluster must not be owned by root.
    -g group, --group=group
    Change the group of the cluster related data files. By default this will be the primary group of the database owner.
    -d dir, --datadir=dir
    Explicitly set the data directory path, which is used to store all the actual databases and tables. This will become quite big (easily in the order of five times the amount of actual data stored in the cluster). Defaults to /var/lib/postgresql/
    version /
    -s dir, --socketdir=dir
    Explicitly set the directory where the postmaster(1) server stores the Unix socket for local connections. Defaults to /var/run/postgresql/
    for clusters owned by the user postgres, and /tmp
    for clusters owned by other users. Please be aware that /tmp
    is an unsafe directory since everybody can create a socket there and impersonate the database server. If the given directory does not exist, it is created with appropriate permissions.
    -l path, --logfile=path
    Explicitly set the path for the postmaster(1) server log file. Defaults to /var/log/postgresql/postgresql-
    version -
    cluster .log
    Set the default locale for the database cluster. If this option is not specified, the locale is inherited from the environment that pg_createcluster runs in.
    Like --locale, but only sets the locale in the specified category.
    -e encoding, --encoding=encoding
    Select the encoding of the template database. This will also be the default encoding of any database you create later, unless you override it there. The default is derived from the locale, or SQL_ASCII if that does not work. The character sets supported by the PostgreSQL server are described in the documentation.

    Note: It is not recommended to set this option directly! Set the locale instead.

    -p port, --port=port
    Select the port the new cluster listens on (for the Unix socket and the TCP port); this must be a number between 1024 and 65535, since PostgreSQL does not run as root and thus needs an unprivileged port number. By default the next free port starting from 5432 is assigned.
    Immediately start a server for the cluster after creating it (i. e. call pg_ctlcluster
    version cluster start
    on it). By default, the cluster is not started.
    Set the initial value in the start.conf
    configuration file. See STARTUP CONTROL below. By default, auto is used, which means that the cluster is handled by /etc/init.d/postgresql-
    version, i. e. starts and stops automatically on system boot.


    The start.conf
    file in the cluster configuration directory controls the start/stop behavior of that cluster's postmaster process. The file can contain comment lines (started with '#'), empty lines, and must have exactly one line with one of the following keywords:
    The postmaster process is started/stopped automatically in the init script. This is also the default if the file is missing.
    The postmaster process is not handled by the init script, but manually controlling the cluster with pg_ctlcluster(1) is permitted.
    Neither the init script nor pg_ctlcluster(1) are permitted to start/stop the cluster. Please be aware that this will not stop the cluster owner from calling lower level tools to control the postmaster process; this option is only meant to prevent accidents during maintenance, not more.


    pg_ctlcluster(8), pg_lsclusters(1), pg_wrapper(1)  


    Martin Pitt <>




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