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>> oldps (1) ( Linux man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
ps - report process status
there are also three long options:
More long options are on the way...
gives a snapshot of the current processes. If you want a repetitive
update of this status, use
This man page documents the
or tries to.
The command-line options for this version of
are derived from the BSD version of
not the System V version.
The command-line arguments should not be preceeded by a `-' character,
because in the future, a `-' will be used to indicate Unix98-standard
command-line arguments, while no `-' will indicate the current
``extended BSD'' style of command line arguments.
For now, ps will give you a warning if you use a `-' for a short option,
but it will still work. If you have shell scripts which use BSD-style
arguments to ps, take heed of the warning and fix them, or else your
scripts will fail to function correctly at some point in the future.
If you want to turn off the warnings, set the
There are also some ``long options'' in GNU style; see below for those.
user format: gives user name and start time
jobs format: pgid sid
displays memory info (combine with
flag to get number of pages).
"forest" family tree format for command line
show processes of other users too
show processes without controlling terminal
add child cpu time and page faults
command name from task_struct
show environment after command line and ` + '
wide output: don't truncate command lines to fit on one line.
To be exact, every w that is specified will add another possible
line to the output. If the space isn't needed it isn't used. You
may up to 100
running procs only
numeric output for
USER and WCHAN.
only procs with controlling tty xx; for xx you may use either the
name of a device file under "/dev" or that name with either
tty or cu
sliced off. This is the reverse heuristic that ps uses to print out the
abbreviated tty name in the TT field, e.g.
Order the process listing according to the multi-level sort specified by
the sequence of short keys from SORT KEYS, k1, k2, ...
Default order specifications exist for each of the various formats of ps.
These are over-ridden by a user specified ordering. The `+' is quite optional,
merely re-iterating the default direction on a key. `-' reverses direction only
on the key it precedes. As with t and pids, the O option must be
the last option in a single command argument, but specifications in successive
arguments are catenated.
List only the specified processes; they are comma-delimited. The
list must be given immediately after the last option in a single command-line
argument, with no intervening space, e.g.
Lists specified in subsequent arguments are catenated, e.g.
ps l 1,2 3,4 5 6
will list all of the processes 1-6 in long format. If pids are given, they
are listed no matter what. If a tty is given matching processes are listed
no matter what. These two features override the 'a' and 'x' flags.
LONG COMMAND-LINE OPTIONS
These options are preceeded by a double-hyphen.
Choose a multi-letter key from the SORT KEYS section. X may be
any convenient separator character. To be GNU-ish use `='. The `+' is really
optional since default direction is increasing numerical or lexicographic order.
ps jax --sort=uid,-ppid,+pid
Get a help message that summarizes the usage and gives a list of
supported sort keys. This list may be more up to date than this man
Display version and source of this program.
Note that the values used in sorting are the internal values ps
the `cooked' values used in some of the output format fields. If
someone wants to volunteer to write special comparison functions for the cooked
values, ... ;-)
SHORT LONG DESCRIPTION
- c cmd simple name of executable
- C cmdline full command line
- f flags flags as in long format F field
- g pgrp process group ID
- G tpgid controlling tty process group ID
- j cutime cumulative user time
- J cstime cumulative system time
- k utime user time
- K stime system time
- m min_flt number of minor page faults
- M maj_flt number of major page faults
- n cmin_flt cumulative minor page faults
- N cmaj_flt cumulative major page faults
- o session session ID
- p pid process ID
- P ppid parent process ID
- r rss resident set size
- R resident resident pages
- s size memory size in kilobytes
- S share amount of shared pages
- t tty the minor device number of tty
- T start_time time process was started
- U uid user ID number
- u user user name
- v vsize total VM size in bytes
- y priority kernel scheduling priority
This is the counter field in the task struct. It is the time in
of the process's possible timeslice.
Standard unix nice value; a positive value means less cpu time.
Virtual image size; size of text+data+stack.
Resident set size; kilobytes of program in memory.
Name of the kernel function where the process is sleeping, with the
stripped from the function name. If
does not exist, it is just a hex number instead.
Information about the status of the process. The first field is
for uninterruptible sleep,
for stopped or traced, or
for a zombie process. The second field contains
if the process has no resident pages. The third field is
if the process has a positive nice value
Number of major page faults (page faults that cause pages to be read
from disk, including pages read from the buffer cache).
Text resident size.
Kilobytes (or pages if
is used) on swap device.
works by reading the files in the
filesystem, mounted on
does not need to be suid
or have any privileges to run.
Do not give this ps any special permissions.
You will need to put in place the appropriate System.map file
when you install a new kernel in order
to get meaningful information from the
field. This should be done every time you compile a new kernel. You should
also run 'ps' as root once and then any time the tty devices in the "/dev"
As of procps-1.00, ps/top read System.map directly if it is available. The
search path for kernel address-to-symbol resolution is:
is not shown, since
checks to see if math is present. This causes the math flag to be set
for all processes, and so it is worthless.
Programs swapped out to disk will be shown without command line
arguments, and unless the
option is given, in parentheses.
shows the cputime/realtime percentage. It will not add up to 100%
unless you are lucky. It is time used divided by the time the process
has been running.
fields don't count the page tables and the
of a proc; this is at least 12k of memory that is always resident.
is the virtual size of the proc (code+data+stack).
was originally written by Branko Lankester <firstname.lastname@example.org
>. Michael K.
> re-wrote it significantly to use the proc
filesystem, changing a few things in the process. Michael Shields
> added the pid-list feature. Charles
> added multi-level sorting, the dirent-style library, the
device name-to-number mmaped database, the approximate binary search directly
on System.map, and many code and documentation cleanups. David Mossberger-Tang
wrote the generic BFD support for psupdate. Michael K. Johnson
> is the current maintainer.
Please send bug reports to <email@example.com>
- COMMAND-LINE OPTIONS
- LONG COMMAND-LINE OPTIONS
- SORT KEYS
- FIELD DESCRIPTIONS