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mirrordir (1)
  • >> mirrordir (1) ( Linux man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )


    pslogin - secure remote tcp login using strong stream
    cipher encryption and diffie-hellman key exchanges.

    forward - arbitrary tcp socket forwarding over a secure/encrypted channel.

    copydir, mirrordir - copy, mirror directory trees via a minimal set of changes, locally or over FTP, or over a secure tcp connection.

    recursdir - recurse through local or remote directories to command/find files or create tar files.  


    [-a, --access-times]
    [-m, --strict-mtimes]
    [-A, --mtime-threshold ext]
    [--time-offset [[+]|-][H]H[:MM]]
    [-A, --always-write]
    [-r, --restore-access]
    [-D, --only-delete]
    [-b, -S, --backup-extension, --suffix ext]
    [-N, --num-backups num]
    [-O, --backup-outdate sec]
    [-B, --block-size bytes]
    [-M, --max-bytes num[K|M|G]]
    [-s, --starting-file path]
    [-i, --ignore-next-exclude]
    [[-i] -X, --exclude path] [[-i] -X, --exclude path] ...
    [[-i] -F, --exclude-from file] ...
    [[-i] -G, --exclude-glob expr] [[-i] -G, --exclude-glob expr] ...
    [[-i] -R, --exclude-regexp expr] [[-i] -R, --exclude-regexp expr] ...
    [-C, --exclude-script [expr|file]] [-C, --exclude-script [expr|file]] ...
    [-h, --help]
    [-v, --verbose] [-v, --verbose] ...
    [-V, --version]
    [-k, --keep-files]
    [-l, --no-hard-links]
    [-L, --strict-locking]
    [-p, --password password]
    [-P, --password-exact password]
    [--proxy-host host]
    [-z, --gzip]
    [-K, --key-size bits]
    [--tar-file filename]
    [--tar-block-size N]
    [-t, --dry-run, --test-only]
    [--nice num] control mirror

    mirrordir [-c | --copy-mode | --recurs-mode ] -[abBCdDFGhklMmNOopRrstvVX] src [src ...] dest

    copydir -[abBCdeFGhklMmNOopRrstvVX] src [src ...] dest

    recursdir -[abBCdeFGhklMmNOopRrstvVX] src [src ...]

    pslogin [--key-size bits] [mc://][username@]hostname[:portnumber][/path]

    But usually just
    mirrordir [--exclude path] control mirror
    copydir src [src ...] dest
    recursdir src [src ...] [-C program]
    pslogin [username@]hostname[:portnumber]  


    mirrordir is a set of useful utilities for manipulating and mirroring directories. Included is also the command pslogin - an alternative to ssh(1), and forward(1) for forwarding arbitrary TCP socket connections over encrypted secure channels.

    mirrordir copies files that are different between the directories control and mirror to the directory mirror. Files whose modification times or sizes differ are copied. File permissions, ownerships, modification times, access times (only if --access-times is used), sticky bits, and device types are duplicated. Symlinks are duplicated without any translation. Symlink modification and access times (of the symlink itself, not the file it points to) are not preserved. Hard linked files are merely copied. Creation times cannot be set with Unix as far as I can see.

    mirrordir is a DANGEROUS command because files or directories that exist in mirror that don't exist in control are deleted. If control is entirely empty, then all files and directories in mirror will be deleted. If mirror is entirely empty, then all files and directories in control will be copied.

    In short, mirrordir forces mirror to be an exact replica of the directory tree control in every possible detail suitable for purposes of timed backup. It naturally descends into subdirectories to all their depths. mirrordir tries to be as efficient as possible by making the minimal set of changes necessary to mirror the directory.

    Access time duplication is not usually required and creates unnecessary load. Hence it is given as an option.

    The directory control is left untouched. If --restore-access is given then access times are reset to their original with each read.

    If the the --strict-locking option is on, files in control that are copied are locked for `shared reading'. This will ensure, if another process is busy writing to that file, that the file is not copied in its incomplete or corrupted state.

    Usually mirrordir will not exit, but will give error messages to stderr to report any problems, and then will continue.

    The directory mirror or dest must exist, even if it is empty.

    Before erasing all the files in a directory, mirrordir checks for the file *--keep-me (where * is zero or one characters). If this file is present it will abort with an error message. Hence such a file can be created in all directories that you are fearful of being recursively erased.

    copydir is equivalent to mirrordir -ck --no-erase-directories ...
    (although -c implies -k anyway), so copydir is very much like a rigorous version of cp(1) where filenames can also be URLs, and only outdated files are replaced. Use copydir instead of mirrordir for most file transfers. Only use mirrordir, when you really want to delete things.

    recursdir is a further program that does nothing but descend into the directories on the command line. It is equivalent to mirrordir --recurs-mode ...
    It was born after the -C option was added, and can be used as a more rigorous version of find(1) and can also pack all the files it finds into a tar file.

    pslogin is yet a further program which has almost nothing to do with the previous three. It envokes a secure login session using secure-mcserv. It is equivalent to mirrordir --login-mode --secure ...
    pslogin should be called logindir. See --login-mode below.

    forward is yet a further program which has almost nothing to do with first three. It can do forwarding of arbitrary services over a secure channel. See forward(1) for details.

    The importance of this package is that you can use URL's instead of normal filenames, and hence manipulate files over a network. The URL types currently supported are ftp:// and mc:// (http:// is not a filesystem and therefore is not supported). mc:// is the Midnight Commander filesystem and is served by the secure-mcserv daemon. It has the advantage of serving cryptographically strong secure file transfers and logins.

    You can also use glob expressions in filenames for the recursdir and copydir commands. These will be recursively expanded.



    mirrordir supports strong stream cipher encryption and Diffie-Hellman key exchanges with several possible key sizes. Secure connections work with mc:// type connections. See the options --secure, --key-size, --download-scripts. See the EXAMPLES section for demo's and the FILES section for where public/private keys are stored.



    Print out detailed help, then exit.
    Specifies verbose output of file modifications made to mirror. This option can be given multiple times for greater verbosity. Output is written to stdout.
    Restore the access times of control with each read.
    Duplicate even the access times of control.
    Force rewrite of every file regardless of whether they appear to be identical or not.
    This is set by default with recursdir. Listed directories are read recursively and nothing is done to them. This option is useful with -C in order to execute shell commands and search for files. Note the system(), exec() and popen() functions available to the C interpretor.
    This option is set by default with pslogin. This approximates rlogin(1) using secure-mcserv as a server. It is a secure encrypted connection intended as a replacement to ssh(1). pslogin implies --secure as well. When using this option or when using pslogin, only one path must be present on the command-line. The path is of the form [mc://][username@]hostname[:portnumber][/path].
    Immediately after logging in, a cd /path will be executed at the shell prompt. To determine if a prompt is available, pslogin searches for a #, $ or > character. Should these not be found, pslogin blocks indefinately. To avoid this behaviour, specify /path as exactly /. This will leave you in your login directory. Alternatively, change your shell prompt to include one of these characters.
    This is set by default with copydir. Approximate the behaviour of cp(1) as regards source and destination files. This option implies --keep-files. It overwrites any existing file or directory with the same name as a source file or directory, but does not delete files or directories unnecessarily. Multiple source files or directories may be given. The destination path must be a directory.
    With this option, if a target directory conflicts with a source file, and the directory is not empty, then an error message will be printed and the program will abort. This is the default behaviour for copydir.
    With this option, if a target directory conflicts with a source file, then the target directory will be recursively deleted. This is the default behaviour for mirrordir.
    Some ftp servers do not produce a . or .. directory. This makes it appear as though you did not have permission to read the directory. This option overrides this by assuming that such completely empty directories are merely empty and do not have errors. If you get unable to open directory: *: Permission denied errors, then you can use this option. This option is enabled by default (see next).
    Because we now cd to the directory to check for permission to access it, the default behaviour is to allow empty directories.
    Do not make any changes to mirror that will cause the total space occupied by mirror to enlarge. This is a useful option when backing up onto a drive that has limited space, where changes have been made to control that might cause mirror to grow larger during the duration of the transfer. Running mirrordir once with this option and then once normally will ensure that the available space is not overrun.
    -i, --ignore-next-exclude
    This option dictates that the next --exclude- type option must completely overlook those files regardless of their existence or non-existence in the mirror directory. It has the effect of a return value of IGNORE for the --exclude-script option below. This can be used to cause certain files to never be modified, for example if you would like /etc/named.boot to never be modified, use mirrordir /mnt/1 /mnt/2 -i --exclude /mnt/1/etc/named.boot. Note that all paths must be specified in the control directory and not the mirror directory, hence --exclude /mnt/2/etc/named.boot won't work. This has the idiotic behaviour that if you want to avoid erasing a file, you have to have that file present in the control directory, even if it has zero length.
    --exclude path
    Exclude file or directory path. A large number of excluded paths on the command-line will slow performance. An excluded path will be removed from the mirror tree if it already exists, in the same way as any absent directory or file. Use the --ignore option to ignore keep rather than delete these files.

    If you have a long list of files to exclude, use the --exclude-from option.

    --exclude-glob glob
    Exclude file or directory names matching glob style expression glob. Matches the file without its full path. For shells, the expression should be enclosed in appropriate quotes to prevent substitutions.
    --exclude-regexp regex
    Exclude full pathnames of files or directories matching regex. For shells, the expression should be enclosed in appropriate quotes to prevent substitutions.
    --exclude-script [expr|file]
    Cause execution of the script expr for each file before doing anything with that file. The script is a C style statement block, terminating with a `return expression;'. The value of expression can be one of INCLUDE, EXCLUDE, UNKNOWN or IGNORE (see -i above) to explain what is to be done with that file. If expr does not contain a semi-colon (;) then it is assumed to be the name of a file - which is then loaded. In either case, the text is byte compiled into reverse-polish notation for fast execution. This option can be specified multiple times and the scripts will be executed in order until a script returns something other than UNKNOWN. A return value of UNKNOWN allows the remaining --exclude- options on the command-line to take effect.

    If you find that the interpretor incorrectly reports errors or segfaults, please report the breaking script to me.

    The scripting language itself is a subset of the full C programming language. For example, the following is a valid script:

    /* PATH is the full name of the file including
       its path, DIR is the directory, excluding
       the trailing slash (/), CWD is the current
       directory, and depth() returns the number
       of forward slashes (/) less one. */
    if (depth (DIR) - depth (CWD) > 3) {
        printf ("%s: excluded\n", PATH);
        return EXCLUDE;
    } else
        return INCLUDE;

    The scripting language does not support the assignment operator, and hence does not support user defined variables.

    The following predefined macros are available. Note that the expansion of the macros applies equally well to directories as to files.

    current file without its path
    file name without its path or extension or trailing dot (.)
    file extension without its leading dot (.)
    directory without file-name or trailing slash (/)
    full file name with path
    current working directory
    current time in seconds

    All of the logical, arithmetic and bitwise C operators are supported. These are ( ) >= <= > < != == && || ! - + * / % & ^ and have the same meanings and precedences as in C.

    The following further predefined macros are available. Each returns an integer (type long int in C). These are based on a C lstat (or stat if --follow-symlinks is used) on the file. See stat(2) for a detailed explanation.

    stat.st_dev - device
    stat.st_ino - inode
    stat.st_mode - permissions
    stat.st_nlink - number of hard links
    stat.st_uid - user id of owner
    stat.st_gid - group id of owner
    stat.st_rdev - device type
    stat.st_size - file size in bytes
    stat.st_blksize - block-size for file-system I/O
    stat.st_blocks - number of blocks allocate
    stat.st_atime - time of last accessed in seconds
    stat.st_mtime - time of last modification in seconds
    stat.st_ctime - time of creation

    The following functions return boolean values:

    strncmp(string1, string2, integer);
    returns an integer less than, equal to, or greater than zero if string1 is found, respectively, to be less than, to match, or be greater than string2.
    glob(glob, string);
    returns zero if string matches glob expression glob. Try to use only one glob expression in your code for efficiency of the underlying implementation.
    regexp(regexp, string);
    returns zero if string matches regular expression regexp. Try to use only one regular expression in your code for efficiency of the underlying implementation.
    strstr(string1, string2);
    returns the first occurance of string2 in string1 up to the length of string1, or zero if it did not occur.

    The following functions also return a boolean value and are analogous to the corresponding macros explained in stat(2). They return non-zero if the specified condition is true.

    S_ISLNK(integer); - file is a sym-link
    S_ISREG(integer); - file is a regular file
    S_ISDIR(integer); - file is a directory
    S_ISCHR(integer); - file is a character device
    S_ISBLK(integer); - file is a block device
    S_ISFIFO(integer); - file is an fifo
    S_ISSOCK(integer); - file is a socket

    The following functions manipulate strings:

    strcat(string1, string2);
    returns the concatenation of string1 with string2. Note that the + operator also concatenates strings.
    returns one less than the number of forward slashes (/) in string.
    printf(format, ...);
    behaves like printf(3) with an important exception: only long int format specifiers should be used. The behaviour of anything that results in conversion of other than a long int is undefined. For example, use "%ld" instead of "%d". This function prints to stdout.

    The following functions do system calls:

    executes /bin/sh -c command, but unlike the C version, it returns the exit code of the command. I.e. it executes a single line of shell script, command.
    exec(argv0, argv1, ...);
    executes process argv0 with arguments argv1.... argv0 must be a full path name. This is faster than system because it need not envoke sh.
    popen([string, ] shell_command);
    like system, but returns the output of shell_command as a string. If string is given, this writes string into the standard input of shell_command and return zero on success.

    The following further integer constants are available and are analogous to the macros defined in stat.h and explained in stat(2).


    One of the the following constants should be returned using the return keyword, and imply to the caller as follows. If nothing is returned, the return value is assumed to be UNKNOWN.

    didn't know what to do, continue with other --exclude- options
    include the file
    do nothing with the file regardless of its existence or non-existence in the mirror directory
    consider the file to be non-existent in the control directory and hence must be removed from the mirror directory (this does not override the option --keep-files)

    The following perform flow control analogous to C:

    The if clause causes statement1, statement2, etc. to be executed if integer is true (i.e. non-zero), or otherwise causes statement1, statement2, etc. to be executed. The else {...} part is optional.

        if (integer) {
        } else {

    The return clause gives a value back to mirrordir and causes the script to exit:

        return expression;

    The exit function cause mirrordir to exit with the specified exit code.


    C scripts would typically be used to exclude types of files. Note that this is an excessive implementation of a scripting language, and all the features are not meant for general use. A typical script will, for example, do nothing more than cause device files to be excluded:

    if (S_ISSOCK(stat.st_mode) || S_ISFIFO(stat.st_mode)
             || S_ISBLK(stat.st_mode) || S_ISCHR(stat.st_mode)) {
        return EXCLUDE;
    } else
        return INCLUDE;

    C scripts can also be used to search for files with the --recurs-mode option (same as the recursdir command):

    /* removes all core files */
    /* This example has been moved to the EXAMPLES section. */

    --exclude-from file
    Exclude from a list of paths listed in the file file. Empty lines and comment lines (with a # as the first character of the line) are ignored. This list of files is sorted and binary searched, so if you have lots of filenames to exclude, it is best to include them here for performance. This option can be specified multiple times with different files. BUG: the last path in file must end with a newline.
    --backup-extension level
    Create backups of files before deleting or replacing them. extension is a C style format string e.g. .ORIG.%d (be careful of shell substitutions with the %). level is the highest number of revision to keep. extension is appended to the filename, the oldest file having the highest number.
    --backup-outdate sec
    Delete backup files older than sec seconds.
    --nice num
    Be nice to other processes by sleeping occasionally. num is a small integer. --nice causes the process to sleep for as long as it is active, times a factor of num. Hence a value of 1 will (very roughly) double the time it takes to do a copy, and a value of 3 will quadruple the time. This can be used where one would like timed backups to place less load on the CPU. --nice may not be available on your system.
    Normally the permissions of files are set. If you have restricted access and cannot change permissions, than this can be used to disable setting of permissions.
    Normally the ownerships of files are set. If you have restricted access and cannot change ownerships, than this can be used to disable setting of ownerships.
    --mtime-threshold sec
    This is the deviation in mtime that is allowed for a file before it is overwritten. If you have mirrored an ftp site, the mtimes are accurate to within a minute only, thereafter an nfs mirror will cause every file to be copied: you can then use --mtime-threshold 60 to fix this.
    --time-offset [[+]|-][H]H[:MM]
    This sets the time offset of any vfs (i.e. non-local) directory. For instance, I am 8 hours east of New York, so when I mirror from New York, I use --time-offset -08:00.
    --test-only, --dry-run
    Do not make any changes. If used with --verbose, this will show what changes would be made. This is an effective way of comparing directory trees. This is untested - i.e. I don't know whether this option actually makes any changes or not!
    Symlinks are treated as though they were not read - hence if they are found in the mirror directory then they are deleted.
    Don't remove files from mirror, even if they don't exist in control. This makes mirrordir somewhat like cp(1).
    mirrordir mirrors hard-links properly unless this option is set, in which case hard-links are copied as regular files.
    mirrordir mirrors symlinks properly unless this option is set, in which case symlinks are copied as regular files. Useful for mirroring the Debian tree. Note that this follows symlinks in both the control and mirror directories, hence if symlinks already exist in the mirror directory, these will be left as symlinks. Note that --follow-symlinks implies --no-hard-links also.
    Create shared read locks on files as they are read. This prevents clashes especially when copying files from the mail directory - mail programs will be trying to write to those files at the same time as mirrordir is trying to to read from them. This option has no effect with virtual file systems.
    --max-bytes [[num[k|M|G]]|num]
    Maximum number of bytes to write before giving the message, `filled up all blocks - first file/dir not mirrored: path', which is written to stdout. The remaining files are deleted from mirror, but in their listed order - hence it is possible that the archive will grow greater than num while mirrordir is still running. You should make allowance for this eventuality by making num smaller than the maximum available space. Also note that some filesystems will give an error message `No space left on device' before the device is completely full. You can restart mirrordir with the option --starting-file path and hence continue with this file on another volume. This enables mirrordir to back up across different devices. num can be appended by k, M or G (case insensitive) to specify kilobytes, megabytes or gigabytes respectively. If any single file is greater than this number, then an error message will be given. See also --block-size.
    --password password
    Specify the password for FTP and mc:// connections. The anonymous password defaults to your login name @ your local machine name. You will be prompted for other login passwords. As usual, you are warned that including passwords in scripts is a security risk. It is much better to put the password in your ~/.netrc file and then not use the --no-netrc option; see man ftp for details.
    --password-exact password]
    Don't prepend a - to the anonymous password. With ftp anonymous passwords, a - is usually prepended to the password string. I don't know why the Midnight Commander vfs did this, but one user had problems with it, hence this option is given to send the password exactly as specified by password.
    When using --login-mode or pslogin, you may want to test access non-interactively (eg. in a shell script). To do this you can run pslogin with this option and then check its exit status. secure-mcserv uses this to verify if the user can login on the password server.
    The first time you try a secure connection to a machine, no public key exists on the local machine. There is hence no security against a man-in-the-middle attack. A warning to this effect is printed and the user is prompted if they want to continue. This option disables this warning and goes ahead regardless.
    Instead of specifying the password on the command line, you can write it into the command via stdin. This is not the same as typing the invisible password as one normally does, because it can be used even if there is no terminal. This is useful for usage within other programs using, say popen(3). secure-mcserv uses this to verify if the user can login on the password server.
    Scan the ~/.netrc file. By default, this option is on.
    Turn off reading of ~/.netrc file.
    --proxy-host host
    Set the proxy for ftp downloads. Don't know how or if this works. Consult the mc(1) man page for info in proxy support.
    (This feature is BETA) I have implemented a secure socket layer for mirrordir. It is enabled with this option and applies to connections to secure-mcserv (i.e. using mc:// type URLs). The secure socket library consists of libdiffie.a and a header file diffie-socket.h. If you include diffie-socket.h after you include sys/socket.h you can recompile the resulting program with all normal sockets turned into secure sockets. (This applies to any program that uses Unix socket calls, but is untested). The first service supporting this is secure-mcserv which compiles and installs by default. Hence you can use the mc:// file system with the --secure option, provided the remote host is running secure-mcserv (try secure-mcserv -h to for help). --secure uses a stream cipher (much more secure and faster than block ciphers like DES) with discrete logarithm key exchanges with public key server authentication (Diffie-Hellman and p-NEW schemes). For the full details, see the file diffie-socket.h in the source distribution. The default key size is 512 bits. Note that if you are using gcc you should compile mirrordir with the options -O3 -fomit-frame-pointer -s -Wall to speed key generation.
    --key-size bits
    The default key size is 512 bits. Sizes require primes to be generated and compiled into the file field.c, hence only those primes listed in field.c are supported, which are at the moment 512, 768, 1024 and 1536. 768 is the recommended value for medium security if you have slow computer. Otherwise 1536 is not an unreasonably paranoid size for long term security. 512 can be used if you are not worried about large corporations, well connected hackers, or governments snooping your connections. Note that the the stream cipher has a length of bits/2, which means that you have more chance of being hit by a meteor while cashing in at the state lottery, than cracking it. Be aware that a person can sniff your connection and then keep the output for as long as it takes to break it. In twenty years time a 1536 bit key will be considered small. Note also that the discrete logarithm problem (used here) is considered to be more difficult to solve than the factorisation problem, hence the key is effectively a little larger than for RSA. This is all my (rather uneducated) opinion.
    Mirrordir comes in two versions, an International version and a US version (see --version). The US version contains no encryption code whatsoever. Instead it downloads the needed algorithms from (in South Africa). These are written in a fast, native, C-style interpreted language. There are four scripts: one for the server Diffie-Hellman key exchange, one for the client Diffie-Hellman key exchange, one for initialising the stream cipher and one for actually performing the encryption using the stream cipher. Mirrordir automatically downloads these scripts when you try to use the security features. The option --download-scripts however can be used to force a download at any time. The International version contains compiled-in versions of the stream cipher, hence only two scripts are used, which need never be downloaded since they come with the distribution. No speed penalty is incurred by having the Diffie-Hellman exchanges in scripts, however, you will notice a significant speed different when using the encryption scripts compared to compiled-in encryption.
    Prints out the version number as well as whether this is an International or US version of mirrordir. See --download-scripts.
    -z, --gzip
    Enable compression for mc:// connections. This actually envokes a compressed socket layer at a lower level than the encryption. Compression uses the libz library of gzip(1). The degree of compression is dynamically set to minimise transfer time. It will drop to no compression for fast ethernet connections, and will go to maximum compression for slow modem connections. The algorithm adjusts the compression level so that the time for a TCP write call is between 2% and 5% of the time for the same amount of data to be deflated (i.e. compressed).
    Backups are usually just a copy of the file. With this option they are compressed and a .gz is added to the default extension. Note that if you specify your own extension using --backup-extension, then it must have a .gz at the end for compression to work.
    --case-insensitive, --for-Robert-Seese
    Ignores case in comparison of filenames and linknames. This option is useful when interacting with certain brain-dead operating systems. I am not sure if this option behaves correctly under all circumstances.
    Convert all new filenames to upper or lower case. When used with --case-insensitive, it will apply only when creating new files. When used without --case-insensitive, all files, existing or not, will be converted to uppercase in the inefficient way of deleting the old file and then copying the new file. This option is useful when interacting with certain brain-dead operating systems. I am not sure if this options behave correctly under all circumstances.
    If you get an error message could not setup passive mode it is likely because you need to enable this option. I don't really understand what `passive' means, so don't ask me.
    --tar-file filename
    This is to be used only with recursdir. It creates a tar archive in the same format as GNU tar(1) and stores it in filename. Leading special prefixes and leading slashes are removed, i.e. ftp://machine/dir/file becomes dir/file. If the first character of the filename is a | character, the remaining text is considered as a command through which the output is to be piped. Hence a gzipped archive can be created for example with
    recursdir ftp://machine/dir --tar-file '| gzip -d > foo.tar.gz'
    --tar-block-size N
    Sets the block size for tar output to 512 * N. These are the units in which data is written to the archive. The default is 20. This is significant only when writing to block devices. This must not be confused with --block-size.
    --block-size bytes
    The default block size is 1024 bytes. File sizes are rounded up to the nearest block when calculating the total number of blocks consumed. If the actual block size is greater than assumed then it is possible for fewer blocks to be counted than are actually consumed during writing. Hence it is essential to specify a block size greater than or equal to the actual block size when using the option --max-bytes.
    When copying regular files, mirrordir normally only overwrites the mirror file if it is older than the control file. This option forces a copy if there is any discrepancy at all in the modified times of the files.
    Copy files only if their sizes differ. Ignore the file modification time.
    Copy files depending on mtime, but ignore size differences.
    --starting-file path
    path can be a file or directory. Until path is read, files or directories will be processed as though they were excluded files (i.e. if they exist in mirror they will be deleted). Directories that contain path will be created if they don't exist. After path is read, files are mirrored as usual. path itself will also be mirrored. If path or any of its subdirectories are not present, then mirrordir exits immediately. This is the only time mirrordir exits prematurely. This is to prevent the entire filesystem from being erased on account of path never being found.



    Ftp transfers are supported using the Midnight Commander's Virtual File System (VFS), see mc(1). In short, this means that full URLs as well as local directories are supported. The following example demonstrates:
        mirrordir --verbose \ 
    or alternatively,
        mirrordir --verbose /home/mirrordir \ 
    also works, but will prompt me for a password first. If you are uploading to an ftp server, you should not have the --strict-mtimes options on, because modification times cannot be set via ftp, and hence everything will be copied.

    You will notice (with --verbose) that mirrordir repeatedly tries to set modification and access times over ftp. I am going to leave these messages in to remind users of the limitations of the VFS type in use. These attempts do not appreciably detract from performance. You can use mc:// instead although performance is poor when uploading with this protocol. Downloading is always preferable to uploading.

    In general you should NOT have an ftp upload in your cron jobs or use ftp upload to keep directories in sync. Always download from the other end when trying to keep directories in sync. Uploading is good for once off uploads only.  


    Here are some nifty things you can do with mirrordir.
    Pedantic minimalist copy
    I have two source trees. I like to keep an old copy before I apply a patch. I just do mkdir tree.OLD and then

          mirrordir -v tree tree.OLD

    If I run mirrordir again, then only a minimal change is made, i.e. only the updated files are copied. (cp(1) can in fact do this).

    System backups
    Some systems used timed backups onto tape archives. Others still use RAID devices which constantly maintain an identical copy of a partition. mirrordir provides a further alternative. You can install two drives in a system - one for use and one for backups - and place mirrordir in your cron(8) tables. The various backup options can be set to make backups of files that have changed. The backup directory might also be readable by users so that they can see their backed up files. Previous versions of files would also be available for users that might like to retrieve any older instances of the file. Because mirrordir executes only the absolutely minimal set of changes, it is extremely fast. It can be run several times a day or even continuously with the --nice option.

    Backups can also be made by FTP onto a remote machine for additional security against the destruction of the machine.

    Backing up hourly between two machines:
    On one machine called dar2 I have a cron job that runs every six hours:

    # (this is just in case of any bugs I don't know about,
    # but I don't think it is necessary)
    killall -9 tee
    killall mirrordir >& /dev/null
    sleep 2
    killall -9 mirrordir >& /dev/null
    (                                                               \
    date                                                        ;   \
    echo "mirrordir says (if it said nothing it is bad):"       ;   \
        mirrordir mc://dar1:12346/ -p abcdefg /mnt/dar1/            \
        -i --exclude-regexp '^mc://dar1:12346/var/lock/subsys/atd'  \
        --exclude-regexp '^mc://dar1:12346/proc/'                   \
        --exclude-regexp '^mc://dar1:12346/mnt/[^/]*/.*$'           \
        -i --exclude-regexp '^mc://dar1:12346/boot/'                \
        -i --exclude-regexp '^mc://dar1:12346/etc/lilo.conf'        \
        -C                                                          \
    if (S_ISDIR (stat.st_mode)) {
        if (!regexp ("^mc://dar1:12346/[^/]*$", PATH))
            printf ("Backing up: %s, PATH);
    '                                                   ;           \
    date                                                ;           \
    echo "Done"                                         ;           \
    ) 2>&1                                                          \
    | tee --ignore-interrupts --append /var/log/mirrordir.log       \
    | mail -s 'dar1 backup results'

    Secure transfers and logins
    On the machine execute
        secure-mcserv -p 12345 -d

    On some foreign machine
        copydir --secure -K 512 -z \ 
        mc:// .

    to securely copy a file using a security key of 512 bits and using compression, or
        pslogin mc://

    to login to the machine securely.
    Mirroring FTP sites
    Ftp sites often disable their -R option on ls so that a traditional mirror(1) will fail (?). mirrordir does not suffer from this limitation.

        mirrordir -v /home/ftp/pub

    FTP transfers
    Typical FTP transfers can be made easily with a single command using the --copy-mode option. You can copy multiple files in both directions and even between two ftp sites (albeit indirectly), just like with cp(1). I use
        copydir -v mirrordir-0.9.15.tar.gz \ 
    to upload mirrordir to the sunsite.

    Passwords for non-anonymous ftp transfers are best placed in the ~/.netrc file according to standard ftp convention, and the option --netrc used. Alternatively use ftp://myname@machine/ instead.

    Finding files
    recursdir / -C
    'if (!glob (*.c, FILE)) printf (%s\\n, PATH);'
    will print out all the C files on your system.
    recursdir / -C
    'if (S_ISCHR(stat.st_mode)) printf (%s\\n, PATH);'
    will print out all character devices on your system.
    Backup FTP sites onto tape
        recursdir ftp://user@remote.machine/ \ 
        --exclude-regexp '//[^/]*/proc/' --tar-file /dev/mt 
    to back-up a remote site onto tape.
    Removing core files
    This removes all core files from your system:

    recursdir / -C '
    long l;
    if (strncmp (PATH, "/proc", 5)) {
        if (S_ISREG (stat.st_mode) && !strcmp ("core", FILE)) {
            if (strstr (popen ("file " + PATH), "ELF 32-bit LSB core")) {
                l = l + stat.st_size;
                printf ("removing: %s, cumu. total = %ldkB\n", PATH, l >> 10);
                exec ("rm", "-f", PATH);    /* could also use system() */



    The directory where you would like temporary files to be stored. The ftp filesystem downloads files first into the this temporary directory, and then copies the file into its correct place. See BUGS below.

    If TMPDIR is not specified, then it defaults to the directory of the current file in progress.



    mirrordir returns the following:
    Some kind of error occurred like a write error, a permissions error or the like. In this case, the precise error would have been written to stderr.
    A file was in use and therefore could not be copied, but otherwise a success. In this case the error `unable to open control file for writing' would have been written to stderr. If you grep for these in stderr, you can then run mirrordir with just these files. See grep(1).



    Some versions of the atd daemon create a lock (or pid?) file with a lock on the file that cause secure-mcserv to block indefinately. You will have to kill atd or exclude (?) this file before hand to prevent this.

    Mirroring over ftp where there is some daylight savings correction, seems to produce a one hour time offset. Use --time-offset as a temporary work-around. I don't know if this is mirrordir's fault though.

    A bug that caused mirrordir to eat CPU and appear to halt has been fixed.

    A large number of command-line --exclude expressions will slow performance. This is noted for the purposes of those wanting to exclude a large list of files. This list should be placed in a text file and excluded with the --exclude-from option.

    Modification and access times of symlinks (not the files they point to) are not duplicated.

    Note that the previous limitation that hardlinked files are treated as regular files has now been alleviated. The option --no-hard-links is provided to emulate the behaviour of versions prior to 0.9.8.

    No check is made to see if a hard-link would be created across devices, in which case an appropriate error will be reported.

    The ftp file-system downloads files first into the temporary directory, as a file with the name *ftpfs*. This is a waste of space but is the default behavior of the vfs library. If there is not enough space in this directory, then mirrordir will probably hang. See ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES above.

    The C scripting language used to exclude files is an excessive implementation.  


    List of machines and corresponding passwords. See the option --netrc.
    This script performs the key exchange and signature generation on the server side of the connection.
    This script performs the key exchange and signature authentication on the client side of the connection.
    This initialises the stream cipher encryption. (Not present in International versions.)
    This performs the stream cipher encryption. (Not present in International versions.)
    This directory contains private keys for the host. Each key will be held in a file: filenames are 512, 1024 etc. This is a preferable alternative to databases of keys as it obviates the need for a key management utility. Soon the Reiser (spelling) filesystem will be standard and database files will become obsolete anyway.
    Analogous to /etc/ssocket/private/ for public keys.



    mirrordir is an invention of its author and does not belong to any operating system standard (although it should!).  


    The latest version of the program can be found at either, or  


    Paul Sheer <> <>  


    mirror(1), pavuk(1), cp(1), scp(1), find(1), mc(1), ftp(1), ssh(1), tar(1), rlogin(1), rlogind(8), forward




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