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interfaces ()
  • >> interfaces (5) ( Linux man: Форматы файлов )
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    NAME

    /etc/network/interfaces - network interface configuration for ifup and ifdown 
     
    

    DESCRIPTION

    /etc/network/interfaces contains network interface configuration information for the ifup(8) and ifdown(8) commands. This is where you configure how your system is connected to the network. Lines starting with `#' are ignored. Note that end-of-line comments are NOT supported, comments must be on a line of their own. A line may be extended across multiple lines by making the last character a backslash. The file consists of zero or more "iface", "mapping", "auto" and "allow-" stanzas. Here is an example.
    auto lo eth0
    allow-hotplug eth1
    
    iface lo inet loopback
    
    mapping eth0 
            script /usr/local/sbin/map-scheme
            map HOME eth0-home
            map WORK eth0-work
    
    iface eth0-home inet static
            address 192.168.1.1
            netmask 255.255.255.0
            up flush-mail
    
    iface eth0-work inet dhcp
    
    iface eth1 inet dhcp
    
    

    Lines beginning with the word "auto" are used to identify the physical interfaces to be brought up when ifup is run with the -a option. (This option is used by the system boot scripts.) Physical interface names should follow the word "auto" on the same line. There can be multiple "auto" stanzas. ifup brings the named interfaces up in the order listed. Lines beginning with "allow-" are used to identify interfaces that should be brought up automatically by various subsytems. This may be done using a command such as "ifup --allow=hotplug eth0 eth1", which will only bring up eth0 or eth1 if it is listed in an "allow-hotplug" line. Note that "allow-auto" and "auto" are synonyms. Stanzas beginning with the word "mapping" are used to determine how a logical interface name is chosen for a physical interface that is to be brought up. The first line of a mapping stanza consists of the word "mapping" followed by a pattern in shell glob syntax. Each mapping stanza must contain a script definition. The named script is run with the physical interface name as its argument and with the contents of all following "map" lines (without the leading "map") in the stanza provided to it on its standard input. The script must print a string on its standard output before exiting. See /usr/share/doc/ifupdown/examples for examples of what the script must print. Mapping a name consists of searching the remaining mapping patterns and running the script corresponding to the first match; the script outputs the name to which the original is mapped. ifup is normally given a physical interface name as its first non-option argument. ifup also uses this name as the initial logical name for the interface unless it is accompanied by a suffix of the form =LOGICAL, in which case ifup chooses LOGICAL as the initial logical name for the interface. It then maps this name, possibly more than once according to successive mapping specifications, until no further mappings are possible. If the resulting name is the name of some defined logical interface then ifup attempts to bring up the physical interface as that logical interface. Otherwise ifup exits with an error. Stanzas defining logical interfaces start with a line consisting of the word "iface" followed by the name of the logical interface. In simple configurations without mapping stanzas this name should simply be the name of the physical interface to which it is to be applied. (The default mapping script is, in effect, the echo command.) The interface name is followed by the name of the address family that the interface uses. This will be "inet" for TCP/IP networking, but there is also some support for IPX networking ("ipx"), and IPv6 networking ("inet6"). Following that is the name of the method used to configure the interface. Additional options can be given on subsequent lines in the stanza. Which options are available depends on the family and method, as described below. Additional options can be made available by other Debian packages. For example, the wireless-tools package makes available a number of options prefixed with "wireless-" which can be used to configure the interface using iwconfig(8). (See wireless(7) for details.) Options are usually indented for clarity (as in the example above) but are not required to be.  

    IFACE OPTIONS

    The following "command" options are available for every family and method. Each of these options can be given multiple times in a single stanza, in which case the commands are executed in the order in which they appear in the stanza. (You can ensure a command never fails by suffixing "|| true".)
    pre-up command
    Run command before bringing the interface up. If this command fails then ifup aborts, refraining from marking the interface as configured, prints an error message, and exits with status 0. This behavior may change in the future.
    up command
    post-up command
    Run command after bringing the interface up. If this command fails then ifup aborts, refraining from marking the interface as configured (even though it has really been configured), prints an error message, and exits with status 0. This behavior may change in the future.
    down command
    pre-down command
    Run command before taking the interface down. If this command fails then ifdown aborts, marks the interface as deconfigured (even though it has not really been deconfigured), and exits with status 0. This behavior may change in the future.
    post-down command
    Run command after taking the interface down. If this command fails then ifdown aborts, marks the interface as deconfigured, and exits with status 0. This behavior may change in the future. There exists for each of the above mentioned options a directory /etc/network/if-<option>.d/ the scripts in which are run (with no arguments) using run-parts(8) after the option itself has been processed. All of these commands have access to the following environment variables.
    IFACE
    physical name of the interface being processed
    LOGICAL
    logical name of the interface being processed
    ADDRFAM
    address family of the interface
    METHOD
    method of the interface (e.g., static)
    MODE
    start if run from ifup, stop if run from ifdown
    PHASE
    as per MODE, but with finer granularity, distinguishing the pre-up, post-up, pre-down and post-down phases.
    VERBOSITY
    indicates whether --verbose was used; set to 1 if so, 0 if not.
    PATH
    the command search path: /usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin Additionally, all options given in an interface definition stanza are exported to the environment in upper case with "IF_" prepended and with hyphens converted to underscores and non-alphanumeric characters discarded.
     

    INET ADDRESS FAMILY

    This section documents the methods available in the inet address family.  

    The loopback Method

    This method may be used to define the IPv4 loopback interface.

    Options

    (No options)
     

    The static Method

    This method may be used to define ethernet interfaces with statically allocated IPv4 addresses.

    Options

    address address
    Address (dotted quad) required
    netmask netmask
    Netmask (dotted quad) required
    broadcast broadcast_address
    Broadcast address (dotted quad)
    network network_address
    Network address (dotted quad) required for 2.0.x kernels
    metric metric
    Routing metric for default gateway (integer)
    gateway address
    Default gateway (dotted quad)
    pointopoint address    
    Address of other end point (dotted quad). Note the spelling of "point-to".
    media type
    Medium type, driver dependent
    hwaddress class address
    Hardware Address. class is one of ether, ax25, ARCnet or netrom. address is dependent on the above choice.
    mtu size
    MTU size
     

    The manual Method

    This method may be used to define interfaces for which no configuration is done by default. Such interfaces can be configured manually by means of up and down commands or /etc/network/if-*.d scripts.

    Options

    (No options)
     

    The dhcp Method

    This method may be used to obtain an address via DHCP with any of the tools: dhclient, pump, udhcpc, dhcpcd. (They have been listed in their order of precedence.) If you have a complicated DHCP setup you should note that some of these clients use their own configuration files and do not obtain their configuration information via ifup.

    Options

    hostname hostname
    Hostname to be requested (pump, dhcpcd, udhcpc)
    leasehours leasehours
    Preferred lease time in hours (pump)
    leasetime leasetime
    Preferred lease time in seconds (dhcpcd)
    vendor vendor
    Vendor class identifier (dhcpcd)
    client client
    Client identifier (dhcpcd, udhcpc)
    hwaddress class address
    Hardware Address. class is one of ether, ax25, ARCnet or netrom. address is dependent on this choice.
     

    The bootp Method

    This method may be used to obtain an address via bootp.

    Options

    bootfile file
    Tell the server to use file as the bootfile.
    server address
    Use the IP address address to communicate with the server.
    hwaddr addr
    Use addr as the hardware address instead of whatever it really is.
     

    The ppp Method

    This method uses pon/poff to configure a PPP interface. See those commands for details.

    Options

    provider name
    Use name as the provider (from /etc/ppp/peers).
     

    The wvdial Method

    This method uses wvdial to configure a PPP interface. See that command for more details.

    Options

    provider name
    Use name as the provider (from /etc/ppp/peers).
     

    The ipv4ll Method

    This method uses avahi-autoipd to configure an interface with an IPv4 Link-Layer address (169.254.0.0/16 family). This method is also known as "APIPA" or "IPAC", and often colloquially referred to as "Zeroconf address".

    Options

    (No options)
     

    IPX ADDRESS FAMILY

    This section documents the methods available in the ipx address family.  

    The static Method

    This method may be used to setup an IPX interface. It requires the ipx_interface command.

    Options

    frame type
    type of ethernet frames to use (e.g. 802.2)
    netnum id
    Network number
     

    The dynamic Method

    This method may be used to setup an IPX interface dynamically.

    Options

    frame type
    type of ethernet frames to use (e.g. 802.2)
     

    INET6 ADDRESS FAMILY

    This section documents the methods available in the inet6 address family.  

    The loopback Method

    This method may be used to define the IPv6 loopback interface.

    Options

    (No options)
     

    The static Method

    This method may be used to define interfaces with statically assigned IPv6 addresses.

    Options

    address address
    Address (colon delimited) required
    netmask mask
    Netmask (number of bits, eg 64) required
    gateway address
    Default gateway (colon delimited)
    media type
    Medium type, driver dependent
    hwaddress class address
    Hardware Address. class is one of ether, ax25, ARCnet or netrom. address is dependent on this choice.
    mtu size
    MTU size
     

    The manual Method

    This method may be used to define interfaces for which no configuration is done by default. Such interfaces can be configured manually by means of up and down commands or /etc/network/if-*.d scripts.

    Options

    (No options)
     

    The v4tunnel Method

    This method may be used to setup an IPv6-over-IPv4 tunnel. It requires the ip command from the iproute package.

    Options

    address address
    Address (colon delimited)
    netmask mask
    Netmask (number of bits, eg 64)
    endpoint address
    Address of other tunnel endpoint (IPv4 dotted quad) required
    local address
    Address of the local endpoint (IPv4 dotted quad)
    gateway address
    Default gateway (colon delimited)
    ttl time
    TTL setting
     

    KNOWN BUGS/LIMITATIONS

    The ifup and ifdown programs work with so-called "physical" interface names. These names are assigned to hardware by the kernel. Unfortunately it can happen that the kernel assigns different physical interface names to the same hardware at different times; for example, what was called "eth0" last time you booted is now called "eth1" and vice versa. This creates a problem if you want to configure the interfaces appropriately. A way to deal with this problem is to use mapping scripts that choose logical interface names according to the properties of the interface hardware. See the get-mac-address.sh script in the examples directory for an example of such a mapping script. See also Debian bug #101728. It is not currently possible to divide up /etc/network/interfaces into multiple files. A feature that would make this possible is some sort of inclusion directive. No such feature exists in the current ifupdown program. For more information see Debian bug #159884.  

    AUTHOR

    The ifupdown suite was written by Anthony Towns <aj@azure.humbug.org.au>. This manpage was contributed by Joey Hess <joey@kitenet.net>.  

    SEE ALSO

    ifup(8), iwconfig(8), run-parts(8). For advice on configuring this package read the Network Configuration chapter of the Debian Reference manual, available at http://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/reference/ch-gateway.en.html or in the debian-reference-en package. Examples of how to set up interfaces can be found in /usr/share/doc/ifupdown/examples/network-interfaces.gz.


     

    Index

    NAME
    DESCRIPTION
    IFACE OPTIONS
    INET ADDRESS FAMILY
    The loopback Method
    The static Method
    The manual Method
    The dhcp Method
    The bootp Method
    The ppp Method
    The wvdial Method
    The ipv4ll Method
    IPX ADDRESS FAMILY
    The static Method
    The dynamic Method
    INET6 ADDRESS FAMILY
    The loopback Method
    The static Method
    The manual Method
    The v4tunnel Method
    KNOWN BUGS/LIMITATIONS
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO


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