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ifconfig (1)
  • >> ifconfig (1) ( Solaris man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • ifconfig (1) ( Русские man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • ifconfig (8) ( FreeBSD man: Команды системного администрирования )
  • ifconfig (8) ( Русские man: Команды системного администрирования )
  • ifconfig (8) ( Linux man: Команды системного администрирования )
  •  

    NAME

    ifconfig - configure network interface parameters
     
    

    SYNOPSIS

    ifconfig interface [address_family] [address  [/prefix_length] 
    [dest_address]] [addif  address  [/prefix_length]]
    [removeif  address  [/prefix_length]] [arp |  -arp]
    [auth_algs authentication algorithm] [encr_algs encryption algorithm]
    [encr_auth_algs authentication algorithm] [auto-revarp]
    [broadcast  address] [deprecated |  -deprecated]
    [preferred |  -preferred] [destination  dest_address]
    [ether  [address]] [failover |  -failover] [group
    [name |  ""]] [index   if_index] [metric  n] [modlist]
    [modinsert mod_name@pos] [modremove mod_name@pos]
    [mtu  n] [netmask  mask] [plumb] [unplumb] [private
    |  -private] [nud |  -nud] [set  [address]  [/netmask]]
    [standby |  -standby] [subnet  subnet_address] [tdst 
    tunnel_dest_address] [token   address/prefix_length]
    [tsrc  tunnel_src_address] [trailers |  -trailers]
    [up] [down] [usesrc [name |  none]] [xmit |  -xmit]
    [encaplimit n |  -encaplimit] [thoplimit n] [router
    |  -router] [zone zonename |  -zone |  -all-zones]
    

    ifconfig [address_family] interface {auto-dhcp |  dhcp} [primary]
    [wait  seconds]  drop |  extend |  inform |  ping
    |  release |  start |  status
    

     

    DESCRIPTION

    The command ifconfig is used to assign an address to a network interface and to configure network interface parameters. The ifconfig command must be used at boot time to define the network address of each interface present on a machine; it may also be used at a later time to redefine an interface's address or other operating parameters. If no option is specified, ifconfig displays the current configuration for a network interface. If an address family is specified, ifconfig reports only the details specific to that address family. Only privileged users may modify the configuration of a network interface. Options appearing within braces ({}) indicate that one of the options must be specified.  

    DHCP Configuration

    The forms of ifconfig that use the auto-dhcp or dhcp arguments are used to control the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol ("DHCP") configuration of the interface. In this mode, ifconfig is used to control operation of dhcpagent(1M), the DHCP client daemon. Once an interface is placed under DHCP control by using the start operand, ifconfig should not, in normal operation, be used to modify the address or characteristics of the interface. If the address of an interface under DHCP is changed, dhcpagent will remove the interface from its control.  

    OPTIONS

    The following options are supported:

    addif address

    Create the next unused logical interface on the specified physical interface. If the physical interface is part of a multipathing group, the logical interface can be added to a different physical interface in the same group.

    all-zones

    Make the interface available to every shared-IP zone on the system. The appropriate zone to which to deliver data is determined using the tnzonecfg database. This option is available only if the system is configured with the Solaris Trusted Extensions feature.

    The tnzonecfg database is described in the tnzonecfg(4) man page, which is part of the Solaris Trusted Extensions Reference Manual.

    anycast

    Marks the logical interface as an anycast address by setting the ANYCAST flag. See "INTERFACE FLAGS," below, for more information on anycast.

    -anycast

    Marks the logical interface as not an anycast address by clearing the ANYCAST flag.

    arp

    Enable the use of the Address Resolution Protocol ("ARP") in mapping between network level addresses and link level addresses (default). This is currently implemented for mapping between IPv4 addresses and MAC addresses.

    -arp

    Disable the use of the ARP on a physical interface.

    auth_algs authentication algorithm

    For a tunnel, enable IPsec AH with the authentication algorithm specified. The algorithm can be either a number or an algorithm name, including any to express no preference in algorithm. All IPsec tunnel properties must be specified on the same command line. To disable tunnel security, specify an auth_alg of none.

    It is now preferable to use the ipsecconf(1M) command when configuring a tunnel's security properties. If ipsecconf was used to set a tunnel's security properties, this keyword will not affect the tunnel.

    auto-dhcp

    Use DHCP to automatically acquire an address for this interface. This option has a completely equivalent alias called dhcp.

    For IPv6, the interface specified must be the zeroth logical interface (the physical interface name), which has the link-local address.

    primary

    Defines the interface as the primary. The interface is defined as the preferred one for the delivery of client-wide configuration data. Only one interface can be the primary at any given time. If another interface is subsequently selected as the primary, it replaces the previous one. Nominating an interface as the primary one will not have much significance once the client work station has booted, as many applications will already have started and been configured with data read from the previous primary interface.

    wait seconds

    The ifconfig command will wait until the operation either completes or for the interval specified, whichever is the sooner. If no wait interval is given, and the operation is one that cannot complete immediately, ifconfig will wait 30 seconds for the requested operation to complete. The symbolic value forever may be used as well, with obvious meaning.

    drop

    Remove the specified interface from DHCP control without notifying the DHCP server, and record the current lease for later use. Additionally, for IPv4, set the IP address to zero. For IPv6, unplumb all logical interfaces plumbed by dhcpagent.

    extend

    Attempt to extend the lease on the interface's IP address. This is not required, as the agent will automatically extend the lease well before it expires.

    inform

    Obtain network configuration parameters from DHCP without obtaining a lease on IP addresses. This is useful in situations where an IP address is obtained through mechanisms other than DHCP.

    ping

    Check whether the interface given is under DHCP control, which means that the interface is managed by the DHCP agent and is working properly. An exit status of 0 means success.

    release

    Relinquish the IP addresses on the interface by notifying the server and discard the current lease. For IPv4, set the IP address to zero. For IPv6, all logical interfaces plumbed by dhcpagent are unplumbed.

    start

    Start DHCP on the interface.

    status

    Display the DHCP configuration status of the interface.

    auto-revarp

    Use the Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) to automatically acquire an address for this interface. This will fail if the interface does not support RARP; for example, IPoIB (IP over InfiniBand), and on IPv6 interfaces.

    broadcast address

    For IPv4 only. Specify the address to use to represent broadcasts to the network. The default broadcast address is the address with a host part of all 1's. A "+" (plus sign) given for the broadcast value causes the broadcast address to be reset to a default appropriate for the (possibly new) address and netmask. The arguments of ifconfig are interpreted left to right. Therefore

    example% ifconfig -a netmask + broadcast +
    

    and

    example% ifconfig -a broadcast + netmask +
    

    may result in different values being assigned for the broadcast addresses of the interfaces.

    deprecated

    Marks the logical interface as deprecated. An address associated with a deprecated interface will not be used as source address for outbound packets unless either there are no other addresses available on the interface or the application has bound to this address explicitly. The status display shows DEPRECATED as part of flags. See for information on the flags supported by ifconfig.

    -deprecated

    Marks a logical interface as not deprecated. An address associated with such an interface could be used as a source address for outbound packets.

    preferred

    Marks the logical interface as preferred. This option is only valid for IPv6 addresses. Addresses assigned to preferred logical interfaces are preferred as source addresses over all other addresses configured on the system, unless the address is of an inappropriate scope relative to the destination address. Preferred addresses are used as source addresses regardless of which physical interface they are assigned to. For example, you can configure a preferred source address on the loopback interface and advertise reachability of this address by using a routing protocol.

    -preferred

    Marks the logical interface as not preferred.

    destination dest_address

    Set the destination address for a point-to point interface.

    dhcp

    This option is an alias for option auto-dhcp

    down

    Mark a logical interface as "down". (That is, turn off the IFF_UP bit.) When a logical interface is marked "down," the system does not attempt to use the address assigned to that interface as a source address for outbound packets and will not recognize inbound packets destined to that address as being addressed to this host. Additionally, when all logical interfaces on a given physical interface are "down," the physical interface itself is disabled.

    When a logical interface is down, all routes that specify that interface as the output (using the -ifp option in the route(1M) command or RTA_IFP in a route(7P) socket) are removed from the forwarding table. Routes marked with RTF_STATIC are returned to the table if the interface is brought back up, while routes not marked with RTF_STATIC are simply deleted.

    When all logical interfaces that could possibly be used to reach a particular gateway address are brought down (specified without the interface option as in the previous paragraph), the affected gateway routes are treated as though they had the RTF_BLACKHOLE flag set. All matching packets are discarded because the gateway is unreachable.

    encaplimit n

    Set the tunnel encapsulation limit for the interface to n. This option applies to IPv4-in-IPv6 and IPv6-in-IPv6 tunnels only. The tunnel encapsulation limit controls how many more tunnels a packet may enter before it leaves any tunnels, that is, the tunnel nesting level.

    -encaplimit

    Disable generation of the tunnel encapsulation limit. This option applies only to IPv4-in-IPv6 and IPv6-in-IPv6 tunnels.

    encr_auth_algs authentication algorithm

    For a tunnel, enable IPsec ESP with the authentication algorithm specified. It can be either a number or an algorithm name, including any or none, to indicate no algorithm preference. If an ESP encryption algorithm is specified but the authentication algorithm is not, the default value for the ESP authentication algorithm will be any.

    It is now preferable to use the ipsecconf(1M) command when configuring a tunnel's security properties. If ipsecconf was used to set a tunnel's security properties, this keyword will not affect the tunnel.

    encr_algs encryption algorithm

    For a tunnel, enable IPsec ESP with the encryption algorithm specified. It can be either a number or an algorithm name. Note that all IPsec tunnel properties must be specified on the same command line. To disable tunnel security, specify the value of encr_alg as none. If an ESP authentication algorithm is specified, but the encryption algorithm is not, the default value for the ESP encryption will be null.

    It is now preferable to use the ipsecconf(1M) command when configuring a tunnel's security properties. If ipsecconf was used to set a tunnel's security properties, this keyword will not affect the tunnel.

    ether [ address ]

    If no address is given and the user is root or has sufficient privileges to open the underlying device, then display the current Ethernet address information.

    Otherwise, if the user is root or has sufficient privileges, set the Ethernet address of the interfaces to address. The address is an Ethernet address represented as x:x:x:x:x:x where x is a hexadecimal number between 0 and FF. Similarly, for the IPoIB (IP over InfiniBand) interfaces, the address will be 20 bytes of colon-separated hex numbers between 0 and FF.

    Some, though not all, Ethernet interface cards have their own addresses. To use cards that do not have their own addresses, refer to section 3.2.3(4) of the IEEE 802.3 specification for a definition of the locally administered address space. The use of multipathing groups should be restricted to those cards with their own addresses (see MULTIPATHING GROUPS).

    -failover

    Mark the logical interface as a non-failover interface. Addresses assigned to non-failover logical interfaces will not failover when the interface fails. Status display shows NOFAILOVER as part of flags.

    failover

    Mark the logical interface as a failover interface. An address assigned to such an interface will failover when the interface fails. Status display does not show NOFAILOVER as part of flags.

    group [ name |""]

    Insert the logical interface in the multipathing group specified by name. To delete an interface from a group, use a null string "". When invoked on the logical interface with id zero, the status display shows the group name.

    index n

    Change the interface index for the interface. The value of n must be an interface index (if_index) that is not used on another interface. if_index will be a non-zero positive number that uniquely identifies the network interface on the system.

    metric n

    Set the routing metric of the interface to n; if no value is specified, the default is 0. The routing metric is used by the routing protocol. Higher metrics have the effect of making a route less favorable. Metrics are counted as addition hops to the destination network or host.

    modinsert mod_name@pos

    Insert a module with name mod_name to the stream of the device at position pos. The position is relative to the stream head. Position 0 means directly under stream head.

    Based upon the example in the modlist option, use the following command to insert a module with name ipqos under the ip module and above the firewall module:

    example% ifconfig eri0 modinsert ipqos@2
    

    A subsequent listing of all the modules in the stream of the device follows:

    example% ifconfig eri0 modlist
    0 arp
    1 ip
    2 ipqos
    3 firewall 
    4 eri
    

    modlist

    List all the modules in the stream of the device.

    The following example lists all the modules in the stream of the device:

    example% ifconfig eri0 modlist
    0 arp
    1 ip
    2 firewall
    4 eri
    

    modremove mod_name@pos

    Remove a module with name mod_name from the stream of the device at position pos. The position is relative to the stream head.

    Based upon the example in the modinsert option, use the following command to remove the firewall module from the stream after inserting the ipqos module:

    example% ifconfig eri0 modremove firewall@3
    

    A subsequent listing of all the modules in the stream of the device follows:

    example% ifconfig eri0 modlist
    0 arp
    1 ip
    2 ipqos
    3 eri
    

    Note that the core IP stack modules, for example, ip and tun modules, cannot be removed.

    mtu n

    Set the maximum transmission unit of the interface to n. For many types of networks, the mtu has an upper limit, for example, 1500 for Ethernet. This option sets the FIXEDMTU flag on the affected interface.

    netmask mask

    For IPv4 only. Specify how much of the address to reserve for subdividing networks into subnetworks. The mask includes the network part of the local address and the subnet part, which is taken from the host field of the address. The mask contains 1's for the bit positions in the 32-bit address which are to be used for the network and subnet parts, and 0's for the host part. The mask should contain at least the standard network portion, and the subnet field should be contiguous with the network portion. The mask can be specified in one of four ways:
    1.
    with a single hexadecimal number with a leading 0x,
    2.
    with a dot-notation address,
    3.
    with a "+" (plus sign) address, or
    4.
    with a pseudo host name/pseudo network name found in the network database networks(4).
    If a "+" (plus sign) is given for the netmask value, the mask is looked up in the netmasks(4) database. This lookup finds the longest matching netmask in the database by starting with the interface's IPv4 address as the key and iteratively masking off more and more low order bits of the address. This iterative lookup ensures that the netmasks(4) database can be used to specify the netmasks when variable length subnetmasks are used within a network number.

    If a pseudo host name/pseudo network name is supplied as the netmask value, netmask data may be located in the hosts or networks database. Names are looked up by first using gethostbyname(3NSL). If not found there, the names are looked up in getnetbyname(3SOCKET). These interfaces may in turn use nsswitch.conf(4) to determine what data store(s) to use to fetch the actual value.

    For both inet and inet6, the same information conveyed by mask can be specified as a prefix_length attached to the address parameter.

    nud

    Enables the neighbor unreachability detection mechanism on a point-to-point physical interface.

    -nud

    Disables the neighbor unreachability detection mechanism on a point-to-point physical interface.

    plumb

    Open the device associated with the physical interface name and set up the streams needed for IP to use the device. When used with a logical interface name, this command is used to create a specific named logical interface. An interface must be separately plumbed for use by IPv4 and IPv6. The address_family parameter controls whether the ifconfig command applies to IPv4 or IPv6.

    Before an interface has been plumbed, the interface will not show up in the output of the ifconfig -a command.

    private

    Tells the in.routed routing daemon that a specified logical interface should not be advertised.

    -private

    Specify unadvertised interfaces.

    removeif address

    Remove the logical interface on the physical interface specified that matches the address specified. When the interface is part of a multipathing group, the logical interface will be removed from the physical interface in the group that holds the address.

    router

    Enable IP forwarding on the interface. When enabled, the interface is marked ROUTER, and IP packets can be forwarded to and from the interface.

    -router

    Disable IP forwarding on the interface. IP packets are not forwarded to and from the interface.

    set

    Set the address, prefix_length or both, for a logical interface.

    standby

    Marks the physical interface as a standby interface. If the interface is marked STANDBY and is part of the multipathing group, the interface will not be selected to send out packets unless some other interface in the group has failed and the network access has been failed over to this standby interface.

    The status display shows "STANDBY, INACTIVE" indicating that that the interface is a standby and is also inactive. IFF_INACTIVE will be cleared when some other interface belonging to the same multipathing group fails over to this interface. Once a failback happens, the status display will return to INACTIVE.

    -standby

    Turns off standby on this interface.

    subnet

    Set the subnet address for an interface.

    tdst tunnel_dest_address

    Set the destination address of a tunnel. The address should not be the same as the dest_address of the tunnel, because no packets leave the system over such a tunnel.

    thoplimit n

    Set the hop limit for a tunnel interface. The hop limit value is used as the TTL in the IPv4 header for the IPv6-in-IPv4 and IPv4-in-IPv4 tunnels. For IPv6-in-IPv6 and IPv4-in-IPv6 tunnels, the hop limit value is used as the hop limit in the IPv6 header.

    token address/prefix_length

    Set the IPv6 token of an interface to be used for address autoconfiguration.

    example% ifconfig eri0 inet6 token ::1/64
    

    trailers

    This flag previously caused a nonstandard encapsulation of IPv4 packets on certain link levels. Drivers supplied with this release no longer use this flag. It is provided for compatibility, but is ignored.

    -trailers

    Disable the use of a "trailer" link level encapsulation.

    tsrc tunnel_src_address

    Set the source address of a tunnel. This is the source address on an outer encapsulating IP header. It must be an address of another interface already configured using ifconfig.

    unplumb

    Close the device associated with this physical interface name and any streams that ifconfig set up for IP to use the device. When used with a logical interface name, the logical interface is removed from the system. After this command is executed, the device name will no longer appear in the output of ifconfig -a.

    up

    Mark a logical interface "up". This happens automatically when assigning the first address to a logical interface. The up option enables an interface after an ifconfig down, which reinitializes the hardware.

    usesrc [ name | none ]

    Specify a physical interface to be used for source address selection. If the keyword none is used, then any previous selection is cleared.

    When an application does not choose a non-zero source address using bind(3SOCKET), the system will select an appropriate source address based on the outbound interface and the address selection rules (see ipaddrsel(1M)).

    When usesrc is specified and the specified interface is selected in the forwarding table for output, the system looks first to the specified physical interface and its associated logical interfaces when selecting a source address. If no usable address is listed in the forwarding table, the ordinary selection rules apply. For example, if you enter:

    # ifconfig eri0 usesrc vni0
    

    ...and vni0 has address 10.0.0.1 assigned to it, the system will prefer 10.0.0.1 as the source address for any packets originated by local connections that are sent through eri0. Further examples are provided in the EXAMPLES section.

    While you can specify any physical interface (or even loopback), be aware that you can also specify the virtual IP interface (see vni(7D)). The virtual IP interface is not associated with any physical hardware and is thus immune to hardware failures. You can specify any number of physical interfaces to use the source address hosted on a single virtual interface. This simplifies the configuration of routing-based multipathing. If one of the physical interfaces were to fail, communication would continue through one of the remaining, functioning physical interfaces. This scenario assumes that the reachability of the address hosted on the virtual interface is advertised in some manner, for example, through a routing protocol.

    Because the ifconfig preferred option is applied to all interfaces, it is coarser-grained than the usesrc option. It will be overridden by usesrc and setsrc (route subcommand), in that order.

    The use of the usesrc option is mutually exclusive of the IP multipathing ifconfig options, group and standby. That is, if an interface is already part of a IP multipathing group or specified as a standby interface, then it cannot be specified with a usesrc option, and vice-versa. For more details on IP multipathing, see in.mpathd(1M) and the .

    xmit

    Enable a logical interface to transmit packets. This is the default behavior when the logical interface is up.

    -xmit

    Disable transmission of packets on an interface. The interface will continue to receive packets.

    zone zonename

    Place the logical interface in zone zonename. The named zone must be active in the kernel in the ready or running state. The interface is unplumbed when the zone is halted or rebooted. The zone must be configure to be an shared-IP zone. zonecfg(1M) is used to assign network interface names to exclusive-IP zones.

    -zone

    Place IP interface in the global zone. This is the default.

     

    OPERANDS

    The interface operand, as well as address parameters that affect it, are described below.

    interface

    A string of one of the following forms:
    o name physical-unit, for example, eri0 or ce1
    o name physical-unit:logical-unit, for example, eri0:1
    o ip.tunN or ip6.tunN, for tunnels
    If the interface name starts with a dash (-), it is interpreted as a set of options which specify a set of interfaces. In such a case, -a must be part of the options and any of the additional options below can be added in any order. If one of these interface names is given, the commands following it are applied to all of the interfaces that match.

    -a

    Apply the command to all interfaces of the specified address family. If no address family is supplied, either on the command line or by means of /etc/default/inet_type, then all address families will be selected.

    -d

    Apply the commands to all "down" interfaces in the system.

    -D

    Apply the commands to all interfaces not under DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) control.

    -u

    Apply the commands to all "up" interfaces in the system.

    -Z

    Apply the commands to all interfaces in the user's zone.

    -4

    Apply the commands to all IPv4 interfaces.

    -6

    Apply the commands to all IPv6 interfaces.

    address_family

    The address family is specified by the address_family parameter. The ifconfig command currently supports the following families: inet and inet6. If no address family is specified, the default is inet.

    ifconfig honors the DEFAULT_IP setting in the /etc/default/inet_type file when it displays interface information . If DEFAULT_IP is set to IP_VERSION4, then ifconfig will omit information that relates to IPv6 interfaces. However, when you explicitly specify an address family (inet or inet6) on the ifconfig command line, the command line overrides the DEFAULT_IP settings.

    address

    For the IPv4 family (inet), the address is either a host name present in the host name data base (see hosts(4)) or in the Network Information Service (NIS) map hosts, or an IPv4 address expressed in the Internet standard "dot notation".

    For the IPv6 family (inet6), the address is either a host name present in the host name data base (see hosts(4)) or in the Network Information Service (NIS) map ipnode, or an IPv6 address expressed in the Internet standard colon-separated hexadecimal format represented as x:x:x:x:x:x:x:x where x is a hexadecimal number between 0 and FFFF.

    prefix_length

    For the IPv4 and IPv6 families (inet and inet6), the prefix_length is a number between 0 and the number of bits in the address. For inet, the number of bits in the address is 32; for inet6, the number of bits in the address is 128. The prefix_length denotes the number of leading set bits in the netmask.

    dest_address

    If the dest_address parameter is supplied in addition to the address parameter, it specifies the address of the correspondent on the other end of a point-to-point link.

    tunnel_dest_address

    An address that is or will be reachable through an interface other than the tunnel being configured. This tells the tunnel where to send the tunneled packets. This address must not be the same as the interface destination address being configured.

    tunnel_src_address

    An address that is attached to an already configured interface that has been configured "up" with ifconfig.

     

    INTERFACE FLAGS

    The ifconfig command supports the following interface flags. The term "address" in this context refers to a logical interface, for example, eri0:0, while "interface " refers to the physical interface, for example, eri0.

    ADDRCONF

    The address is from stateless addrconf. The stateless mechanism allows a host to generate its own address using a combination of information advertised by routers and locally available information. Routers advertise prefixes that identify the subnet associated with the link, while the host generates an "interface identifier" that uniquely identifies an interface in a subnet. In the absence of information from routers, a host can generate link-local addresses. This flag is specific to IPv6.

    ANYCAST

    Indicates an anycast address. An anycast address identifies the nearest member of a group of systems that provides a particular type of service. An anycast address is assigned to a group of systems. Packets are delivered to the nearest group member identified by the anycast address instead of being delivered to all members of the group.

    BROADCAST

    This broadcast address is valid. This flag and POINTTOPOINT are mutually exclusive

    CoS

    This interface supports some form of Class of Service (CoS) marking. An example is the 802.1D user priority marking supported on VLAN interfaces.

    DEPRECATED

    This address is deprecated. This address will not be used as a source address for outbound packets unless there are no other addresses on this interface or an application has explicitly bound to this address. An IPv6 deprecated address will eventually be deleted when not used, whereas an IPv4 deprecated address is often used with IP network multipathing IPv4 test addresses, which are determined by the setting of the NOFAILOVER flag. Further, the DEPRECATED flag is part of the standard mechanism for renumbering in IPv6.

    DHCP

    DHCP is used to manage this address.

    DUPLICATE

    The logical interface has been disabled because the IP address configured on the interface is a duplicate. Some other node on the network is using this address. If the address was configured by DHCP or is temporary, the system will choose another automatically, if possible. Otherwise, the system will attempt to recover this address periodically and the interface will recover when the conflict has been removed from the network. Changing the address or netmask, or setting the logical interface to up will restart duplicate detection. Setting the interface to down terminates recovery and removes the DUPLICATE flag.

    FAILED

    The interface has failed. New addresses cannot be created on this interface. If this interface is part of an IP network multipathing group, a failover will occur to another interface in the group, if possible

    FIXEDMTU

    The MTU has been set using the -mtu option. This flag is read-only. Interfaces that have this flag set have a fixed MTU value that is unaffected by dynamic MTU changes that can occur when drivers notify IP of link MTU changes.

    INACTIVE

    Indicates that the interface is not currently being used for regular traffic by the system. New addresses cannot be created on this interface. The flag is set automatically on standby interfaces. It can also be set when the system detects that a failed interface has been repaired and FAILBACK=no is configured in /etc/default/mpathd. The flag is cleared when the interface fails or when a failover to that interface occurs.

    LOOPBACK

    Indicates that this is the loopback interface.

    MULTI_BCAST

    Indicates that the broadcast address is used for multicast on this interface.

    MULTICAST

    The interface supports multicast. IP assumes that any interface that supports hardware broadcast, or that is a point-to-point link, will support multicast.

    NOARP

    There is no address resolution protocol (ARP) for this interface that corresponds to all interfaces for a device without a broadcast address. This flag is specific to IPv4.

    NOFAILOVER

    This address will not failover if the interface fails. IP network      multipathing test addresses must be marked nofailover.

    NOLOCAL

    The interface has no address , just an on-link subnet.

    NONUD

    NUD is disabled on this interface. NUD (neighbor unreachability detection) is used by a node to track the reachability state of its neighbors, to which the node actively sends packets, and to perform any recovery if a neighbor is detected to be unreachable. This flag is specific to IPv6.

    NORTEXCH

    The interface does not exchange routing information. For RIP-2, routing packets are not sent over this interface. Additionally, messages that appear to come over this interface receive no response. The subnet or address of this interface is not included in advertisements over other interfaces to other routers.

    NOXMIT

    Indicates that the address does not transmit packets. RIP-2 also does not advertise this address.

    OFFLINE

    Indicates that the interface has been offlined. New addresses cannot be created on this interface. Interfaces in an IP network multipathing group are offlined prior to removal and replacement using dynamic reconfiguration.

    POINTOPOINT

    Indicates that the address is a point-to-point link. This flag and BROADCAST are mutually exclusive

    PREFERRED

    This address is a preferred IPv6 source address. This address will be used as a source address for IPv6 communication with all IPv6 destinations, unless another address on the system is of more appropriate scope. The DEPRECATED flag takes precedence over the PREFERRED flag.

    PRIVATE

    Indicates that this address is not advertised. For RIP-2, this interface is used to send advertisements. However, neither the subnet nor this address are included in advertisements to other routers.

    ROUTER

    Indicates that IP packets can be forwarded to and from the interface.

    RUNNING

    Indicates that the required resources for an interface are allocated. For some interfaces this also indicates that the link is up.

    STANDBY

    Indicates that this is a standby interface to be used on failures. Only interfaces in an IP network multipathing group should be designated as standby interfaces. If this interface is part of a IP network multipathing group, the interface will not be selected to send out packets unless some other interface in the group fails over to it.

    TEMPORARY

    Indicates that this is a temporary IPv6 address as defined in RFC 3041.

    UNNUMBERED

    This flag is set when the local IP address on the link matches the local address of some other link in the system

    UP

    Indicates that the interface is up, that is, all the routing entries and the like for this interface have been set up.

    VIRTUAL

    Indicates that the physical interface has no underlying hardware. It is not possible to transmit or receive packets through a virtual interface. These interfaces are useful for configuring local addresses that can be used on multiple interfaces. (See also the -usesrc option.)

    XRESOLV

    Indicates that the interface uses an IPv6 external resolver.

     

    LOGICAL INTERFACES

    Solaris TCP/IP allows multiple logical interfaces to be associated with a physical network interface. This allows a single machine to be assigned multiple IP addresses, even though it may have only one network interface. Physical network interfaces have names of the form driver-name physical-unit-number, while logical interfaces have names of the form driver-name physical-unit-number:logical-unit-number. A physical interface is configured into the system using the plumb command. For example:

    example% ifconfig eri0 plumb
    

    Once a physical interface has been "plumbed", logical interfaces associated with the physical interface can be configured by separate -plumb or -addif options to the ifconfig command.

    example% ifconfig eri0:1 plumb
    

    allocates a specific logical interface associated with the physical interface eri0. The command

    example% ifconfig eri0 addif 192.168.200.1/24 up
    

    allocates the next available logical unit number on the eri0 physical interface and assigns an address and prefix_length.

    A logical interface can be configured with parameters ( address,prefix_length, and so on) different from the physical interface with which it is associated. Logical interfaces that are associated with the same physical interface can be given different parameters as well. Each logical interface must be associated with an existing and "up" physical interface. So, for example, the logical interface eri0:1 can only be configured after the physical interface eri0 has been plumbed.

    To delete a logical interface, use the -unplumb or -removeif options. For example,

    example% ifconfig eri0:1 down unplumb
    

    will delete the logical interface eri0:1.  

    MULTIPATHING GROUPS

    Physical interfaces that share the same IP broadcast domain can be collected into a multipathing group using the group keyword. Interfaces assigned to the same multipathing group are treated as equivalent and outgoing traffic is spread across the interfaces on a per-IP-destination basis. In addition, individual interfaces in a multipathing group are monitored for failures; the addresses associated with failed interfaces are automatically transferred to other functioning interfaces within the group.

    For more details on IP multipathing, see in.mpathd(1M) and the . See netstat(1M) for per-IP-destination information.  

    CONFIGURING IPV6 INTERFACES

    When an IPv6 physical interface is plumbed and configured "up" with ifconfig, it is automatically assigned an IPv6 link-local address for which the last 64 bits are calculated from the MAC address of the interface.

    example% ifconfig eri0 inet6 plumb up
    

    The following example shows that the link-local address has a prefix of fe80::/10.

    example% ifconfig eri0 inet6
    ce0: flags=2000841<UP,RUNNING,MULTICAST,IPv6>
              mtu 1500 index 2  
           inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fe8e:f3ad/10
    

    Link-local addresses are only used for communication on the local subnet and are not visible to other subnets.

    If an advertising IPv6 router exists on the link advertising prefixes, then the newly plumbed IPv6 interface will autoconfigure logical interface(s) depending on the prefix advertisements. For example, for the prefix advertisement 2001:0db8:3c4d:0:55::/64, the autoconfigured interface will look like:

    eri0:2: flags=2080841<UP,RUNNING,MULTICAST,ADDRCONF,IPv6>
             mtu 1500 index 2
           inet6 2001:0db8:3c4d:55:a00:20ff:fe8e:f3ad/64
    

    Even if there are no prefix advertisements on the link, you can still assign global addresses manually, for example:

    example% ifconfig eri0 inet6 addif \
    2001:0db8:3c4d:55:a00:20ff:fe8e:f3ad/64 up
    

    To configure boot-time defaults for the interface eri0, place the following entry in the /etc/hostname6.eri0 file:

    addif  2001:0db8:3c4d:55:a00:20ff:fe8e:f3ad/64 up
    

     

    Configuring IPv6/IPv4 tunnels

    An IPv6 over IPv4 tunnel interface can send and receive IPv6 packets encapsulated in an IPv4 packet. Create tunnels at both ends pointing to each other. IPv6 over IPv4 tunnels require the tunnel source and tunnel destination IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. Solaris 8 supports both automatic and configured tunnels. For automatic tunnels, an IPv4-compatible IPv6 address is used. The following demonstrates auto-tunnel configuration:

    example% ifconfig ip.atun0 inet6 plumb
    example% ifconfig ip.atun0 inet6 tsrc IPv4-address \
      ::IPv4 address/96 up
    

    where IPv4-address is the IPv4 address of the interface through which the tunnel traffic will flow, and IPv4-address, ::<IPv4-address>, is the corresponding IPv4-compatible IPv6 address.

    The following is an example of a configured tunnel:

    example% ifconfig ip.tun0 inet6 plumb tsrc my-ipv4-address \
      tdst peer-ipv4-address up
    

    This creates a configured tunnel between my-ipv4-address and peer-ipv4-address with corresponding link-local addresses. For tunnels with global or site-local addresses, the logical tunnel interfaces need to be configured in the following form:

    example% ifconfig ip.tun0 inet6 addif my-v6-address peer-v6-address up
    

    For example,

    example% ifconfig ip.tun0 inet6 plumb tsrc 109.146.85.57 \
      tdst 109.146.85.212 up
    example% ifconfig ip.tun0 inet6 addif 2::45 2::46 up
    

    To show all IPv6 interfaces that are up and configured:

    example% ifconfig -au6
    ip.tun0: flags=2200851<UP,POINTOPOINT,RUNNING,MULTICAST,NONUD,IPv6>
              mtu 1480 index 3
           inet tunnel src 109.146.85.57   tunnel dst 109.146.85.212
           tunnel security settings  -->  use 'ipsecconf -ln -i ip.tun1'
           tunnel hop limit 60
           inet6 fe80::6d92:5539/10 --> fe80::6d92:55d4
    ip.tun0:1: flags=2200851<UP,POINTOPOINT,RUNNING,MULTICAST,NONUD,IPv6>
             mtu 1480 index 3
           inet6 2::45/128 --> 2::46
    

    In the output above, note the line that begins with "tunnel security settings". The content of this line varies according to whether and how you have set your security settings. See "Display of Tunnel Security Settings," below.  

    Configuring IPv4/IPv6 Tunnels

    An IPv4 over IPv6 tunnel interface can send and receive IPv4 packets encapsulated in an IPv6 packet. Create tunnels at both ends pointing to each other. IPv4 over IPv6 tunnels require the tunnel source and tunnel destination IPv6 and IPv4 addresses. The following demonstrates auto-tunnel configuration:

    example% ifconfig ip6.tun0 inet plumb tsrc my-ipv6-address \
      tdst peer-ipv6-address my-ipv4-address \
      peer-ipv4-address up
    

    This creates a configured tunnel between my-ipv6-address and peer-ipv6-address with my-ipv4-address and peer-ipv4-address as the endpoints of the point-to-point interface, for example:

    example% ifconfig ip6.tun0 inet plumb tsrc fe80::1 tdst fe80::2 \
    10.0.0.208 10.0.0.210 up
    

    To show all IPv4 interfaces that are up and configured:

    example% ifconfig -au4
    lo0: flags=1000849<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST,IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1
        inet 127.0.0.1 netmask ff000000
    eri0: flags=1004843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST,DHCP,IPv4> mtu 1500 \
    index 2
        inet 172.17.128.208 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 172.17.128.255
    ip6.tun0: flags=10008d1<UP,POINTOPOINT,RUNNING,NOARP,MULTICAST,IPv4> \
    mtu 1460 
        index 3
        inet6 tunnel src fe80::1 tunnel dst fe80::2
        tunnel security settings  -->  use 'ipsecconf -ln -i ip.tun1'
        tunnel hop limit 60 tunnel encapsulation limit 4
        inet 10.0.0.208 --> 10.0.0.210 netmask ff000000
    

    In the output above, note the line that begins with "tunnel security settings". The content of this line varies according to whether and how you have set your security settings. See "Display of Tunnel Security Settings," below.  

    Display of Tunnel Security Settings

    The ifconfig output for tunneled interfaces indicates security settings, if present, for a tunnel. The content of the line showing your settings differs depending on how you have made your settings:

    o If you set your security policy using the ifconfig -auth_algs, -encr_algs, and -encr_auth_algs options and do not use ipsecconf(1M), ifconfig displays your settings for each of these options.
    o If you set your security policy using ipsecconf(1M) with the tunnel keyword (the preferred method), ifconfig displays:

    tunnel security settings  -->  use 'ipsecconf -ln -i ip.tun1'
    

    ...in effect, hiding your settings from those without privileges to view them.

    If you do net set security policy, using either ifconfig or ipsecconf, there is no tunnel security setting displayed.

     

    EXAMPLES

    Example 1 Using the ifconfig Command

    If your workstation is not attached to an Ethernet, the network interface, for example, eri0, should be marked "down" as follows:

    example% ifconfig eri0 down
    

    Example 2 Printing Addressing Information

    To print out the addressing information for each interface, use the following command:

    example% ifconfig -a
    

    Example 3 Resetting the Broadcast Address

    To reset each interface's broadcast address after the netmasks have been correctly set, use the next command:

    example% ifconfig -a broadcast +
    

    Example 4 Changing the Ethernet Address

    To change the Ethernet address for interface ce0, use the following command:

    example% ifconfig ce0 ether aa:1:2:3:4:5
    

    Example 5 Configuring an IP-in-IP Tunnel

    To configure an IP-in-IP tunnel, first plumb it with the following command:

    example% ifconfig ip.tun0 plumb
    

    Then configure it as a point-to-point interface, supplying the tunnel source and the tunnel destination:

    example% ifconfig ip.tun0 myaddr mydestaddr tsrc another_myaddr \
              tdst a_dest_addr up
    

    Use ipsecconf(1M), as described above, to configure tunnel security properties.

    Example 6 Configuring 6to4 Tunnels

    To configure 6to4 tunnels, use the following commands:

    example% ifconfig ip.6to4tun0 inet6 plumb
    example% ifconfig ip.6to4tun0 inet6 tsrc IPv4-address 6to4-address/64 up
    

    IPv4-address denotes the address of the encapsulating interface. 6to4-address denotes the address of the local IPv6 address of form 2002:IPv4-address:SUBNET-ID:HOSTID.

    The long form should be used to resolve any potential conflicts that might arise if the system administrator utilizes an addressing plan where the values for SUBNET-ID or HOSTID are reserved for something else.

    After the interface is plumbed, a 6to4 tunnel can be configured as follows:

    example% ifconfig ip.6to4tun0 inet6 tsrc IPv4-address up
    

    This short form sets the address. It uses the convention:

    2002:IPv4-address::1
    

    The SUBNET-ID is 0, and the HOSTID is 1.

    Example 7 Configuring IP Forwarding on an Interface

    To enable IP forwarding on a single interface, use the following command:

    example% ifconfig eri0 router
    

    To disable IP forwarding on a single interface, use the following command:

    example% ifconfig eri0 -router
    

    Example 8 Configuring Source Address Selection Using a Virtual Interface

    The following command configures source address selection such that every packet that is locally generated with no bound source address and going out on qfe2 prefers a source address hosted on vni0.

    example% ifconfig qfe2 usesrc vni0
    

    The ifconfig -a output for the qfe2 and vni0 interfaces displays as follows:

    qfe2: flags=1100843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST,ROUTER,IPv4> mtu
     1500 index 4
     usesrc vni0
     inet 1.2.3.4 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 1.2.3.255
     ether 0:3:ba:17:4b:e1
    vni0: flags=20011100c1<UP,RUNNING,NOARP,NOXMIT,ROUTER,IPv4,VIRTUAL>
     mtu 0 index 5
     srcof qfe2
     inet 3.4.5.6 netmask ffffffff
    

    Observe, above, the usesrc and srcof keywords in the ifconfig output. These keywords also appear on the logical instances of the physical interface, even though this is a per-physical interface parameter. There is no srcof keyword in ifconfig for configuring interfaces. This information is determined automatically from the set of interfaces that have usesrc set on them.

    The following command, using the none keyword, undoes the effect of the preceding ifconfig usersrc command.

    example% ifconfig qfe2 usesrc none
    

    Following this command, ifconfig -a output displays as follows:

    qfe2: flags=1100843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST,ROUTER,IPv4> mtu
     1500 index 4
     inet 1.2.3.4 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 1.2.3.255
     ether 0:3:ba:17:4b:e1
    vni0: flags=20011100c1<UP,RUNNING,NOARP,NOXMIT,ROUTER,IPv4,VIRTUAL>
     mtu 0 index 5
     inet 3.4.5.6 netmask ffffffff
    

    Note the absence of the usesrc and srcof keywords in the output above.

    Example 9 Configuring Source Address Selection for an IPv6 Address

    The following command configures source address selection for an IPv6 address, selecting a source address hosted on vni0.

    example% ifconfig qfe1 inet6 usesrc vni0
    

    Following this command, ifconfig -a output displays as follows:

    qfe1: flags=2000841<UP,RUNNING,MULTICAST,IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3
     usesrc vni0
     inet6 fe80::203:baff:fe17:4be0/10
     ether 0:3:ba:17:4b:e0
    vni0: flags=2002210041<UP,RUNNING,NOXMIT,NONUD,IPv6,VIRTUAL> mtu 0
     index 5
     srcof qfe1
     inet6 fe80::203:baff:fe17:4444/128
    vni0:1: flags=2002210040<RUNNING,NOXMIT,NONUD,IPv6,VIRTUAL> mtu 0
     index 5
     srcof qfe1
     inet6 fec0::203:baff:fe17:4444/128
    vni0:2: flags=2002210040<RUNNING,NOXMIT,NONUD,IPv6,VIRTUAL> mtu 0
     index 5
     srcof qfe1
     inet6 2000::203:baff:fe17:4444/128
    

    Depending on the scope of the destination of the packet going out on qfe1, the appropriately scoped source address is selected from vni0 and its aliases.

    Example 10 Using Source Address Selection with Shared-IP Zones

    The following is an example of how the usesrc feature can be used with the zones(5) facility in Solaris. The following commands are invoked in the global zone:

    example% ifconfig hme0 usesrc vni0
    example% ifconfig eri0 usesrc vni0
    example% ifconfig qfe0 usesrc vni0
    

    Following the preceding commands, the ifconfig -a output for the virtual interfaces would display as:

    vni0: flags=20011100c1<UP,RUNNING,NOARP,NOXMIT,ROUTER,IPv4,VIRTUAL>
      mtu 0 index 23
      srcof hme0 eri0 qfe0
      inet 10.0.0.1 netmask ffffffff
    vni0:1:
      flags=20011100c1<UP,RUNNING,NOARP,NOXMIT,ROUTER,IPv4,VIRTUAL> mtu 0
      index 23
      zone test1
      srcof hme0 eri0 qfe0
      inet 10.0.0.2 netmask ffffffff
    vni0:2:
      flags=20011100c1<UP,RUNNING,NOARP,NOXMIT,ROUTER,IPv4,VIRTUAL> mtu 0
      index 23
      zone test2
      srcof hme0 eri0 qfe0
      inet 10.0.0.3 netmask ffffffff
    vni0:3:
      flags=20011100c1<UP,RUNNING,NOARP,NOXMIT,ROUTER,IPv4,VIRTUAL> mtu 0
      index 23
      zone test3
      srcof hme0 eri0 qfe0
      inet 10.0.0.4 netmask ffffffff
    

    There is one virtual interface alias per zone (test1, test2, and test3). A source address from the virtual interface alias in the same zone is selected. The virtual interface aliases were created using zonecfg(1M) as follows:

    example% zonecfg -z test1
    zonecfg:test1> add net
    zonecfg:test1:net> set physical=vni0
    zonecfg:test1:net> set address=10.0.0.2
    

    The test2 and test3 zone interfaces and addresses are created in the same way.

    Example 11 Turning Off DHCPv6

    The following example shows how to disable automatic use of DHCPv6 on all interfaces, and immediately shut down DHCPv6 on the interface named hme0. See in.ndpd(1M) and ndpd.conf(4) for more information on the automatic DHCPv6 configuration mechanism.

    example% echo ifdefault StatefulAddrConf false >> /etc/inet/ndpd.conf
    example% pkill -HUP -x in.ndpd
    example% ifconfig hme0 dhcp release
    

     

    FILES

    /etc/netmasks

    Netmask data.

    /etc/default/inet_type

    Default Internet protocol type.

     

    ATTRIBUTES

    See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

    ATTRIBUTE TYPEATTRIBUTE VALUE

    AvailabilitySUNWcsu

    Interface Stability for command-line options

    Interface Stability for command output

     

    SEE ALSO

    dhcpinfo(1), dhcpagent(1M), in.mpathd(1M), in.ndpd(1M), in.routed(1M), ipsecconf(1M), ndd(1M), netstat(1M), zoneadm(1M), zonecfg(1M), ethers(3SOCKET), gethostbyname(3NSL), getnetbyname(3SOCKET), hosts(4), inet_type(4), ndpd.conf(4), netmasks(4), networks(4), nsswitch.conf(4), attributes(5), privileges(5), zones(5), arp(7P), ipsecah(7P), ipsecesp(7P), tun(7M)

     

    DIAGNOSTICS

    ifconfig sends messages that indicate if:

    o the specified interface does not exist
    o the requested address is unknown
    o the user is not privileged and tried to alter an interface's configuration
     

    NOTES

    Do not select the names broadcast, down, private, trailers, up or other possible option names when you choose host names. If you choose any one of these names as host names, it can cause unusual problems that are extremely difficult to diagnose.


     

    Index

    NAME
    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    DHCP Configuration
    OPTIONS
    OPERANDS
    INTERFACE FLAGS
    LOGICAL INTERFACES
    MULTIPATHING GROUPS
    CONFIGURING IPV6 INTERFACES
    Configuring IPv6/IPv4 tunnels
    Configuring IPv4/IPv6 Tunnels
    Display of Tunnel Security Settings
    EXAMPLES
    FILES
    ATTRIBUTES
    SEE ALSO
    DIAGNOSTICS
    NOTES


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