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hier (Б┼┌mit=Показать man)
  • >> hier (7) ( FreeBSD man: Макропакеты и соглашения )
  • hier (7) ( Русские man: Макропакеты и соглашения )
  • hier (7) ( Linux man: Макропакеты и соглашения )

  • BSD mandoc
     

    NAME

    
    
    hier
    
     - layout of file systems
    
     
    

    DESCRIPTION

    A sketch of the file system hierarchy.

    /
    root directory of the file system
    /bin/
    user utilities fundamental to both single-user and multi-user environments
    /boot/
    programs and configuration files used during operating system bootstrap

    defaults/
    default bootstrapping configuration files; see loader.conf5
    kernel/
    pure kernel executable (the operating system loaded into memory at boot time).
    modules/
    third-party loadable kernel modules; see kldstat(8)

    /cdrom/
    default mount point for CD-ROM drives (created by sysinstall(8))
    /compat/
    normally a link to /usr/compat If not, then the /usr/compat comments apply (created by sysinstall(8))
    /dev/
    device special files managed by devfs(5)

    fd/
    file descriptor files; see fd4
    net/
    network devices

    /dist/
    mount point used by sysinstall(8)
    /etc/
    system configuration files and scripts

    defaults/
    default system configuration files; see rc(8)
    bluetooth/
    bluetooth configuration files
    gnats/
    gnats configuration files; see send-pr1
    isdn/
    isdn4bsd configuration files; see isdnd(8)
    localtime
    local timezone information; see ctime(3)
    mail/
    Sendmail control files
    mtree/
    mtree configuration files; see mtree(8)
    namedb/
    named configuration files; see named(8)
    pam.d/
    configuration files for the Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) library
    periodic/
    scripts that are run daily, weekly, and monthly, via cron(8); see periodic(8)
    rc.d/
    System and daemon startup/control scripts; see rc(8)
    security/
    OpenBSM audit configuration files; see audit(8)
    ppp/
    ppp configuration files; see ppp(8)
    ssh/
    OpenSSH configuration files; see ssh(1)
    ssl/
    OpenSSL configuration files

    /lib/
    critical system libraries needed for binaries in /bin and /sbin

    geom/
    class-specific libraries for the geom(8) utility

    /libexec/
    critical system utilities needed for binaries in /bin and /sbin
    /media/
    contains subdirectories to be used as mount points for removable media such as CDs, USB drives, and floppy disks
    /mnt/
    empty directory commonly used by system administrators as a temporary mount point
    /proc/
    process file system; see procfs(5)
    /rescue/
    statically linked programs for emergency recovery; see rescue(8)
    /root/
    root's HOME directory
    /sbin/
    system programs and administration utilities fundamental to both single-user and multi-user environments
    /tmp/
    temporary files that are not guaranteed to persist across system reboots
    /usr/
    contains the majority of user utilities and applications

    bin/
    common utilities, programming tools, and applications
    compat/
    files needed to support binary compatibility with other operating systems, such as Linux (created by sysinstall(8))
    games/
    useful and semi-frivolous programs
    include/
    standard C include files

    altq/
    C include files for alternate queueing
    arpa/
    C include files for Internet service protocols
    bsnmp/
    C include files for the SNMP daemon
    c++/
    C++ include files
    cam/
    C include files for the Common Access Methods Layer

    scsi/
    The SCSI device on top of CAM

    dev/
    C include files for programming various Fx devices

    ic/
    Various header files describing driver- and bus-independent hardware circuits
    ofw/
    Open Firmware support
    pbio/
    8255 PPI cards; see pbio(4)
    ppbus/
    The parallel port bus; see ppbus(4)
    usb/
    The USB subsystem
    utopia/
    Physical chip driver for ATM interfaces; see utopia(4)
    wi/
    The wi(4) WaveLAN driver

    fs/

    fdescfs/
    per-process file descriptors file system
    fifofs/
    St -p1003.1 FIFOs file system
    msdosfs/
    MS-DOS file system
    ntfs/
    NTFS file system
    nullfs/
    loopback file system
    nwfs/
    NetWare file system
    portalfs/
    portal file system
    procfs/
    process file system
    smbfs/
    SMB/CIFS file system
    udf/
    UDF file system
    unionfs
    union file system

    geom/
    GEOM framework

    concat/
    CONCAT GEOM class
    gate/
    GATE GEOM class
    mirror/
    MIRROR GEOM class
    nop/
    NOP GEOM class
    raid3/
    RAID3 GEOM class
    stripe/
    STRIPE GEOM class

    isc/
    ISC utility library libisc include files
    isofs/

    cd9660/
    iso9660 file system

    libmilter/
    C include files for libmilter, the sendmail(8) mail filter API
    machine/
    machine-specific C include files
    net/
    miscellaneous network C include files
    netatalk/
    Appletalk protocol
    netinet/
    C include files for Internet standard protocols; see inet(4)
    netinet6/
    C include files for Internet protocol version 6; see inet6(4)
    netipsec/
    kernel key-management service; see ipsec(4)
    netipx/
    IPX/SPX protocol stacks
    netnatm/
    NATM include files; see natm(4)

    api/
    include files for the signalling API
    msg/
    include files that describe signalling messages and declare associated functions
    saal/
    include files for the signalling AAL layer
    sig/
    include files for the UNI signalling protocol

    netsmb/
    SMB/CIFS requester
    nfs/
    C include files for NFS (Network File System)
    objc/
    Objective C include files
    openssl/
    OpenSSL (Cryptography/SSL toolkit) headers
    pccard/
    PC-CARD controllers
    protocols/
    C include files for Berkeley service protocols
    readline/
    get a line from a user, with editing; see readline(3)
    rpc/
    remote procedure calls; see rpc(3)
    rpcsvc/
    definition of RPC service structures; see rpc(3)
    security/
    PAM; see pam(8)
    sys/
    system C include files (kernel data structures)
    ufs/
    C include files for UFS (The U-word File System)

    ffs/
    Fast file system
    ufs/
    UFS file system

    vm/
    virtual memory; see vmstat(8)

    lib/
    shared and archive ar(1)Ns-type libraries

    aout/
    a.out archive libraries
    compat/
    shared libraries for compatibility

    aout/
    a.out backward compatibility libraries

    dtrace/
    DTrace library scripts
    engines/
    OpenSSL (Cryptography/SSL toolkit) dynamically loadable engines

    libdata/
    miscellaneous utility data files

    gcc/
    gcc(1) configuration data
    ldscripts/
    linker scripts; see ld(1)
    lint/
    various prebuilt lint libraries; see lint(1)

    libexec/
    system daemons & system utilities (executed by other programs)

    aout/
    utilities to manipulate a.out executables
    elf/
    utilities to manipulate ELF executables
    lpr/
    utilities and filters for LP print system; see lpr(1)
    sendmail/
    the sendmail(8) binary; see mailwrapper(8)
    sm.bin/
    restricted shell for sendmail(8); see smrsh(8)

    local/
    local executables, libraries, etc. Also used as the default destination for the Fx ports framework. Within local/, the general layout sketched out by for /usr should be used. Exceptions are the man directory (directly under local/ rather than under local/share/), ports documentation (in share/doc/<port>/), and /usr/local/etc (mimics /etc).
    obj/
    architecture-specific target tree produced by building the /usr/src tree
    ports/
    The Fx ports collection (optional).
    sbin/
    system daemons & system utilities (executed by users)
    share/
    architecture-independent files

    calendar/
    a variety of pre-fab calendar files; see calendar(1)
    dict/
    word lists; see look(1)

    freebsd
    Fx Ns -specific terms, proper names, and jargon
    words
    common words
    web2
    words from Webster's 2nd International
    papers/
    reference databases; see refer(1)

    doc/
    miscellaneous documentation; source for most of the printed BSD manuals (available from the USENIX association)

    FAQ/
    Frequently Asked Questions
    IPv6/
    implementation notes for IPv6
    bind/
    documents pertaining to BIND (the Berkeley Internet Name Domain)
    es/
    Spanish translations of documents in /usr/share/doc
    handbook/
    Fx Handbook
    ja/
    Japanese translations of documents in /usr/share/doc
    legal/
    License files for vendor supplied firmwares
    ncurses/
    HTML documents pertaining to ncurses; see ncurses(3)
    ntp/
    HTML documents pertaining to the Network Time Protocol
    papers/
    UNIX Papers
    psd/
    UNIX Programmer's Supplementary Documents
    ru/
    Russian translations of documents in /usr/share/doc
    smm/
    UNIX System Manager's Manual
    tutorials/
    Fx tutorials
    usd/
    UNIX User's Supplementary Documents
    zh/
    Chinese translations of documents in /usr/share/doc

    examples/
    various examples for users and programmers
    games/
    ASCII text files used by various games
    groff_font/
    device description file for device name
    info/
    GNU Info hypertext system
    isdn/
    ISDN
    locale/
    localization files; see setlocale(3)
    man/
    manual pages
    me/
    macros for use with the me macro package; see me(7)
    misc/
    miscellaneous system-wide ASCII text files

    fonts/
    ???
    termcap
    terminal characteristics database; see termcap(5)

    mk/
    templates for make; see make(1)
    nls/
    national language support files; see mklocale(1)
    security/
    data files for security policies such as mac_lomac4
    sendmail/
    sendmail(8) configuration files
    skel/
    example . (dot) files for new accounts
    snmp/
    MIBs, example files and tree definitions for the SNMP daemon.

    defs/
    Tree definition files for use with gensnmptree(1)
    mibs/
    MIB files

    syscons/
    files used by syscons; see syscons(4)

    fonts/
    console fonts; see vidcontrol(1) and vidfont(1)
    keymaps/
    console keyboard maps; see kbdcontrol(1) and kbdmap(1)
    scrnmaps/
    console screen maps

    tabset/
    tab description files for a variety of terminals; used in the termcap file; see termcap(5)
    tmac/
    text processing macros; see nroff(1) and troff(1)
    vi/
    localization support and utilities for vi(1)
    zoneinfo/
    timezone configuration information; see tzfile(5)

    src/
    BSD , third-party, and/or local source files

    bin/
    source code for files in /bin
    contrib/
    source code for contributed software
    crypto/
    source code for contributed cryptography software
    etc/
    source code for files in /etc
    games/
    source code for files in /usr/games
    gnu/
    Utilities covered by the GNU General Public License
    include/
    source code for files in /usr/include
    kerberos5/
    build infrastructure for kerberos version 5
    lib/
    source code for files in /usr/lib
    libexec/
    source code for files in /usr/libexec
    release/
    files required to produce a Fx release
    sbin/
    source code for files in /sbin
    secure/
    build directory for files in /usr/src/crypto
    share/
    source for files in /usr/share
    sys/
    kernel source code
    tools/
    tools used for maintenance and testing of Fx
    usr.bin/
    source code for files in /usr/bin
    usr.sbin/
    source code for files in /usr/sbin

    /var/
    multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files

    account/
    system accounting files

    acct
    execution accounting file; see acct(5)

    at/
    timed command scheduling files; see at1

    jobs/
    directory containing job files
    spool/
    directory containing output spool files

    backups/
    miscellaneous backup files
    crash/
    default directory to store kernel crash dumps; see crash(8) and savecore(8)
    cron/
    files used by cron; see cron(8)

    tabs/
    crontab files; see crontab(5)

    db/
    miscellaneous automatically generated system-specific database files
    empty/
    empty directory for use by programs that need a specifically empty directory. Used for instance by sshd(8) for privilege separation.
    games/
    miscellaneous game status and score files
    heimdal/
    kerberos server databases; see kdc(8)
    log/
    miscellaneous system log files

    wtmp
    login/logout log; see wtmp(5)

    mail/
    user mailbox files
    msgs/
    system messages database; see msgs(1)
    preserve/
    temporary home of files preserved after an accidental death of an editor; see ex1
    quotas/
    file system quota information files
    run/
    system information files describing various info about system since it was booted

    named/
    writable by the ``bind'' user; see named(8)
    ppp/
    writable by the ``network'' group for command connection sockets; see ppp(8)
    utmp
    database of current users; see utmp(5)

    rwho/
    rwho data files; see rwhod(8), rwho(1), and ruptime(1)
    spool/
    miscellaneous printer and mail system spooling directories

    clientmqueue/
    undelivered submission mail queue; see sendmail(8)
    ftp/
    commonly ~ftp; the anonymous ftp root directory
    mqueue/
    undelivered mail queue; see sendmail(8)
    output/
    line printer spooling directories

    tmp/
    temporary files that are kept between system reboots

    vi.recover/
    the directory where recovery files are stored

    yp/
    the NIS maps

     

    NOTES

    This manual page documents the default Fx file system layout, but the actual hierarchy on a given system is defined at the system administrator's discretion. A well-maintained installation will include a customized version of this document.  

    SEE ALSO

    apropos(1), find(1), finger(1), grep(1), ls(1), whatis(1), whereis(1), which(1), fd(4), devfs(5), fsck(8)  

    HISTORY

    A manual page appeared in AT&T System v7 .


     

    Index

    NAME
    DESCRIPTION
    NOTES
    SEE ALSO
    HISTORY


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