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dd (1)
  • dd (1) ( Solaris man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • dd (1) ( FreeBSD man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • dd (1) ( Русские man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • >> dd (1) ( Linux man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • dd (1) ( POSIX man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • dd (8) ( Русские man: Команды системного администрирования )
  •  

    NAME

    dd - convert and copy a file
     
    

    SYNOPSIS

    dd [OPERAND]...
    dd OPTION  

    DESCRIPTION

    Copy a file, converting and formatting according to the operands.

    bs=BYTES
    force ibs=BYTES and obs=BYTES
    cbs=BYTES
    convert BYTES bytes at a time
    conv=CONVS
    convert the file as per the comma separated symbol list
    count=BLOCKS
    copy only BLOCKS input blocks
    ibs=BYTES
    read BYTES bytes at a time
    if=FILE
    read from FILE instead of stdin
    iflag=FLAGS
    read as per the comma separated symbol list
    obs=BYTES
    write BYTES bytes at a time
    of=FILE
    write to FILE instead of stdout
    oflag=FLAGS
    write as per the comma separated symbol list
    seek=BLOCKS
    skip BLOCKS obs-sized blocks at start of output
    skip=BLOCKS
    skip BLOCKS ibs-sized blocks at start of input
    status=noxfer
    suppress transfer statistics

    BLOCKS and BYTES may be followed by the following multiplicative suffixes: xM M, c 1, w 2, b 512, kB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, GB 1000*1000*1000, G 1024*1024*1024, and so on for T, P, E, Z, Y.

    Each CONV symbol may be:

    ascii
    from EBCDIC to ASCII
    ebcdic
    from ASCII to EBCDIC
    ibm
    from ASCII to alternate EBCDIC
    block
    pad newline-terminated records with spaces to cbs-size
    unblock
    replace trailing spaces in cbs-size records with newline
    lcase
    change upper case to lower case
    nocreat
    do not create the output file
    excl
    fail if the output file already exists
    notrunc
    do not truncate the output file
    ucase
    change lower case to upper case
    swab
    swap every pair of input bytes
    noerror
    continue after read errors
    sync
    pad every input block with NULs to ibs-size; when used
    with block or unblock, pad with spaces rather than NULs
    fdatasync physically write output file data before finishing fsync likewise, but also write metadata

    Each FLAG symbol may be:

    append
    append mode (makes sense only for output)
    direct
    use direct I/O for data
    dsync
    use synchronized I/O for data
    sync
    likewise, but also for metadata
    nonblock
    use non-blocking I/O
    nofollow
    do not follow symlinks
    noctty
    do not assign controlling terminal from file

    Sending a USR1 signal to a running `dd' process makes it print I/O statistics to standard error and then resume copying.

    $ dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/null& pid=$!
    $ kill -USR1 $pid; sleep 1; kill $pid
    18335302+0 records in 18335302+0 records out 9387674624 bytes (9.4 GB) copied, 34.6279 seconds, 271 MB/s

    Options are:

    --help
    display this help and exit
    --version
    output version information and exit
     

    AUTHOR

    Written by Paul Rubin, David MacKenzie, and Stuart Kemp.  

    REPORTING BUGS

    Report bugs to <bug-coreutils@gnu.org>.  

    COPYRIGHT

    Copyright © 2006 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
    This is free software. You may redistribute copies of it under the terms of the GNU General Public License <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.  

    SEE ALSO

    The full documentation for dd is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the info and dd programs are properly installed at your site, the command
    info dd

    should give you access to the complete manual.


     

    Index

    NAME
    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR
    REPORTING BUGS
    COPYRIGHT
    SEE ALSO


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