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crash (1)
  • >> crash (1) ( Solaris man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • crash (8) ( FreeBSD man: Команды системного администрирования )
  • crash (8) ( Linux man: Команды системного администрирования )
  • Ключ crash обнаружен в базе ключевых слов.
  • 
    NAME
         crash - examine system images
    
    SYNOPSIS
         /usr/sbin/crash  [  -d dumpfile  ]   [  -n namelist   ]    [
         -w output-file ]
    
    DESCRIPTION
         The crash command is used to examine the system memory image
         of  a running or a crashed system by formatting and printing
         control structures, tables, and other  information.  Command
         line  arguments to crash are dumpfile, namelist, and output-
         file.
    
    OPTIONS
         The following options are supported:
    
         -d dumpfile
               Specify dumpfile as the  file  containing  the  system
               memory  image.  The default dumpfile is /dev/mem.  The
               system image can also be the pathname of a  dump  file
               generated by the savecore(1M) utility.
    
         -n namelist
               Specify the text file namelist which contains the sym-
               bol  table  information  needed for symbolic access to
               the system memory image to be  examined.  The  default
               namelist  is /dev/ksyms. Note:  It is recommended that
               crash dumps be analyzed on a machine having  the  same
               kernel architecture as the machine from which the dump
               was taken.
    
         -w output-file
               When the crash command is invoked, a session  is  ini-
               tiated. The output from a crash session is directed to
               output-file. The default output-file is  the  standard
               output.
    
    USAGE
         Input during a crash session is of the form:
    
              function [ argument...  ]
    
    
         where function is one of the crash  functions  described  in
         the  Functions subsection of this manual page, and arguments
         are qualifying data that indicate which items of the  system
         image are to be printed.
    
         The default for process-related items is the current process
         for  a running system or the process that was running at the
         time of the crash  for  a  crashed  system.  Similarly,  the
         default for thread-related items is the current thread for a
         running system or the thread that was running at the time of
         the crash for a crash system. If the contents of a table are
         being dumped, the default is all active table entries.
    
      Function Options
         The following function options are available to crash  func-
         tions  wherever  they are semantically valid. Valid function
         options are shown in Functions.
    
         -e    Display every entry in a table.
    
         -f    Display the full structure.
    
         -p    Interpret all address arguments in the command line as
               physical addresses. If the addresses specified are not
               physical addresses, results are inconsistent.
    
         -s process
               Specify a process slot other than the default.
    
         -w filename
               Redirect the output of a function to filename.
    
         Output from crash functions may be piped to another  program
         in the following way:
    
              function [ argument...  ] ! shell_command
    
    
         The redirection option -w cannot be used with this feature.
    
         Depending on the context of the function, numeric  arguments
         are assumed to be in a specific radix. Counts are assumed to
         be decimal. Addresses are always hexadecimal. Table  address
         arguments  larger  than  the  size of the function table are
         interpreted as  hexadecimal  addresses;  those  smaller  are
         assumed  to  be decimal slots in the table. Default bases on
         all arguments may  be  overridden.  The  C  conventions  for
         designating  the  bases  of numbers are recognized. A number
         that is usually interpreted as  decimal  is  interpreted  as
         hexadecimal  if  it  is preceded by 0x and as octal if it is
         preceded by 0. Decimal override is  designated  by  0d,  and
         binary by  0b.
    
         Aliases for functions may be any uniquely identifiable  ini-
         tial  substring of the function name. Traditional aliases of
         one letter, such as b for buffer, remain valid.
    
         Many functions accept different forms of entry for the  same
         argument.   Requests  for  table  information accept a table
         entry number, a  physical  address,  a  virtual  address,  a
         symbol,  a  range, or an expression. A range of slot numbers
         may be specified in the form a-b where a and b  are  decimal
         numbers.  An  expression  consists  of  two  operands and an
         operator.  An operand may be an  address,  a  symbol,  or  a
         number; the operator may be +, -, *,  /, &, or |. An operand
         that is a number should be preceded by a radix prefix if  it
         is not a decimal number (0 for octal, 0x for hexadecimal, 0b
         for binary). The expression must be enclosed in parentheses.
         Other  functions accept any of these argument forms that are
         meaningful.
    
         Two  abbreviated  arguments  to  crash  functions  are  used
         throughout.  Both accept data entered in several forms. They
         may be expanded into the following:
    
              table_entry = slot number | address | symbol | range  |
              expression
              start_addr = address | symbol | expression
    
    
      Functions
         ? [ -w filename ]
               List available functions.
    
         !command
               Escape to the shell and execute command.
    
         base [ -w filename ] number...
               Print number in binary, octal,  decimal,  and  hexade-
               cimal.  A  number in a radix other than decimal should
               be preceded by a prefix that indicates  its  radix  as
               follows: 0x, hexadecimal; 0, octal; and 0b, binary.
    
         buffer [ -w filename ] [ -format
               ] bufferslot" 6
    
         buffer
               [ -w filename ] [ -format  ]  [  -p  ]  start_addr"  6
               Alias: b
    
               Print the contents of a buffer in the designated  for-
               mat. The following format designations are recognized:
               -b, byte; -c, character; -d, decimal; -x, hexadecimal;
               -o, octal; and, -i, inode.  If no format is given, the
               previous format is used. The  default  format  at  the
               beginning of a crash session is hexadecimal.
    
         bufhdr [ -f ] [ -w filename ] [ [ -p
               ] table_entry... ]" 6 Alias: buf
    
               Print system buffer headers.
    
         callout [ -l ] [ -w filename ]
               Alias: c
    
               Print the callout table. If the -l  option  is  speci-
               fied, the contents of the locks pertaining to the cal-
               lout structure are also displayed.
    
         class [ -w filename ][ table_entry...]
               Print information about process scheduler classes.
    
         help [ -w filename ] function...
               Print a description of the named  function,  including
               syntax and aliases.
    
         kmalog [ -w filename] [ slab | fail
               ]" 6 Display events in a kernel memory allocator tran-
               saction  log.  Events  are  displayed  in time-reverse
               order, with the most recent event displayed first. For
               each  event,  kmalog displays the time relative to the
               most recent event in T-minus  notation  (for  example,
               T-0.000151879),  the  bufctl,  the buffer address, the
               kmem cache name, and the stack trace at  the  time  of
               the event.
    
               Without arguments, kmalog displays the  kmem  transac-
               tion log, which is present only if KMF_AUDIT is set in
               kmem_flags.
    
               kmalog fail displays the allocation failure log, which
               is  always  present;  this  can be useful in debugging
               drivers  that  don't  cope  with  allocation   failure
               correctly.
    
               kmalog slab displays the slab  create  log,  which  is
               always present. kmalog slab can be useful when search-
               ing for memory leaks.
    
         kmastat [ -w filename ]
               Print kernel memory allocator statistics.
    
         kmausers [ -e ] [ -f ] [ -w filename ]
               [ cachename... ]" 6 Print the  information  about  the
               medium  and large users of the kernel memory allocator
               that have current memory allocations. The output  con-
               sists  of one entry for each unique stack trace speci-
               fying the total amount of memory and number of alloca-
               tions that was made with that stack trace.
    
               This function is only available if the kernel has  the
               KMF_AUDIT flag set in kmem_flags. (See NOTES.)
    
               If   one   or   more   cache   names   (for   example,
               kmem_alloc_256)  are  specified,  the  scan  of memory
               usage is restricted to those caches.  By  default  all
               caches are included.
    
               If the -e option is used, the small users of the allo-
               cator  are  included.  The small users are allocations
               that total less than 1024 bytes of memory or for which
               there are less than 10 allocations with the same stack
               trace.
    
               If the -f option is used, the stack traces are printed
               for each individual allocation.
    
         lck [ -e ] [ -w filename ] [ [ -p
               ] lock_addr... ]" 6 Alias: l
    
               Print record locking information. If the -e option  is
               used  or  lock address arguments are given, the record
               lock list is printed.   If  no  argument  is  entered,
               information   on  locks  relative  to  UFS  inodes  is
               printed.
    
         mblk [ -e ] [ -f ] [ -w filename ]
               [[ -p ] table_entry...]"  6  Print  allocated  streams
               message block and data block headers.
    
         mount [ -f ] [ -w filename ] [ [ -p
               ] table_entry...]" 6 Alias: m, vfs
    
               Print information about mounted filename systems.
    
         nm [ -w filename ] symbol...
               Print value and type for the given symbol.
    
         od [ -p ] [ -w filename ] [ -format ] [ -mode
               ] [ -s process ] start_addr [ count ]" 6 Alias: rd
    
               Print count values starting at start_addr  in  one  of
               the  following  formats: character (-c), decimal (-d),
               hexadecimal  (-x),  octal   (-o),   ASCII   (-a),   or
               hexadecimal/character  (-h),  and one of the following
               modes: long  (-l),  short  (-t),  or  byte  (-b).  The
               default  mode for character and ASCII formats is byte;
               the default mode for decimal, hexadecimal,  and  octal
               formats is long. The format -h prints both hexadecimal
               and character representations of the addresses dumped;
               no  mode needs to be specified. When format or mode is
               omitted, the previous value is used. At the start of a
               crash  session, the format is hexadecimal and the mode
               is long. If no count is entered, 1 is assumed.
    
    table_entry...| #procid...]
         proc [ -e ] [ -f ] [ -l ] [  -w  filename  ]  [[  -
               p  ]  [  -a  ]
    
         proc [ -e ] [ -f ] [ -l ][ -w filename ][ -r ]
               Alias: p
    
               Print the process table. Process table information may
               be  specified in two ways. First, any mixture of table
               entries and process IDs may be entered.  Each  process
               ID  must  be  preceded  by a #. Alternatively, process
               table information for runnable processes may be speci-
               fied  with the runnable option -r. If the -l option is
               specified,  all  relevant   locking   information   is
               displayed.
    
         snode [ -e ] [ -f ][ -l ] [ -w filename ] [[ -
               p ] table_entry...]
               Print information about open special filenames. If the
               -l  option is specified, all relevant locking informa-
               tion is also displayed.
    
         strstat [ -w filename ]
               Print STREAMS statistics.
    
         tsdptbl [ -w filename ][ table_entry...]
               Print the  time-sharing  dispatcher  parameter  table.
               See ts_dptbl(4).
    
         uinode [ -d ] [ -e ] [ -f ] [ -l ] [ -r
               ] [ -w filename ] [[ -p ] table_entry...]" 6 Alias: ui
    
               Print the UFS inode table. The -d option will list the
               address  and  i-number of all UFS inodes in use and on
               the free list. If the  -l  option  is  specified,  all
               relevant  locking  information is also displayed.  The
               -r option will display all free UFS inodes.
    
         var [ -w filename ]
               Alias: v
    
               Print the tunable system parameters.
    
         vfs [ -e ][ -w filename ][[ -p
               ] address...]" 6 Alias: m, mount
    
               Print information about mounted filename systems.
    
         vfssw [ -f ][ -w filename ][[ -p
               ] table_entry...]" 6 Alias: fs
    
               Print information  about  configured  filename  system
               types.
    
         vnode [ -w filename ][ -l ][ -p ] vnode_addr...
               Print information about vnodes.
    
         vtop [ -w filename ][ -s process
               ] start_addr..." 6 Print the physical address transla-
               tion of the virtual address start_addr.
    
      Large File Behavior
         See largefile(5) for the  description  of  the  behavior  of
         crash  when  encountering  files  greater than or equal to 2
         Gbyte ( 2**31bytes).
    
    EXIT STATUS
         The following exit values are returned:
    
         0     Successful completion.
    
         1     An error occurred.
    
    FILES
         /dev/mem
               system image of currently running system
    
         /dev/ksyms
               system namelist
    
    ATTRIBUTES
         See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-
         butes:
    
         ____________________________________________________________
        |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
        |_____________________________|_____________________________|
        | Availability                | SUNWcsu (32-bit)            |
        |_____________________________|_____________________________|
        |                             | SUNWcsxu (64-bit)           |
        |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    
    
    SEE ALSO
         adb(1),  mdb(1),   kadb(1M),   savecore(1M),   soconfig(1M),
         rt_dptbl(4), ts_dptbl( 4), attributes(5), largefile(5)
    
    NOTES
         The crash utility may not be  present  in  versions  of  the
         Solaris  operating  environment  after  Solaris 8. The crash
         command is a utility for examining system crash dump  files,
         whose functionality is superseded by the new mdb(1) utility.
         The crash command's interface was structured  around  imple-
         mentation  details,  such as slots, that have no relation to
         the Solaris operating environment implementation. Solaris  8
         will include documentation that explains the mdb syntax that
         is equivalent to each crash subcommand to enable the transi-
         tion.
    
         Kernel core dumps should be examined on the same platform on
         which they were created.
    
         The kmausers and mblkusers commands require  that  KMF_AUDIT
         is  set  in  kmem_flags.  To  do this, perform the following
         steps:
    
         1. Add the following line to /etc/system:
    
            set kmem_flags=1
    
    
         2. Reboot.
    
         kmem auditing is quite expensive in both memory  consumption
         and  CPU  time because it records a complete stack trace for
         every allocation.
    
    
    
    


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