Интерактивная система просмотра системных руководств (man-ов)
>> cdda2wav (1) ( Linux man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
cdda2wav - a sampling utility that dumps CD audio data into wav sound
can retrieve audio tracks from CDROM drives (see README for a list of drives) that are
capable of reading audio data digitally to the host
- -D device --device
as the source for CDDA reading:
For example /dev/cdrom for the
interface and Bus,ID,Lun for the
has to correspond with the interface setting (see below).
The setting of the environment variable
is overridden by this option.
- -A auxdevice --auxdevice
as CDROM drive for ioctl usage.
- -I interface --interface
specifies the interface for CDROM access:
or (on Linux, and FreeBSD systems)
- -c channels --channels
for mono, or
for stereo recording,
for stereo recording with both channels swapped.
- -s --stereo
sets to stereo recording.
- -m --mono
sets to mono recording.
- -x --max
sets maximum (CD) quality.
- -b bits --bits-per-sample
sets bits per sample per channel:
- -r rate --rate
sets rate in samples per second. Possible values are listed with the
- -a divider --divider
sets rate to 44100Hz / divider. Possible values are listed with the
- -R --dump-rates
shows a list of all sample rates and their dividers.
- -P sectors --set-overlap
sets the initial number of overlap
for jitter correction.
- -n sectors --sectors-per-request
- -l buffers --buffers-in-ring
uses a ring buffer with
- -t track+endtrack --track
selects the start track and optionally the end track.
- -i index --index
selects the start index.
- -o offset --offset
sectors behind start track (one sector equivalents 1/75 seconds).
- -O audiotype --output-format
(for wav files) or
(for apple/sgi aiff files) or
(for apple/sgi aifc files) or
(for sun .au PCM files) or
(for headerless files to be used for cd writers).
- -C endianess --cdrom-endianess
sets endianess of the input samples to 'little', 'big' or 'guess' to override defaults.
- -E endianess --output-endianess
sets endianess of the output samples to 'little' or 'big' to override defaults.
- -d duration --duration
sets recording time in seconds or frames.
Frames (sectors) are indicated by a 'f' suffix (like 75f for 75 sectors).
sets the time for whole track.
- -B --bulk
copies each track into a seperate file.
- -w --wait
waits for signal, then start recording.
- -F --find-extremes
finds extrem amplitudes in samples.
- -G --find-mono
finds if input samples are in mono.
- -T --deemphasize
undo the effect of pre-emphasis in the input samples.
- -e --echo
copies audio data to sound device e.g.
- -p percentage --set-pitch
changes pitch of audio data copied to sound device.
- -v level --verbose-level
prints verbose information about the CD.
is a sum of powers of two in the range 0 up to 63. Each power of two controls the type of information to be reported.
|1||show table of contents|
|2||show a summary of the recording parameters|
|4||determine and display index offsets|
|8||retrieve and display the media catalog number MCN|
|16||retrieve and display all Intern. Standard Recording Codes ISRC|
|32||show the table of contents in start sector notation|
|64||show the table of contents with track titles (when available)|
- -N --no-write
does not write to a file, it just reads (for debugging purposes).
- -J --info-only
does not write to a file, it just gives information about the disc.
- -H --no-infofile
does not write an info file and a cddb file.
- -g --gui
formats the output to be better parsable by gui frontends.
- -M count --md5
enables calculation of MD-5 checksum for 'count' bytes from a beginning of a
- -S speed --speed-select
sets the cdrom device to one of the selectable speeds for reading.
- -q --quiet
quiet operation, no screen output.
- -V --verbose-SCSI
enable SCSI command logging to the console. This is mainly used for debugging.
- -Q --silent-SCSI
suppress SCSI command error reports to the console. This is mainly used for guis.
- -J --version
display version of cdda2wav on standard output.
- Defaults depend on the
is used to set the device name. The device naming is compatible with JЖrg
Schilling's cdrecord package.
is able to read parts of an
CDROM (containing audio parts) directly digitally. These parts can be
written to a file, a pipe, or to a sound device.
stands for compact disc digital audio and
is a sound sample format introduced by MS Windows). It
audio data from the CDROM drive into a file on your ram-, hard-, floppy-
or whatever-disk in
or other formats.
The latest versions try to get higher real-time scheduling priorities to ensure
smooth (uninterrupted) operation. These priorities are available for super users
and are higher than those of 'normal' processes. Thus delays are minimized.
Please note that you need newer kernels and c libraries to take advantage of this feature.
If your CDROM (not yet for SCSI drives) is on device
and it is loaded with an audio CD, you may simply invoke
and it will create the sound file
recording the whole track beginning with track 1 in stereo at 16 bit at 44100
Hz sample rate, if your file system has enough space free. Otherwise
recording time will be limited. SCSI drives have to use different devices
HINTS ON OPTIONS
Most of the options are used to control the format of the WAV file. In
the following text all of them are described.
- Select Device
selects the CDROM drive device to be used.
The specifier given should correspond to the selected interface (see below).
For the cooked_ioctl interface this is the cdrom device descriptor as before.
The SCSI devices used with the generic SCSI interface however are now
addressed with their SCSI-Bus, SCSI-Id, and SCSI-Lun instead of the generic
SCSI device descriptor!!!
One example for a SCSI CDROM drive on bus 0 with SCSI ID 3 and lun 0 is -D0,3,0.
- Select Auxiliary device
is necessary for CD-Extra handling. For Non-SCSI-CDROM drives this is the
same device as given by -D (see above). For SCSI-CDROM drives it is the
CDROM drive (SCSI) device (i.e.
) corresponding to the SCSI device (i.e.
). It has to match the device used for sampling.
- Select Interface
selects the CDROM drive interface. For SCSI drives use generic_scsi
(cooked_ioctl may not yet be available for all devices):
The first uses the generic SCSI interface, the latter uses the ioctl of
the CDROM driver. The latter variant works only when the kernel driver supports
reading. This entry has to match the selected CDROM device (see above).
- Enable echo to soundcard
copies audio data to the sound card while recording, so you hear it nearly
simultaneously. The soundcard gets the same data that is recorded. This
is time critical, so it works best with the
option. To use
as a pseudo CD player without recording in a file you could use
cdda2wav -q -e -t2 -d0 -N
to play the whole second track. This feature reduces the recording speed
to at most onefold speed. You cannot make better recordings than your sound card
can play (since the same data is used).
- Change pitch of echoed audio
changes the pitch of all audio echoed to a sound card. Only the copy
to the soundcard is affected, the recorded audio samples in a file
remain the same.
Normal pitch, which is the default, is given by 100%.
Lower percentages correspond to lower pitches, i.e.
-p 50 transposes the audio output one octave lower.
See also the script
as an example. This option was contributed by Raul Sobon.
- Select mono or stereo recording
selects mono recording (both stereo channels are mixed),
selects stereo recording (doubles file size). Parameter s
will swap both sound channels.
- Select maximum quality
will set stereo, 16 bits per sample at 44.1 KHz (full CD quality). Note
that other format options given later can change this setting.
- Select sample quality
specifies 8 bit (1 Byte) for each sample in each channel;
specifies 12 bit (2 Byte) for each sample in each channel;
specifies 16 bit (2 Byte) for each sample in each channel (Ensure that
your sample player or sound card is capable of playing 12-bit or 16-bit
samples). Selecting 12 or 16 bits doubles file size. 12-bit samples are
aligned to 16-bit samples, so they waste some disk space.
- Select sample rate
selects a sample rate.
can be in a range between 44100 and 900. Option
lists all available rates.
- Select sample rate divider
selects a sample rate divider.
can be minimally 1 and maximally 50.5 and everything between in steps of 0.5.
lists all available rates.
To make the sound smoother at lower sampling rates,
is the specific dividend). So for 22050 Hertz output we have to sum over
2 samples, for 900 Hertz we have to sum over 49 samples. This cancels
higher frequencies. Standard sector size of an audio CD (ignoring
additional information) is 2352 Bytes. In order to finish summing
for an output sample at sector boundaries the rates above have to be
choosen. Arbitrary sampling rates in high quality would require some
interpolation scheme, which needs much more sophisticated programming.
- List a table of all sampling rates
shows a list of all sample rates and their dividers. Dividers can range
from 1 to 50.5 in steps of 0.5.
- Select start track and optionally end track
as the start track and optionally
as the last track of a range to be recorded.
These tracks must be from the table of contents. This sets
the track where recording begins. Recording can advance through the
following tracks as well (limited by the optional end track or otherwise
depending on recording time). Whether one file or different files are
then created depends on the
option (see below).
- Select start index
selects the index to start recording with. Indices other than 1 will
invoke the index scanner, which will take some time to find the correct
start position. An offset may be given additionally (see below).
- Set recording time
sets recording time to
seconds or set recording time for whole track if
is zero. In order to specify the duration in frames (sectors) also, the
argument can have an appended 'f'. Then the numerical argument is to be
taken as frames (sectors) rather than seconds.
Please note that if track ranges are being used they define the recording
time as well thus overriding any
Recording time is defined as the time the generated sample will play (at
the defined sample rate). Since it's related to the amount of generated
samples, it's not the time of the sampling process itself (which can be
less or more). It's neither strictly coupled with the time information on
the audio CD (shown by your hifi CD player).
Differences can occur by the usage of the
option (see below). Notice that recording time will be shortened, unless
enough disk space exists. Recording can be aborted at anytime by
pressing the break character (signal SIGQUIT).
- Record a complete audio CD in one go in different files
copies each track into a seperate file. A base name can be given. File names
have an appended track number and an extension corresponding to the audio
format. To record all audio tracks of a CD, use a sufficient high duration
- Set start sector offset
increments start sector of the track by
By this option you are able to skip a certain amount at the beginning of
a track so you can pick exactly the part you want. Each sector runs for 1/75
seconds, so you have very fine control. If your offset is so high that
it would not fit into the current track, a warning message is issued
and the offset is ignored. Recording time is not reduced. (To skip
introductory quiet passages automagically, use the
option see below.)
- Wait for signal option
Turning on this option will suppress all silent output at startup,
reducing possibly file size.
will watch for any signal in the output signal and switches on writing
- Find extrem samples
Turning on this option will display the most negative and the most positive
sample value found during recording for both channels. This can be useful
for readjusting the volume. The values shown are not reset at track
boundaries, they cover the complete sampling process. They are taken from
the original samples and have the same format (i.e. they are independent
of the selected output format).
- Find if input samples are in mono
If this option is given, input samples for both channels will be compared. At
the end of the program the result is printed. Differences in the channels
indicate stereo, otherwise when both channels are equal it will indicate mono.
- Undo the pre-emphasis in the input samples
Some older audio CDs are recorded with a modified frequency response called
pre-emphasis. This is found mostly in classical recordings. The correction
can be seen in the flags of the Table Of Contents often. But there are
recordings, that show this setting only in the subchannels. If this option
is given, the index scanner will be started, which reads the q-subchannel
of each track. If pre-emphasis is indicated in the q-subchannel of a track,
but not in the TOC, pre-emphasis will be assumed to be present, and
subsequently a reverse filtering is done for this track before the samples
are written into the audio file.
- Set audio format
(for wav files) or
(for sun PCM files) or
(for headerless files to be used for cd writers).
All file samples are coded in linear pulse code modulation (as done
in the audio compact disc format). This holds for all audio formats.
Wav files are compatible to Wind*ws sound files, they have lsb,msb byte order
as being used on the audio cd. The default filename extension is '.wav'.
Sun type files are not like the older common logarithmically coded .au files,
but instead as mentioned above linear PCM is used. The byte order is msb,lsb
to be compatible. The default filename extension is '.au'.
The AIFF and the newer variant AIFC from the Apple/SGI world store their samples
in bigendian format (msb,lsb). In AIFC no compression is used.
Finally the easiest 'format',
the cdr aka raw format. It is done per default in msb,lsb byte order to satisfy
the order wanted by most cd writers. Since there is no header information in this
format, the sample parameters can only be identified by playing the samples
on a soundcard or similiar. The default filename extension is '.cdr' or '.raw'.
- Select cdrom drive reading speed
allows to switch the cdrom drive to a certain level of speed in order to
reduce read errors. The argument is transfered verbatim to the drive.
Details depend very much on the cdrom drives.
An argument of 0 for example is often the default speed of the drive,
a value of 1 often selects single speed.
- Enable MD5 checksums
enables calculation of MD-5 checksum for 'count' bytes from the beginning of a
track. This was introduced for quick comparisons of tracks.
- Do linear or overlapping reading of sectors
sets the given number of sectors for initial overlap sampling for jitter
correction. Two cases are to be distinguished. For nonzero values,
some sectors are read twice to enable cdda2wav's jitter correction.
If an argument of zero is given, no overlap sampling will be used.
For nonzero overlap sectors cdda2wav dynamically adjusts the setting during
sampling (like cdparanoia does).
If no match can be found, cdda2wav retries the read with an increased overlap.
If the amount of jitter is lower than the current overlapped samples, cdda2wav
reduces the overlap setting, resulting in a higher reading speed.
The argument given has to be lower than the total number of sectors per request
Cdda2wav will check this setting and issues a error message otherwise.
The case of zero sectors is nice on low load situations or errorfree (perfect)
cdrom drives and perfect (not scratched) audio cds.
- Set the transfer size
will set the transfer size to the specified sectors per request.
- Set number of ring buffer elements
will allocate the specified number of ring buffer elements.
- Set endianess of input samples
will override the default settings of the input format.
Endianess can be set explicitly to "little" or "big" or to the automatic
endianess detection based on voting with "guess".
- Set endianess of output samples
(endianess can be "little" or "big") will override the default settings
of the output format.
- Verbose option
prints more information. A binary mask allows selection of different
displays the table of contents
displays a summary of recording parameters
invokes the index scanner and displays start positions of indices
retrieves and displays a media catalog number
retrieves and displays international standard recording codes
displays track start positions in absolute sector notation
To combine several requests just add the numbers and give the sum as argument.
- The table of contents
The display will show the table of contents with number of tracks and
total time (displayed in
hh=rounded 1/100 seconds).
The following list displays track number and track time for each entry.
The summary gives a line per track describing the type of the track.
track preemphasis copypermitted tracktype chans
column holds the track number.
shows if that track has been given a non linear frequency response.
NOTE: You can undo this effect with the
indicates if this track is allowed to copy.
can be data or audio. On multimedia CDs (except hidden track CDs)
both of them should be present.
is defined for audio tracks only. There can be two or four channels.
- No file output
this debugging option switches off writing to a file.
- No infofile generation
this option switches off creation of an info file and a cddb file.
- Generation of simple output for gui frontends
this option switches on simple line formatting, which is needed to support
gui frontends (like xcd-roast).
- Verbose SCSI logging
this option switches on logging of SCSI commands. This will produce
a lot of output (when SCSI devices are being used),
which is needed for debugging purposes. The format
is the same as being used with the cdrecord package from JЖrg Schilling.
I will not describe it here.
- Quiet option
suppresses all screen output except error messages.
That reduces cpu time resources.
- Just show information option
does not write a file, it only prints information about the disc (depending
option). This is just for information purposes.
HINTS ON USAGE
Don't create samples you cannot read. First check your sample player
software and sound card hardware. I experienced problems with very low
sample rates (stereo <= 1575 Hz, mono <= 3675 Hz) when trying to play
them with standard WAV players for sound blaster (maybe they are not
format). Most CD-Writers insist on audio samples in a bigendian format.
Now cdda2wav supports the
option to control the endianess of the written samples.
If your hardware is fast enough to run cdda2wav
uninterrupted and your CD drive is one of the 'perfect' ones, you will
gain speed when switching all overlap sampling off with
option. Further fine tuning can be done with the
option. You can specify how much sectors should be requested in one go.
now. Use a filename of
to let cdda2wav output its samples to standard output.
Conversion to other sound formats can be done using the
program package (although the use of
to change the byte order of samples should be no more necessary; see option
to change the output byteorder).
If you really want to sample more than one track into
different files in one run, this is currently possible with the
option. When recording time exceeds the track limit a new file will
be opened for the next track.
Cdda2wav can generate a lot of files for various purposes.
There are audio files containing samples with default extensions
These files are not generated when option (-N) is given. Multiple files may
be written when the bulk copy option (-B) is used. Individual file names
can be given as arguments. If the number of file names given is sufficient
to cover all included audio tracks, the file names will be used verbatim.
Otherwise, if there are less file names than files needed to write the
included tracks, the part of the file name before the extension is extended
with '_dd' where dd represents the current track number.
Cddb and Cdindex files:
If cdda2wav detects cd-extra or cd-text (album/track) title information,
then .cddb and .cdindex files are generated unless suppressed by the
option -H. They contain suitable formatted entries for submission to
audio cd track title databases in the internet. The CDINDEX and CDDB(tm)
systems are currently supported. For more information please visit
www.cdindex.org and www.cddb.com.
The inf files are describing the sample files and the part from the audio cd,
it was taken from. They are a means to transfer information to a cd burning
program like cdrecord. For example, if the original audio cd had pre-emphasis
enabled, and cdda2wav -T did remove the pre-emphase, then the inf file has
pre-emphasis not set (since the audio file does not have it anymore), while
the .cddb and the .cdindex have pre-emphase set as the original does.
it is prohibited to sell copies of copyrighted material by noncopyright
holders. This program may not be used to circumvent copyrights.
The user acknowledges this constraint when using the software.
Performance may not be optimal on slower systems.
The index scanner may give timeouts.
The resampling (rate conversion code) uses polynomial interpolation, which
is not optimal.
Cdda2wav should use threads.
Cdda2wav currently cannot sample hidden audio tracks (track 1 index 0).
Thanks goto Project MODE (http://www.mode.net/)
and Fraunhofer Institut fЭr
integrierte Schaltungen (FhG-IIS) (http://www.iis.fhg.de/)
Plextor Europe and Ricoh Japan provided cdrom disk drives and cd burners
which helped a lot to develop this software.
Rammi has helped a lot with the debugging and showed a lot of stamina when
hearing 100 times the first 16 seconds of the first track of the Krupps CD.
Paranoia patches contributed by Monty firstname.lastname@example.org
Heiko Eissfeldt email@example.com
11 Feb 2000
- ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
- HINTS ON OPTIONS
- HINTS ON USAGE