This file contains the answers to some commonly asked questions about the programming language Modula-2.
Last-modified: 2003 03 26
Modula-2 Frequently Asked Questions
What is new in version 2.27(2003 03 26)?
Very little to be honest. The traffic to Modula-2.com has declined
dramatically and few people seem to be reading the FAQ except for a
handful of students. A new answer, A6 has been added in 1.11. An
invalid Gardens Point URL has been changed. PMI has been removed. The
StonyBrook Section has been revised with new information. We'll prune
the dead stuff again in June, and no doubt make it a lot shorter.
What was new in version 2.26 (2002 06 03)?
Dead links have been ruthlessly pruned, a couple of spelling errors
corrected, some directory links altered to reflect reorganizations,
and the header tags corrected to remove a formatting problem under
NOSCRIPT conditions. The answer at 5.8 has been expanded to include
other similar questions. A new question on Top Speed has been
inserted in the historical section at 1.10, and the entry on the
company itself deleted. The Stony Brook section has been updated with
new products for Linux (IA-32) and Solaris. Edinburgh Portable
Compilers, which once made a variety of Modula-2 compilers has been
taken over by a company called Analog Devices, who no longer support
the compilers. The listing has been removed. ModulaWare has changed
its name to ModulAware, and its listing has been revised. Peter
Moylan's site has reappeared under a new URL and is listed in A4
under section 4.2. There are some under-the-hood changes to help out
search engine spiders.
1. Answers to many questions about Modula-2 as a programming notation
may be found in the shareware textbook. As always, users should pay
the shareware fee. See section 1.4.
2. Answers to most other frequently asked questions about Modula-2
will be collected by Rick Sutcliffe at Trinity Western University and
included in this document from time to time as it is revised.
3. Submissions should be mailed to -- firstname.lastname@example.org
Anyone making a submission guarantees that they have the right to do
so (copyright holder, or information in the public domain.) and that
the information is not from any source whose copyright lies with
4. I will update this summary file and post to the newsgroups
comp.lang.modula2 and to comp.answers and news.answers
5. The latest version will always be available in a Nisus (Mac) form in
It is also available from the site rtfm.mit.edu in plain text form as
1. WHAT IS MODULA-2?
2. WHERE IS MODULA-2 DISCUSSED?
3. WHERE CAN I GET MODULA-2 COMPILERS?
4. WHERE CAN I GET SOURCE CODE, OTHER INFO?
5. SPECIFIC QUESTIONS ON CODE AND ALGORITHMS
6. WHAT ARE SOME REFERENCE MATERIALS ON MODULA-2?
Appendix: AUTHOR INFORMATION AND DISCLAIMERS
1. WHAT IS MODULA-2?
A. Modula-2 is a programming notation that corrects some of the
deficiencies of Pascal. It is suitable for learning programming, for
large projects written and maintained in the fashion of professional
software engineers, and for real time embedded systems. Modula-2 is
small, expressive, easy to learn, and to read.
1.1 Who developed Modula-2?
A. Modula-2 was developed by Niklaus Wirth at ETH in Zurich,
Switzerland in the late 70's. Wirth also developed Algol-W, Pascal,
Modula, and Oberon.
1.2 Where is this language described?
A. In Programming in Modula-2 3rd edition published by
Springer-Verlag in 1985. For the purposes of distinguishing this from
later variants, this description will be referred to herein as
1.3 How do you pronounce Herr Wirth's name?
A. It is incorrect to call him by his value (worth.) Instead his name is veart.
1.4 Can I get a simple introduction to ISO Modula-2?
Yes, the latest revised and corrected edition of the shareware text
as of 2000 05 24 is at http://www.arjay.bc.ca
Mirrors (for the text, not the FAQ--some may be out of date):
1. TWU Main Site http://www.twu.ca/rsbook/index.html
2. TWU CS Students (Internal only) http://www.csc.twu.ca/rsbook/index.html
3. Brighton, UK http://burks.bton.ac.uk/burks/index.htm
1.5 How does Modula-2 fit into the language zoo?
A. It is a descendent of Pascal and Modula, and one predecessor of
Modula-2+, Modula-2*, Modula-3, Oberon, Oberon-2, and various object
oriented versions of these. The latter languages are not replacements
for Modula-2, merely later notations in the same family, having
strengths and weaknesses of their own. Modula-2 is sometimes
classified with Ada and C as the trio of modern languages in view of
their expressive power. Modula-2 is smaller and more readable than
1.6 What are the differences between Modula-2 and Standard Pascal?
A. Modula-2 has separately compiled library modules, and makes much
less use of blocks (begin...) than Standard Pascal. Identifiers are
case sensitive; there is no goto label; and I/O is in libraries
rather than built in. The IF statement is more versatile; and there
are facilities for concurrent programming via coroutines. Extended
Pascals may have some of these features.
1.7 What is ISO Standard Modula-2?
A. A committee of ISO JTC1/SC22/WG13 with delegates from several
countries has met since 1987 to work on a standard description of
Modula-2 and a set of standard library modules.
A2. The official home of the ISO Modula-2 working group WG13 is at
1.7.1 What is the status of ISO Standard Modula-2?
A. The international standard (IS 10514) has been voted on and is now
official. The Object oriented extensions and Generic extensions have
also been voted on and are official.
1.7.2 Where can I get the Modula-2 standard?
A1. Contact your national standards body or ISO (the publisher.)
A2. For an older version, try looking in
1.7.3 What format is the standard document in?
1.7.4 Who is the convenor of the standards group (WG13)?
A.Martin Schoenhacker of Vienna is the convenor.
1.7.5 When was the last WG13 meeting?
A1. It was March 17-18 1997 in Linz, Austria. For more details,
1.7.6 When is the next WG13 meeting?
A1. No meeting is currently on the schedule. One may be held if
necessary to do routine maintenance on the standards.
1.7.7 Will I be able to read the standard?
A1. The concrete syntax is written in a variation of EBNF (Extended
Backus-Naur Formalism) and should be accessible to most.
A2. Much of the base document's details are written in VDM-SL (Vienna
Development Method - Specification Language) which is a formalism for
giving a precise definition of a programming language in a
denotational style. It is worth learning VDM-SL if you plan to write
a compiler or use formal methods to do any design work.
1.7.8 Can I at least get electronic copies of the definition modules?
A. Yes, in ftp://FTP.twu.ca/pub/modula2/ISOLibraries/ISODEFMods/ or
1.7.9 Can I get ISO library code to port?
A. Yes, this is available from Rick Sutcliffe, the FAQ maintainer. He
has done an ISO I/O library for the Mac, and StonyBrook has ported
this to their system. Anyone else is welcome to do a port provided:
(1) TWU gets a license to the software produced (2) All code changes
are marked and submitted to Rick Sutcliffe for the benefit of anyone
else who wants to do a port.
1.7.10 Can I get copies of the grammer?
A1. Yes, in http://www.twu.ca/rsbook/Appendices/Ap3.html
A2. For classical Modula-2, see also Coco (section 4.9)
A3. There are nice syntax diagrams for classical Modula-2 in
and there are syntax diagrams for ISO Modula-2 stored at
1.8 What difference is there between classical and ISO Modula-2?
A. ISO Modula-2 has resolved most of the ambiguities in classical
Modula-2. It adds the data type COMPLEX and LONGCOMPLEX, exceptions,
module termination (FINALLY clause) and a complete standard I/O
library. There are numerous minor differences and clarifications.
1.8.1 What else has WG13 done?
A. WG13 has completed two additional standards (separate from the
main one) for (a) object oriented Modula-2 and (b) generic
programming facilities. Older versions of the generics proposal are
stored in the directory ftp://FTP.twu.ca/pub/modula2/WG13/
1.9 What is (was) Turbo Modula-2
A. Borland prepared CP/M versions of Modula-2 and sold them for a
time in Europe (also in North America via a distributer.) One of
these versions later migrated to become TopSpeed Modula-2.
1.10 What is (was) Top Speed Modula-2
See also 1.9. Eventually, Top Speed merged with Clarion, a maker of
database products, who used Modula-2 as their DB language, and for a
time sold Top Speed separately. Later still, this became
SoftVelocity, but the Modula-2 compiler has vanished. A fuller
history is available at http://www.attryde.com/clarion/.
1.11 Where and for what is Modula-2 used?
A1. Modula-2 is widely used for teaching the fundamentals of sound
programming techniques, data structures, and software engineering in
many parts of the world. It has been the language of choice in much
of Europe, though Java and C++ are making inroads. Modula-2 has
features that make it superior to other languages for large projects
and for programming and real time controllers.
A2.Here is a reply by Andrew Trevorrow (email@example.com) who is the
author of the Macintosh programs written in p1 Modula-2: OzTex
(standard Tex implementation on the Mac) X-Words (a meta-Scrabble
word game), Anagrams (a fast and friendly anagram generator), LifeLab
(a software laboratory for 2D cellular automata.) His home page is:
"Back in 92-93 I worked for the Australian National Uni's Research
School of Earth Sciences writing Noble, a large suite of programs to
control mass spectrometers and analyze all the data. Everything was
written in Modula-2 (the only reason I took the job!).
In fact, one of the reasons I decided to try making a living from
shareware was so that I could keep using Modula-2."
A3. General Motors and its subsidiary Delco do their programming in
General Motors Modula-2.
A4. Here is a message sent in by a maker of test equipment:
Our BoardWizard range of test equipment has compilers,pseudo-code
interpreters and a complete test operating system written in M2. The
code was written for one tester in 1987 and has been maintained from
that date to the present. New tester models have added and new
interface and UI code has been written, indeed sections have been
completely re-written but much of the core test logic is untouched
since about 1990 when I shifted to management. Much of the code is
unknown to those who maintain it - yet when i look at it after
several years I can still explain it to others even though comments
are sparse. I believe that that is the hallmark of a great
programming language. (Emphasis added.)
Goldtron Technologies Tel : (065)-870-9886
(Ex- Proteq Technologies) Fax: (065)-777-2118
26 Ayer Rajah Crescent #07-01 www: http://www.proteq.com.sg
A5. Here is an answer sent in by a developer:
Magic Mouse Productions
12615 Sir Francis Drake Blvd.
Inverness, CA 94937 USA
The following products were made using Modula-2. The programs are
all about 100,000 lines long, and 99% Modula-2, with about 1%
assembler code for performance in critical areas.
Flying Colors 2, Anime Designer DragonBall, Action Designer
Sketch, Curious George Paint & Print Set -- all paint and
Gorgeous Mail -- a new years card making program
JuniorNet web activities -- various creativity activities for
JuniorNet web subscription service
Discus -- CD label making program
Web Workshop Deluxe -- Web site design product
A5A. Here is a later rant sent in by the same person.
We make commercial software using Modula-2, and have been doing so
since the first appearance of the Logitech "Multiscope" compiler
about 17 years ago, and about a million lines later we are still
using Modula-2 to great effect.
I am proud to announce that Web Workshop Pro, a kids website editor,
is about to go "golden" and be released to the public. The program,
written in 98% Modula-2 (with a small assembler section), is
reliable, fast, and very efficiently coded. An almost identical
product in feature set and user interface style (but not as good)
called Site Central was written in C, and is 4 times larger in
executable. There is no better way to compare languages than to see
two similar products implemented in the same environment (macintosh +
windows), and see the result.
We use the excellent StonyBrook compiler (a fully integrated
development environment) for Windows, and the wonderful p1 compiler
under the Macintosh MPW development environment.
We have a porting tool which converts between the two compilers,
although recent improvements to the StonyBrook compiler make it
almost possible to have identical source code.
We have implemented a quickdraw emulation layer for windows which
allows programs to run identically between macintosh and windows
platforms. This very layer eluded a very large company years ago,
and is crucial to having a single code base that operates on the mac
and windows in an identical manner.
100,000 lines of code, about 10 months to do. one programmer. Less
than 100 total bugs. I have an 800kb demo if anybody wants to have
Until I get a chance to build a compiler for my BEADS language, which
will reduce programming effort by at least 10:1, Modula-2 is the
simplest, cleanest, easiest to read,
tends-to-build-a-reliable-product language on the planet.
Java stinks! Modula-2 rules! (editor's note: Ouch!)
A6. Frank Schoonjans mention MedCalc (statistical software for
Windows, http://www.medcalc.be, developed using Stony Brook Modula-2,
his main work.
A7. The following survey results were once posted by Mat. Maher
ORGANISATION LOCATION WORK COMPILER
Statoil Norway StonyBrook
Inst. for Space Nerology Austria datafile conversion TopSpeed
Boeing Washington Aerospace Eng. p1(MAC)
CDSS UK embedded control sys. TopSpeed
(self-employed) UK embedded Pcs and TopSpeed
(manufacturer) Finland, 8051 embedded control Mod51
Pacific Software California Point-Of-Sale systems -
Tele-Soft S. Africa Scientific CAD progs TopSpeed
(confidential) UK Instrumentation & TopSpeed &
telemetry Custom tools
USA Dept. of Energy Idaho Reusable components StonyBrook
Idaho Nat. eng. labs systems programming
Locheed Idaho technologies company
Applied software resuse Products
GiaStar Ltd UK Satcoms/Comms. Elect. TopSpeed
design & m/facture.
University of Reading UK Teaching,embedded ctrl TopSpeed
University of Loughborough UK StonyBrook
and Hertsfordshire TopSpeed
(sole trader) UK Electronic Design TopSpeed
Atomic Energy of Canada Canada Shutdown system for prototype in
Ltd. (AECL) nuclear reactor TopSpeed
final version in
Wallac Oy Finland beta/gamma counters Logitech,
control & data acquis. Multiscope
Inspectron AG Switzerland remote surveillance Logitech,
Bank of New York USA funds transfer ModulAware.com
(HP OpenVMS Alpha)
customer enquiries Logitech (VAX/VMS)
(freelance) Motorola IC production Logitech
line tools. (Asia)
Dexdyne Ltd UK Single-board Pcs & TopSpeed
(freelance) Australia Shareware p1 (mac)
Multi-Master AS Norway Embedded systems, Logitech,
remote control & acquis. Multiscope
(confidential) room acoustic sim & TopSpeed
(audio) virtual reality
A7. Finally, the keeper of the FAQ notes that he still gets contracts
to evaluate Modula-2 code in takeover situations and the like.
1.12 Why do universities use Modula-2 for teaching instead of C or C++?
A1. Modula-2 is a type-safe language and its compilers will therefore
catch many errors that otherwise show up at run time. While
professional programmers need to learn C++ because it is commonly
used, it is important to begin a discipline of deliberate, engineered
programming at the outset. Modula-2 is easier to write in, easier to
read (it reads left to right) and easier to debug. It lends itself
well to software engineering. Modula-2 is a higher level language
than C++, particularly with respect to pointers, all of which have
types that depend on what is pointed to, and that can be treated as
addresses only by flagging this fact in the code. A good computing
science department (such as the one at Trinity Western University,
where I teach,) tries to inculcate a way of thinking (as a software
engineer, not a hacker) and beyond that, a breadth of ideas. At TWU
C, C++, Java, Prolog and other languages, are taught in appropriate
courses, and on a variety of platforms but not to beginners. Frankly,
if I had to switch, my first choice would be Ada or Oberon, and my
second Java (if it ever became cross platform.) If I had to try
teaching beginners C++, I would retire.
A2. Popularity no more implies soundness or superiority when
considering tools such as Modula-2 and C++ than it does when
considering hardware (Pentium vs PowerPC), operating systems (Windows
vs Mac) and applications (Word vs Nisus). Marketing means selling the
sizzle of appearance not the steak of content; those who know this
and can apply it consistently win the marketing wars with inferior or
even poor products. The market situation is no reason to give up on
the basics of sound tools and methodology. If anything the cirisis
implied by the inability of large companies to maintain poorly
designed and bloated software and OSs implies that the industry needs
to return to basics before it is going to advance much farther.
1.13 Why is Modula-2 a good language for large commercial projects?
A1. It supports modular design which reduces errors and cuts down on
maintenance time. This also allows platform dependencies to be
isolated, increasing portability. I/O is found in several
type-specific modules, so linkers only patch in the I/O code that's
needed, making programs smaller and faster. This is in sharp contrast
to the versatile but resource hungry printf in C.
A2. see: Griffith, Laurie Modula-2 is three times less error prone
than C, Proceedings of the Second International Modula-2 Conference,
Loughborough University of Technology, UK, September 1991, pp 332-338.
1.14 Where do I get information on YAFL?
A. This is yet another OO and Generic derivative of Modula-2. The
homepage for the language is at http://www.phidani.be/yafl/index.html
2. WHERE IS MODULA-2 DISCUSSED?
This is an internet newsgroup for questions, answers, and discussions
on Modula-2. You may read it under this name on any machine on which
you have a news account.
2.1.1 How do I post a message to comp.lang.modula2?
A. Post it directly into that group using a news program on any
computer connected to the network.
2.1.2 How do I retrieve old messages from comp.lang.modula2?
A. Your local news server probably keeps old messages only for a few
weeks. You should be able to mark the entire group as unread and
browse whatever is available there.
2.2 Amiga lists
2.3.1 A general list for Amiga Modula2/Oberon programming. This is
available in a similar manner at firstname.lastname@example.org. It is not
oriented toward any specific compiler.To subscribe, send mail to
email@example.com containing the message "subscribe
2.2.2 A mailing-list for the Amiga Turbo Modula-2 Compiler written by
Amritpal S. Mann. To subscribe, send a message to
firstname.lastname@example.org with SignOn turbo-list as the Subject.
Once subscribed, you will receive a copy of all messages sent to the
2.3 Gardens Point Modula-2
To join the GPM mailing list, send mail to email@example.com
with the subject line blank and the body
of the message containing:
Mail sent to firstname.lastname@example.org gets automatically forwarded to all
subscribers on the list. The development team are of course subscribers.
To join, send mail to email@example.com
with a blank subject line and the body Subscribe m2-win95-nt-l
Maintainer: Peter Stadler
This is a regular publication by Guenter Dotzel of ModulAware.
Back issues are available at: http://www.modulaware.com/mdltr_.htm
3. WHERE CAN I GET MODULA-2 COMPILERS?
3.1 Where can I get commercial Modula-2 compilers?
In this section, the listings are by name of the manufacturer (marked
M) or distributor (marked D.)
products Compilers, applications, and books.
office Daderiz 61
contact Albert Meier
voice +41/65/52 03 11
fax +41/65/52 03 79
Excelsior, LLC (replaces XDS)
products Native XDS-x86 - Modula-2/Oberon-2 2.32 compiler for x86
(Windows, OS/2, Linux)
XDS-C - Modula-2/Oberon-2 "via C" cross compiler (multiple platforms)
H2D (freeware) translates C header files to M2 Def Mods
Portable run-time library in C source code form
POSIX and Win32 API definition modules platforms PC/OS/2 V3
V4 (Warp), PC/Win95, PC/WNT PC/Linux,
Sun/Sparc Solaris, Sun/Sparc SunOS, HP PA-Risc/HP-UX,
others on request. (Mac no longer supported.)
also sold by ModulAware, and Real Time Associtaes
check the shareware/demo section (below) for product availability
Excelsior WWW home page:
fully functional evaluation kits are available from the site
also see ModulaWare, and Real Time Associates for product availability
products Gardens Point Modula-2
platforms Various Unix, including Linux and FreeBSD, DJGPP, EMX (OS/2)
and MS-DOS (no Mac)
office Queensland University of Technology
Gardens Point Branch
2 George Street
POB 2434 Brisbane
Queensland Australia 4001
contact John Gough
contact Jeffrey Ledermann
voice +61 7-864-2132
fax +61 7-864-1801
see mail list and net sections
Mandeno Granville Electronics Ltd
products Mod51 : 80x51 Cross Compiler, ISO extensions
Optimised for Embedded Control, Includes some
DbgX51 : Remote Debugger for Mod51 Compiler
IcePGM : ICE and Programmers, for FLASH cores,
using Mod51 platforms DOS Hosted
office 128 Grange Rd
voice +64 9 6300 558
fax +64 9 6301 720
The Mill Hill & Canterbury Corporation, Ltd.
product Canterbury Modula-2 for OS/2 ( PIM, non-ISO,
object oriented extensions similar to Oberon-2,
SOM/WPS and Presentation Manager APIs )
product Canterbury Modula-2 for Java 1.1 or 1.2 ( PIM, non-ISO,
object oriented extensions similar to Oberon-2 )
platform Any operating system with Java, such as
Windows-95/98/NT, OS/2, MacOS (incl. Metrowerks), Unix etc.
product NITEK MATHPAK 87/32 for Canterbury Modula-2 OS/2
office P.O.Box 4310 Colchester CO12WL England
prod/plat Compaq OpenVMS Alpha: Modula-2 and Oberon-2
64 bit native-code compiler, MaX V5.02 and A2O V3.0, and
64 bit Oberon System V4
Compaq OpenVMS VAX: Modula-2
32 bit native-code compiler, MVR V4.16
tel/fax +33 492.813 099
contact Guenter Dotzel
products MPW and Metrowerks Code Warrier hosted ISO compliant compilers
NOTE: Current versions of MPW have odds and sods for ISO Modula-2
written by R. Sutcliffe, for your editing enjoyment
office Hogenbergstrasse. 20
contact Elmar Henne
voice +49 89-546 13 10
fax +49 89-580 25 97
Real Time Associates Ltd.
products Compilers, books, and training courses
office Canning House 59
Canning Road Croyden Surrey
CR0 6QF UK
Tel: +44 20 8656 7333
Fax: +44 20 8656 7334
Stony Brook Software
products Stonybrook Modula-2 ISO compatible. (Environment, editor,
resource editor, librarian, context sensitive help, optimizing compiler,
linker, debugger, many extra libraries, including COM, RTL sources)
Also offers Pascal+
platforms 16bit DOS, 32bit DOS extended, 16bit Windows, 32bit Windows
32-bit Linux on IA-32 processors, 32-bit Solaris/SunOS on SPARC
office 187 E. Wilbur, Suite 4
CA 91360, USA
contact Norman Black
Home page: http://www.stonybrooksoftware.com
voice +1 (805) 496-5837
BBS +1 (805) 379-3357
FAX +1 (805) 496-7429
products Logitech/Multiscope Modula-2 and support
Distributor for Stony Brook Modula-2 (see listing)
Logitech compatible libraries for Stony Brook Modula-2
Real and protected mode ROM tools for 80x86 based embeeded
TERRA M2VMS/Alpha and M2VMS/VAX
platforms 16bit DOS, 32bit DOS extended, 16bit Windows, 32bit Windows,
DEC OpenVMS/Alpha and OpenVMS/VAX
office Bahnhofstrasse 33b
voice +41 01 910 35 55
fax +41 01 910 19 92
bbs +41 01 910 35 31
3.2 Where can I get a free/shareware compiler on the net?
Fitted Software Tools (FST) Modula-2 for DOS
contact: Roger Carvalho
Note: This compiler was developed by Roger Carvalho but is no longer
actively supported. It essentially conforms to PIM version 3, but also
supports some simple and interesting OOP extensions.
P. O. Box 867403 Plano, TX 75023 USA
Warning: A reader cautions that FST may not work at all if you have
an AMI BIOS.
Description: a complete Modula-2 compiler based on 2nd Edition PIM
Keywords: Modula-2 compiler linux
Author: firstname.lastname@example.org (Gaius Mulley)
available in source & binary in rpm or tar.gz format from
+ Full debugging via emacs/gdb
+ -students flag performs extra semantic checking
for dangerous novice programming styles.
NOTE: Mide3de2 is a windows IDE for the FST modula-2 compiler. It is
available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/mide3de2/
An earlier attempt to do this flopped, but a new attempt
is being coordinated at http://floppsie.comp.glam.ac.uk/
Gardens Point Modula-2 for DOS, Linux and FreeBSD
(The EMX version runs under OS/2 in protected mode and can be used to
generate OS/2 PM applications. It relies on the GNU tools from the EMX
package ported by Eberhard Mattes
email@example.com which can be found at:
ftp.uni-stuttgart.de/pub/systems/os2/ and various
other mirror sites.
MacLogimo for the Macintosh
MacMETH Modula-2 for Macintosh
It's also available on CD from: http://www.celestin.com/
Note that MacMETH is also released as part of RAMSES
RAMSES provides a full featured programming environment for the Macintosh,
containing all of MacMETH (compilers, linkers, symbolic break debugger,
macro editor or language support for Alpha editor) plus hundreds more of
libary modules useful in the context of programing and for scientific
applications. RAMSES contains also the 'Dialog Machine', a platform
independent GUI (see
'Dialog Machine' implementations exist for MacOS, GEM (no longer
available), Windows (3.1 .. up to current versions), and Unix. All
software we have developed, is offered via the internet as freeware.
Contact: Andreas Fischlin firstname.lastname@example.org
Megamax Modula-2 for the Atari
This is freeware now and comes with complete source including
compiler. It runs on all Atari Computers an compatibles and on
emulators such as MagicMac (Macintosh) and MagiCPC (PC-
compatibles). The documentation is entirely in german. Available
MOCKA - Modula Compiler Karlsruhe (Non ISO)
Institut fuer Programm- und Datenstrukturen
D-76128 Karlsruhe (FRG)
Phone: *-49-721-608 6088 FAX: *-49-721-691462
contact: Thilo Gaul
SUN 4 | SUN OS | SPARC |
SUN 4 | Solaris2.x/SunOS 5.0| SPARC |
DEC Station | ULTRIX | R3000, R2000 (MIPS) |
Silicon | IRIX | R3000, R2000 (MIPS) |
Graphics | | |
Sony NEWS | News | MC 68020 with 68881 |
SUN 3 | SUN OS | MC 68020 with 68881 |
HP 9000/300 | HPUX | MC 68020 with 68881 |
HP 9000/700 | HPUX | C back end |
RS6000 | AIX | C back end |
PC | Linux | 80386 | +
PC | 386BSD | 80386 | +
C-back end | UNIX | different |
translates | | |
M-2 To C | | |
The versions marked with a + are free; no order form must be sent, no
license fee to be paid. If you use them, please send an email to
For more information have a look to
See also ftp://tsx-11.mit.edu/pub/linux/packages/modula-2/ or
for a Linux version.
Ulm's Modula-2 System m2c (non-ISO)
web page: http://www.mathematik.uni-ulm.de/modula/
all distributions come along with all sources which may be
freely distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License
SPARCv8 / Solaris 2.x
MC68020 / SunOS 4.x
contact: Andreas Borchert email@example.com
( Windows 95/NT, OS-2, Linux native code and "via C" compilers. ISO
Makes demo and pre-release versions with some restrictions available.
The download site for all versions is:
M2Amiga (Open source Modula-2 Compiler for the Commodore Amiga)
Sources and Binaries can be obtained from http://m2amiga.claudio.ch/
3.3 How about a Summary of Commercial ISO Products for the Major
GPM, ModulAware, Stony Brook
Stony Brook, XDS
Mill Hill, XDS
3.4 Is there such a thing as a decompiler for Modula-2?
Nope. But feel free to write one. Be sure to include a facility to
produce the planning
documents from which the Modula-2 code could be constructed and one
to find out what
the users wanted before the planning documents were written.
3.5 Is there any other free or cheap stuff available?
A1. The ISO modules are; beyond that, contact the manufacturer.
A2. BURKS (the Brighton University Resource Kit for Students) is a non-profit
set of 2 CDs available from the University of Brighton (UK) or the George
Washington University (USA), price UKP 5.00 / US $8.50 (plus shipping).
Now in its third year, the current (3rd) edition has kindly been sponsored
by GEC-Marconi and ROCC Computers.
Aimed at Computer Science students, it provides around 1.1Gb of material
including compilers, tutorials and reference material for over 20 programming
languages; a copy of the Free Online Dictionary of Computing with over 11,000
definitions; a Linux distribution, together with a set of Linux manuals; FAQs,
tutorials and specifications for Internet and PC related topics (e.g. HTML,
FTP, XMS, Winsock, storage devices, modems...), and a large selection of
MS-DOS and Windows software.
Modula2-related material includes the FST and GPM compilers, Rick Sutcliffe's
"Modula-2: Abstractions for Data and Programming Structures", the Coronado
tuorial, the Modula-2 FAQ, and the GPM Language Reference Manual.
The entire collection is available online at http://burks.bton.ac.uk/.
Modula2-related material is at http://burks.bton.ac.uk/burks/language/modula2/.
Ordering information (including shipping costs to various destinations)
is also available online (at http://burks.bton.ac.uk/ordering.htm).
Rick Sutcliffe Professor Math/Cmpt Trinity Western University. Try
<http://www.arjay.bc.ca> for Christian SF, books on Modula-2 and
Ethics in Technology. Philology site at <http://www.opundo.com>