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SGI graphics Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)


Archive-name: sgi/faq/graphics
Last-modified: Wed Oct 20  1:00:04 CDT 1999
Posting-Frequency: Twice monthly
URL: http://www-viz.tamu.edu/~sgi-faq/

    SGI graphics Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

This is one of the Silicon Graphics FAQ series, which consists of:

    SGI admin FAQ - IRIX system administration
    SGI apps FAQ - Applications and miscellaneous programming
    SGI audio FAQ - Audio applications and programming
    SGI diffs FAQ - Changes to the other FAQs since the last posting
    SGI graphics FAQ - Graphics and user environment customization
    SGI hardware FAQ - Hardware
    SGI impressario FAQ - IRIS Impressario
    SGI inventor FAQ - IRIS Inventor
    SGI misc FAQ - Introduction & miscellaneous information
    SGI movie FAQ - Movies
    SGI performer FAQ - IRIS Performer
    SGI pointer FAQ - Pointer to the other FAQs
    SGI security FAQ - IRIX security

Read the misc FAQ for information about the FAQs themselves. Each FAQ is
posted to comp.sys.sgi.misc and to the news.answers and comp.answers
newsgroups (whose purpose is to store FAQs) twice per month. If you
can't find one of the FAQs with your news program, you can get it from

    ftp://viz.tamu.edu/pub/sgi/faq/
    ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/sgi/faq/

(rtfm.mit.edu is home to many other FAQs and informational documents,
and is a good place to look if you can't find an answer here.) The FAQs
are on the World Wide Web at

    http://www-viz.tamu.edu/~sgi-faq/

If you can't use FTP or WWW, send mail to mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu with
the word 'help' on a line by itself in the text, and it will send you a
document describing how to get files from rtfm.mit.edu by mail. Send the
command 'send usenet/news.answers/sgi/faq/misc' to get the SGI misc FAQ,
and similarly for the other FAQs. Send the command 'send
usenet/news.answers/internet-services/access-via-email' to get the
"Accessing the Internet by E-Mail FAQ".

You may distribute the SGI FAQs freely and we encourage you to do so.
However, you must keep them intact, including headers and this notice,
and you must not charge for or profit from them. Contact us for other
arrangements. We can't be responsible for copies of the SGI FAQs at
sites which we do not control, and copies published on paper or CD-ROM
are certain to be out of date. The contents are accurate as far as we
know, but the usual disclaimers apply. Send additions and changes to
sgi-faq@viz.tamu.edu.

Topics covered in this FAQ:
---------------------------
   -1- DISPLAYS AND DGL
   -2- How can I run a program on one machine and display it on another?
   -3- Does the DISPLAY environment variable work for GL applications?
   -4- Why doesn't the DISPLAY environment variable seem to work?
   -5- Why do I get DGL errors when I try to run a GL program?
   -6- CUSTOMIZING
   -7- What tools does SGI provide to help with the customization
       process?
   -8- What are the important login and resource files for IRIX 4.0.x?
   -9- What is the sequence of events that occur at login time in IRIX
       4.0.x?
  -10- What is the difference between .xsession and .sgisession in IRIX
       4.0.x?
  -11- Why do 4Dwm, toolchest, Workspace, etc. not recognize an
       environment variable I set in my shell's startup files in IRIX
       4.0.x?
  -12- How can I change desktops without using the mouse and Desks
       Overview?
  -13- How can I turn off the IRIX 5.2 Magic user environment?
  -14- How can I display my own background image under Indigo Magic?
  -15- Where is the default value of PATH set?
  -16- Why can't I log in after copying /usr/lib/X11/xdm/Xsession to
       .xsession?
  -17- How can I find out what fonts are available?
  -18- How can I use the Alt key as a Meta key in an xwsh window?
  -19- How can I configure my keyboard like a VT100?
  -20- Can I put a single large picture in the 'clogin' display?
  -21- How can I change clogin's background to an image?
  -22- RESOURCES
  -23- What are resources?
  -24- How can I set resources?
  -25- How can I use resources to run the same program twice with
       different attributes?
  -26- Does the GL recognize resources?
  -27- How can I know what resources I can set for an application?
  -28- What is a good approach to take in looking for resources?
  -29- What is the precedence for resource files?
  -30- Why do long resources cause X to crash mysteriously in IRIX 5.2?
  -31- 4DWM
  -32- Where can I learn more about the Window Manager?
  -33- What files affect the window manager and what is their
       relationship to each other?
  -34- Do I need my own .4Dwmrc file?
  -35- Can I run a different window manager?
  -36- How can I choose a different window manager as the default?
  -37- How can I recover from a failed window manager customization
       attempt?
  -38- ADMINISTRATION
  -39- How can I log into pandora/clogin without bringing up graphics?
  -40- How can I restart the console?
  -41- How can I start and stop the graphics system?
  -42- How can I restart the X server?
  -43- How can I run 'xinit' manually, rather than automatically from
       'xdm'?
  -44- How can I start X on a remote host with no users logged in?
  -45- IMAGE FILES
  -46- How can I convert images to and from other formats?
  -47- How can I convert models to and from other formats?
  -48- What is the format of SGI's RGB files?
  -49- How can I compress RGB bitmaps?
  -50- How can I make a screen dump?
  -51- Why does the IRIX 5.3 desktop recognize but not deal with JPEG
       files?
  -52- PROGRAMMING
  -53- Can I use 4Dgifts code in my application?
  -54- What does ERR_WMANIPC mean?
  -55- How can I translate screen (x,y) coords into world (x,y,z)
       coords?
  -56- How can I translate world (x,y,z) coords into screen (x,y)
       coords?
  -57- Why does nothing happen when I call mapcolor(index, R, G, B)?
  -58- Why can't 'cc' find some standard Xwindows functions?
  -59- What is a GL widget?
  -60- I'm using the GlxMDraw widget and it doesn't seem that colors are
       being installed correctly.  Overlays in the GlxMDraw widget are
       displayed in red and gray instead of the colors I specify.
       What's wrong?
  -61- Is there a way to switch between single and double buffering
       within a GL widget on the fly?
  -62- Why doesn't my X server use backing store? How can I turn it on?
  -63- What is "/dev/tport" used for?
  -64- Why is OpenGL's glDrawPixels slower than IrisGL's lrectwrite?
  -65- BUGS AND PROBLEMS
  -66- Why do I get a "Broken Pipe" error when I close an X client
       window?
  -67- What do the errors in my 'xdm-errors' file mean?
  -68- Why doesn't SGI's xlock lock my screen?
  -69- Why can't my XView application find its fonts?
  -70- After running a few programs, the colors change as the cursor
       moves. The colors are usually all wrong in other windows.
  -71- How can I make my X Server use a 12-bit PseudoColor, 12-bit
       TrueColor or 24-bit TrueColor visual by default?
  -72- When I try to run UIM/X uxserverd, I get an error message saying,
       "license file has been modified, cannot start the UIM/X license
       server".
  -73- I just upgraded from IRIX 5.2 to 5.3. Why does my PI or VGX say
       "extension GLX missing on display :0.0"?
  -74- Why does my X server (Xsgi) grow inexorably?
  -75- Why does my GL application run slower on newer SGI hardware than
       it did on older SGI hardware?
  -76- MISCELLANEOUS
  -77- What books about the X Window System and OSF/Motif do you
       recommend?
  -78- Does the IRIX 5.2 Magic user environment display on an X
       terminal?
  -79- What about OpenGL?
  -80- Which SGI machines can run OpenGL now? Which will in the future?
  -81- What's this about a copyright dispute over virtual desks in
       Indigo Magic?

----------------------------------------------------------------------

Subject:    -1- DISPLAYS AND DGL
Date: 15 May 1994 00:00:01 EST

  This section discusses how to use remote displays.

------------------------------

Subject:    -2- How can I run a program on one machine and display it on
                another?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  Specify the host on which you want the X client to be displayed, then
  run the application. To specify a remote host,

      setenv DISPLAY <destination>:0

  where <destination> is the name or IP address of the remote host.  To
  specify the local host (console),

      setenv DISPLAY :0

------------------------------

Subject:    -3- Does the DISPLAY environment variable work for GL
                applications?
Date: 4 Jun 1997 00:00:01 EST

  Yes: IRIX 4.0.x and later uses the Distributed Graphics Library (DGL)
  to allow GL programs to run remotely.  Applications running over
  DGL use the DISPLAY environment variable just as do ordinary X 
  applications.

  OpenGL applications also will pay attention to the DISPLAY variable.
  OpenGL data, however, does not use DGL; it uses the standard X
  communications mechanism.


------------------------------

Subject:    -4- Why doesn't the DISPLAY environment variable seem to
                work?
Date: 4 Jun 1997 00:00:01 EST

  First, make sure your DISPLAY variable is syntactically correct.  For
  example, to display applications on a machine named "enterprise",
  whose IP address is 123.45.678.90, DISPLAY should be set to
  "enterprise:0" or "123.45.678.90:0". 

  Next, try to "ping" the machine to which your DISPLAY variable is
  set.  If this does not work, you have either specified an invalid
  hostname, the host is down, or you are having network problems.
  If you are running an older binary that expects to see /etc/resolv.conf
  in /usr/etc, you will either have to make a symbolic link from
  /usr/etc/resolv.conf to /etc/resolv.conf, or set the DISPLAY variable
  with a numeric address.

  If you see messages like "permission denied" or "can't connect to
  server", you have a permission problem.   Do 'xhost +yourmachine' on
  the remote machine to give 'yourmachine' access to the remote
  machine's display. (Note that 'xhost' is inactive by default on
  SGIs.)

  If you're using NIS (YP), make sure the client is linked with
  "-lsun".

  For more information see Chapter 3 of the X Window System User's
  Guide.

------------------------------

Subject:    -5- Why do I get DGL errors when I try to run a GL program?
Date: 4 Jun 1997 00:00:01 EST

  - There may be a problem with the DISPLAY variable or Xwindows
    permissions. See the previous question.

  - You may be trying to display on a non-SGI machine which doesn't
    support GL/DGL.  Note that DGL is for running GL programs remotely,
    not OpenGL programs.  OpenGL programs run remotely via the 
    GLX X server extension.

  - DGL may be disabled in /etc/services and/or /etc/inetd.conf. The
    former file should have a line reading

      sgi-dgl         5232/tcp

    and the latter should have a line reading

      sgi-dgl stream  tcp   nowait  root   /usr/etc/dgld  dgld -IM -tDGLTSOCKET

    If either is commented out, remove the comment.

  - You may be trying to display on a machine with a much older version
    of IRIX. Try another machine with a newer IRIX.

  An article in the Jan/Feb 1993 Pipeline describes the above in great
  detail.

------------------------------

Subject:    -6- CUSTOMIZING
Date: 15 May 1994 00:00:01 EST

  This section discusses ways to customize your environment, both with
  and without graphics. The next two sections go into depth on
  customizing Xwindows resources and the 4Dwm.

------------------------------

Subject:    -7- What tools does SGI provide to help with the
                customization process?
Date: 05 Jul 1994 00:00:01 EST

  Here are some good places to look in IRIX 4.0.x:

  - The Customization rollover menu in the Toolchest.
  - The manpages for xfontsel, xlsfonts, xwininfo, xdpyinfo, xprop,
    appres, listres, and xrdb.
  - The "WorkSpace User's Guide".
  - The example files in /usr/tutor/Customize.

  In IRIX 5.x, take the systemtour and keep your eyes open.

------------------------------

Subject:    -8- What are the important login and resource files for IRIX
                4.0.x?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  The following three file groupings indicate where files that affect
  your login session reside.

  1) /usr/lib/X11/* - This is THE starting place. Here you find the
  system default bindings for Motif, 4Dwm, and the Toolchest. The xdm
  directory lives here as well as the app-defaults directory. xdm
  controls the session management. Many application defaults are set in
  the app-defaults directory.

  2) $HOME/[.Xdefaults, .4Dwmrc, .chestrc, .xsession, .sgisession] Here
  you find the files that control your system set-up.  You create these
  files; they don't exist when you first log in.

  3) /usr/bin/X11 - This is where the binaries live. It makes life nice
  to include this directory in your path.

------------------------------

Subject:    -9- What is the sequence of events that occur at login time
                in IRIX 4.0.x?
Date: 10 Dec 1993 00:00:01 EST

  This is a bare bones synopsis of the events that occur when you log
  in to the console via xdm (the default method of logging in) under
  IRIX 4.0.x and, with the desktop *disabled*, IRIX 5.x.

   1) Provide a "failsafe" (nographics) login if required/requested.
   2) Exec $HOME/.xsession if it exists. If it exists, the remaining
      steps should normally be included in the users .xsession file
      as well.
   3) Load $HOME/.Xresources if it exists.
   4) Set XUSERFILESEARCHPATH.
   5) Incorporate a "shell" environment into the "session".
      (man userenv)
   6) Set the root background and cursor.
   7) Disable display access control (xhost +).  (man xhost)
   8) Start 4Dwm.
   9) Wait for 4Dwm to come up.
  10) Start the console.
  11) Execute $HOME/.sgisession if it exists.
  12) Start WorkSpace if the user wants it.
  13) Put a Toolchest on each screen.
  14) Exec the "reaper". (man reaper / endsession)

------------------------------

Subject:   -10- What is the difference between .xsession and .sgisession
                in IRIX 4.0.x?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  The system Xsession file (/usr/lib/X11/xdm/Xsession or
  Xsession-remote) starts up a number of important things when you log
  in, eg. 4Dwm, toolchest, loads resources, sets your
  XUSERFILESEARCHPATH, sets your root background, etc.

  One of the last things it does is look in your home directory for a
  .sgisession file.  This allows you to start additional programs at
  login time. This is the file that you would use to start a mailbox,
  additional window, a calendar, etc.

  ADVANTAGES OF $HOME/.sgisession :

      1) You don't need to read through yet another system file to see
	 what you need or don't need.

  DISADVANTAGES OF $HOME/.sgisession :

      1) You cannot override ALL of the defaults set for you. Some
         things you can't change from a .sgisession file:

         A) You can't start a different window manager.
         B) You can't change the way the console starts.
         C) You can't change toolchest output redirection to
  	  the console.

      2) Users of other vendors' equipment are used to seeing a
	 .xsession file.

  After checking for a "failsafe" (ie. no graphics) login, one of the
  first things that /usr/lib/X11/xdm/Xsession does is check for
  $HOME/.xsession.  If it exists, Xsession execs your .xsession file.
  This means that if you are REALLY sure you know what you are doing,
  you can log in with a different window manager, xterm as a console,
  or xwsh not already iconified, etc.  You can also turn off the
  toolchest output redirection, and start anything else you might have
  done in $HOME/.sgisession. There is a discussion on xsession files in
  volume 3 of the O'Reilly series.

------------------------------

Subject:   -11- Why do 4Dwm, toolchest, Workspace, etc. not recognize an
                environment variable I set in my shell's startup files
                in IRIX 4.0.x?
Date: 03 Sep 1995 00:00:01 EST

  The script /usr/lib/X11/xdm/Xsession (or, if you have one, your own
  ~/.xsession) runs when you log in and starts your window manager
  (4Dwm), Workspace, etc. To give these programs a copy of the
  environment you define in your shell's startup files, Xsession first
  runs 'userenv', which runs your shell just to see what environment
  variables your shell's startup files set and puts them into
  Xsession's environment.  Later on Xsession runs 4Dwm, Workspace, etc.
  and they inherit Xsession's environment including the environment
  variables which 'userenv' got from your shell's startup files.

  However, 'userenv' objects to 1) errors in your shell startup files,
  2) commands which print output to the terminal and 3) commands like
  'stty' and 'tset', which expect to be connected to a terminal.  Any
  of these may cause 'userenv' to give up completely, so that Xsession,
  4Dwm, Workspace, etc. do not get any of your shell's enviroment.

  To get 'userenv' to work, you must 1) make sure that your shell
  startup files are error-free and 2) protect 'userenv' from commands
  which print output or expect to be connected to a terminal by testing
  for the ENVONLY environment variable before running them. (See the
  userenv(1) manpage.) You might try disabling your shell startup files
  (or parts thereof) one by one to narrow down which is causing the
  problem.  Be sure to check both personal and system-wide shell
  startup files! See your shell's manpage for a complete list.

  Note that each terminal window (aka 'winterm', 'xwsh' or 'xterm')
  runs a fresh copy of your shell, so it has a second chance to set
  your environment variables. Your shell is now connected to a terminal
  and 'userenv' isn't involved, so none of the above problems apply.
  The environment in a terminal window will appear correct, and
  programs started from a window (e.g. by typing 'workspace' to start
  Workspace) will inherit the environment properly.  Furthermore,
  'userenv' often appears to work when run inside a terminal window,
  even when it does not work when run from Xsession.  This is all fine,
  but it doesn't help when you log in. One right way to see if
  'userenv' is working when it should is to add the line 'env >
  $HOME/test-userenv' to Xsession after the line that runs 'userenv',
  log in and examine the file it creates.

  'bash' users take note: 'bash' has particular problems with 'userenv',
  and there is a special version of 'userenv' which works with 'bash' at
  ftp://viz.tamu.edu/pub/sgi/software/desktop/userenv.tar.gz.

------------------------------

Subject:   -12- How can I change desktops without using the mouse and
                Desks Overview?
Date: 8 Mar 1997 00:00:01 CST

  Ping Huang <pshuang@sgi.com> contributes the following method:

  Unlike some other window managers, you can't navigate between
  desktops geographically, using some Control, Alt, and/or Shift'ed
  version of the arrow keys.  However, you can tell 4Dwm to let you jump
  to a given desktop with a keystroke.  If you want to customize one
  account only, copy /usr/lib/X11/system.4Dwmrc (or possibly
  /usr/lib/X11/$LANG/system.4Dwmrc, if you set the LANG environment
  variable for localization) to the user's home directory as .4Dwmrc.
  Look for the "Keys 4DwmKeyBindings" section, and add lines of the
  following form:

    # IndigoMagic desktops
        <Key>F1                 root|icon|window        f.switch_desk "Desk 1"
        <Key>F2                 root|icon|window        f.switch_desk "Desk 2"
        <Key>F3                 root|icon|window        f.switch_desk "Desk 3"

        <Key>F10                root|icon|window        f.switch_desk "Global"

  The names of the desks are whatever arbitrary names you used to name
  your desks in Desk Overview.  (The "Global" desk is, however, a special
  desk; see Desk Overview help for details.  You still reference its
  name here as you would any other desk.)

------------------------------

Subject:   -13- How can I turn off the IRIX 5.2 Magic user environment?
Date: 18 Aug 1994 00:00:01 EST

  Mark Andrews <mark@alias.com> says:
  You can disable the Indigo Magic environment in two ways:

  1) If you wish to disable it for all users on the machine:

         chkconfig desktop off

  2) If you wish to disable it for a specific user, do

         touch ~<username>/.disableDesktop

     You may also have to remove the ~/.desktop-<hostname> directory as
     well as 4Dwm looks in there for a 4Dwmsession file which it uses
     for a guide to redisplay windows left open from the last session.

     Method 2 works ONLY if you have the original IRIX 5.2 xdm Xsession
     file, which contains the following code chunk:

     if /etc/chkconfig desktop ;
     then
             if [ -x $0.dt -a \! -f $HOME/.disableDesktop ]
             then
                     exec $0.dt $*
             fi
     fi

  If you only want to turn off the file manager, create the file
  ~/.desktop-<hostname>/nodesktop.

  Whether you disable the entire desktop or just the file manager, you
  may also want to set one or more of these resources

     4DWm*SG_autoSave:       false
     4Dwm*SG_manageSession:  false
     4Dwm*SG_useBackgrounds: false

  which are explained in the 4Dwm(1) manpage. See also the desktop_eoe
  release notes.

------------------------------

Subject:   -14- How can I display my own background image under Indigo
                Magic?
Date: 30 Apr 1995 00:00:01 EST

  Two SGI employees described two different ways to do this, one for
  folks who don't care about desktop icons and one for folks who do.

  Joel Tesler of SGI <joel@sgi.com> says:

      1) Disable Indigo Magic desktop icons in any of the three ways
         (~/.desktop-<host>/nodesktop, ~/.disableDesktop, or 'chkconfig
         desktop off') described in the previous entry.

      2) Set the resource

         4Dwm*SG_useBackgrounds: false

      3) Run whatever command you like to display the image on the
         background.

  Jon Madison of SGI <jm@indianapolis.sgi.com> says:

      1) cp /usr/lib/X11/system.backgrounds ~/.backgrounds

      2) Read your new ~/.backgrounds file (and 'man background') to see
         how it works, and edit it. Here's an example entry which uses
         'xli' (a free image viewer) to display a GIF image:

         background "Legos"
            command "-execute /usr/local/bin/xli -onroot -fork /usr/people/jm/graphics/pix/lego.gif"
            default "-execute /usr/local/bin/xli -onroot -fork /usr/people/jm/graphics/pix/lego.gif"
            exeok "/usr/local/bin/xli"
            readok "/usr/people/jm/graphics/pix/lego.gif"

      3) Run the 'background' customization panel. (It's in the default
         toolchest. Hey, there's your custom background in the list!

      Backgrounds set up in this way coexist fine with desktop icons.

------------------------------

Subject:   -15- Where is the default value of PATH set?
Date: 10 Dec 1993 00:00:01 EST

  Every program which allows a user to log in (telnet, rlogin, pandora,
  etc.) can specify PATH. Shells may as well if it isn't already set.
  There are many slightly different default values, and relying on them
  is a good way to get confused. The only reliable method is to set
  PATH in your shell's startup files. These are different for each
  shell, and are described in each shell's manpage. Beware of 'ksh',
  which has an internal, invisible default path ('/bin:/usr/bin') which
  it uses when PATH is not set.

------------------------------

Subject:   -16- Why can't I log in after copying
                /usr/lib/X11/xdm/Xsession to .xsession?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  After copying this file to your home directory, you need to remove
  all references to "xsession". References to xsession cause the system
  to try to execute $HOME/.xsession, which will create an infinite
  loop.

  Remove the lines in ~/.xsession that say:

  if [ -r $xsession -a "$0" != $xsession ]; then
         if [ -x $xsession ]; then
  	       exec $xsession
         else
  	       exec /bin/sh $xsession
         fi
  fi

------------------------------

Subject:   -17- How can I find out what fonts are available?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  The xfontsel and xlsfonts utilities help you find appropriate fonts.
  xlsfonts lists the fonts; xfontsel provides an interface for
  selecting a desired font. To use xfontsel, choose "Font Names" from
  the Customization rollover menu in the Toolchest.  Please see the man
  pages and the IRIS Utilities Guide for further information.

------------------------------

Subject:   -18- How can I use the Alt key as a Meta key in an xwsh
                window?
Date: 23 Jun 1994 00:00:01 EST

  First, put the following X resources wherever you put X resources:

  --- beginning of resources ---
  ! This turns Alt-key into Meta-key.

  XWsh*metaKeyMask:	8

  ! This allows multiple key modifiers in keybindings (so we can do
  ! meta-shift, meta-control, etc. and incidentally a) turns vt100
  ! cursor key mode off and b) changes the cursor key bindings.

  XWsh*keyboardType:	xlib

  ! This turns vt100 cursor key mode back on. Running 'tset' at login
  ! resets the terminal and turns the cursor keys back off, so don't
  ! run it.

  XWsh*initSequence:	\233?1h

  ! The iris-ansi terminfo entry has arrow key sequences for the ibmrt
  ! keyboard, not the xlib keyboard; for curses applications to work,
  ! the arrow keys must be bound to the sequences in the terminfo
  ! entry. Rebinding the arrow keys to match the terminfo entry is more
  ! convenient than changing the terminfo entry.

  XWsh*ckmeKeyMap:			\
      Left(any): send("\033[D");		\
      Right(any): send("\033[C");		\
      Up(any): send("\033[A");		\
      Down(any): send("\033[B");
  --- end of resources ---

  'tset' resets your terminal, so running it will undo the initSequence
  resource setting. There is a 'tset' command in the default csh/tcsh
  ~/.login file; replace the line

      eval `tset -s -Q`

  with

      if (! $?TERM) then
          eval `tset -s -Q`
      endif

  so 'tset' will run only if the TERM environment variable isn't
  already set. (You can't say 'if (! $?TERM) eval `tset -sQ`', because
  csh/tcsh evaluates the backquotes *before* the if.)

  Finally, if you use GNU Emacs, put the following in your .emacs:

      (set-input-mode nil nil t)

  This tells Emacs to allow Meta key usage even though the iris-ansi
  (xwsh) terminal description doesn't specify a Meta key.

------------------------------

Subject:   -19- How can I configure my keyboard like a VT100?
Date: 4 Jun 1997 00:00:01 EST

  'xwsh -vt100' may be close enough; try it and see. (The PF keys are
  mapped to F9-F12.) If not, use 'xterm -name VT200' and put the 
  following wherever you put the rest of your X resources:

  === snip ===
  XTerm*VT200.Translations: #override \
  	<Key>BackSpace:		string(0x7f) \n\
  	<Key>Num_Lock:		string(0x1b) string("OP") \n\
  	<Key>KP_Divide:		string(0x1b) string("OQ") \n\
  	<Key>KP_Multiply:	string(0x1b) string("OR") \n\
  	<Key>KP_Subtract:	string(0x1b) string("OS") \n\
  	<Key>KP_Add:		string(0x1b) string("Om") \n\
  	<Key>Pause:		string(0x1b) string("[34~") \n\
  	<Key>Print:		string(0x1b) string("[32~") \n\
  	<Key>Scroll_Lock:       string(0x1b) string("[33~") \n\
  	<Key>KP_0:		string(0x1b) string("Op") \n\
  	<Key>KP_1:		string(0x1b) string("Oq") \n\
  	<Key>KP_2:		string(0x1b) string("Or") \n\
  	<Key>KP_3:		string(0x1b) string("Os") \n\
  	<Key>KP_4:		string(0x1b) string("Ot") \n\
  	<Key>KP_5:		string(0x1b) string("Ou") \n\
  	<Key>KP_6:		string(0x1b) string("Ov") \n\
  	<Key>KP_7:		string(0x1b) string("Ow") \n\
  	<Key>KP_8:		string(0x1b) string("Ox") \n\
  	<Key>KP_9:		string(0x1b) string("Oy") \n\
  	<Key>KP_Decimal:	string(0x1b) string("On") \n\
  	<Key>Insert:		string(0x1b) string("[1~") \n\
  	<Key>Home:		string(0x1b) string("[2~") \n\
  	<Key>Prior:		string(0x1b) string("[3~") \n\
  	<Key>Delete:		string(0x1b) string("[4~") \n\
  	<Key>End:		string(0x1b) string("[5~") \n\
  	<Key>Next:		string(0x1b) string("[6~") \n\
  	<Key>F1:		string(0x1b) string("[17~") \n\
  	<Key>F2:		string(0x1b) string("[18~") \n\
  	<Key>F3:		string(0x1b) string("[19~") \n\
  	<Key>F4:		string(0x1b) string("[20~") \n\
  	<Key>F5:		string(0x1b) string("[21~") \n\
  	<Key>F6:		string(0x1b) string("[23~") \n\
  	<Key>F7:		string(0x1b) string("[24~") \n\
  	<Key>F8:		string(0x1b) string("[25~") \n\
  	<Key>F9:		string(0x1b) string("[26~") \n\
  	<Key>F10:		string(0x1b) string("[28~") \n\
  	<Key>F11:		string(0x1b) string("[29~") \n\
  	<Key>F12:		string(0x1b) string("[31~") \n\
  === snip ===

  This remaps the keys as follows:

  ---------------------------------------------
  SGI Key             |   Emulated VT100 key
  ---------------------------------------------
  Num Lock            |   PF1
  /                   |   PF2
  *                   |   PF3
  -                   |   PF4
  7                   |   7
  8                   |   8
  9                   |   9
  +                   |   -
  4                   |   4
  5                   |   5
  6                   |   6
  1                   |   1
  2                   |   2
  3                   |   3
  Enter               |   Enter
  0                   |   0
  .                   |   .
  Insert              |   Find
  Home                |   Insert Here
  Page Up             |   Remove
  Delete              |   Select
  End                 |   Prev Screen
  Page Down           |   Next Screen
  F1                  |   F6
  F2                  |   F7
  F3                  |   F8
  F4                  |   F9
  F5                  |   F10
  F6                  |   F11
  F7                  |   F12
  F8                  |   F13
  F9                  |   F14
  F10                 |   Help
  F11                 |   Do
  F12                 |   F17
  Print Screen        |   F18
  Scroll Lock         |   F19
  Pause               |   F20

  These translations encompass both VT100 and VT200 (LK201-style)
  keyboards.  Thanks to Hemant Shah <shah@fnal.fnal.gov> and Isaac 
  A. Stoddard <u177k@gsde.hso.link.com> for their contributions here.
  Any volunteers to work out similar bindings for xwsh?

------------------------------

Subject:   -20- Can I put a single large picture in the 'clogin'
                display?
Date: 05 Nov 1995 00:00:01 EST

  Not in IRIX 5.0-5.2 or 6.0-6.0.1. You could in IRIX 4.0.x and earlier,
  and you can in IRIX 5.3 and 6.1 and later. Read the clogin(1) manpage.

------------------------------

Subject:   -21- How can I change clogin's background to an image?
Date: 05 Nov 1995 00:00:01 EST

  Convert the image to xbm ("X BitMap") format. (See under "IMAGE FILES"
  below for conversion programs.) Uncomment the 'xsetroot' line in
  /usr/lib/X11/xdm/Xlogin and change the filename after '-bitmap' to
  your .xbm file. If your image is smaller than your screen, it will be
  tiled to fill the screen.

------------------------------

Subject:   -22- RESOURCES
Date: 15 May 1994 00:00:01 EST

  This section discusses Xwindows resources.

------------------------------

Subject:   -23- What are resources?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  Resources are "attributes" that control the look and feel of an
  application. Resources include color, fonts, size, location, and
  more.  Resources can have a complex format for binding strengths.

  For a complete description of resources, including a description of
  "loose" and "tight" bindings, consult a book listed in the
  bibliography question above.

------------------------------

Subject:   -24- How can I set resources?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  There are many ways to set resources. Resources may be listed in
  files or contained in a data base. Consult a book on X as well as the
  xrdb(1) manpage for detailed descriptions.  Generally speaking, if
  xrdb is not used, resource files are specified through environment
  variables.  "What is a good approach to take in looking for
  resources?" addresses the precedence of these files and variables.

  For some examples in IRIX 4.0.x, see the file
  /usr/tutor/Customize/example.Xdefaults.

------------------------------

Subject:   -25- How can I use resources to run the same program twice
                with different attributes?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  To accomplish this task, you need to take advantage of the "instance
  vs class" concept. This concept is explained further in most books on
  Xt.

  Many applications have a resource that lets you to give it a unique
  name.  For example, from the xwsh man page :

  -name instance-name
	Provide a unique name for an xwsh window.  This name becomes
	the instance name of the specific xwsh, with the class name
	always being "XWsh".

  Using the -name option allows you to give "names" to different
  instances of xwsh and assign different resources to each one.  So if
  you want two different xwsh's with different resource sets, give them
  two different names, say howdymom and howdydoody, for example.  Add
  the following to your ~/.Xdefaults file (if you use .Xdefaults) :

    howdymom*foreground:       SeaGreen
    howdydoody*foreground:     SGIBeet

  Now all you have to do is start them up :

    xwsh -name howdymom&
    xwsh -name howdydoody&

------------------------------

Subject:   -26- Does the GL recognize resources?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  Yes. In IRIX 4.0 and later, the GL responds to several X resources,
  allowing run-time control over some aspects of GL programs.

  The man page assumes you are somewhat familiar with X resources, if
  you are not, you should read some X documentation such as Volume 3 of
  the O'Reily X books.

  The GL uses resources names with the prefixes

    appname.gl.                (instance prefix)
    Appname.GL.                (class prefix)

  where appname and Appname are derived from the argument to the GL
  program's first call to winopen(3G) upper case.

  For complete information see the man page for GLRESOURCES.

------------------------------

Subject:   -27- How can I know what resources I can set for an
                application?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  The most common place to find resource variables for a particular
  application is in the man page for that application.

  For example, take a look at the man page for `xwsh'.  Look for the
  section heading called `RESOURCES'.  This section lists each resource
  for `xwsh', and in some cases, the valid values for that resource.

  Also, many major applications are built on top of the Xt toolkit.
  There are standard resources that these applications recognize. For a
  more complete description, see one of the books on Xt listed in the
  bibliography.

------------------------------

Subject:   -28- What is a good approach to take in looking for
                resources?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  The following is a recommended list  of steps to take when searching
  for a resource, binding, behavior, etc.

   1) Look in the 4.0 Transition Guide.
   2) Look in /usr/tutor/Customize.
   3) Look in /usr/demos.
   4) Look in ~4Dgifts.  (Available with the development option.)
   5) If the client you are interested in is a GL client, see the
      man page for GLRESOURCES.
   6) Look in /usr/lib/X11/app-defaults/ClientName.
   7) Look in /usr/lib/X11/system.* .
   8) Look through the man page for the client you are interested in.
   9) Look in O'Reilly & Associates Vol. III. It has many gems
      pertaining to standard X clients.
  10) Look in the documentation that came with your application.
  11) Look in the OSF Motif manuals.
  12) Post to comp.windows.x if you can not find
      an answer using steps 1 through 11.

------------------------------

Subject:   -29- What is the precedence for resource files?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  The following list indicates the weight of set resources.
  Items at the top have the greatest weight.

  1) Hard coded values for resources.
  2) Command line arguments.
  3) Resources pointed to by $XENVIRONMENT.
  4) Resource values loaded into the Resource Data Base via xrdb.
  5) Resources pointed to by other environment variables :

     IF $XUSERFILESEARCHPATH is set

       then it contains a list of directories to search.

     ELSE IF $XAPPLRESDIR is set

       it contains a single directory, and a short list of related
       directories (e.g. adjusted for language) is where resource files
       must be found.

     ELSE

       Look in a short list of places related to $HOME (e.g. language
       adjusted). This includes files in $HOME that have the name of
       the class of the application.

  6) Resource values set in $HOME/.Xdefaults, provided that the
     RESOURCE_MANAGER property hasn't been set via the xrdb command.
     (see the third paragraph in the xrdb man page)
  7) Values set in /usr/lib/X11/app-defaults/*.
  8) Values set through through the application's fall back mechanism.

------------------------------

Subject:   -30- Why do long resources cause X to crash mysteriously in
                IRIX 5.2?
Date: 13 Nov 1994 00:00:01 EST

  Get patch 36.

------------------------------

Subject:   -31- 4DWM
Date: 15 May 1994 00:00:01 EST

  This section discusses the 4D Window Manager.

------------------------------

Subject:   -32- Where can I learn more about the Window Manager?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  The man pages for 4Dwm and mwm contain a wealth of information on the
  window manager. There are also online files. You may want to read
  /usr/tutor/Customize/example.4Dwmrc (IRIX 4.0.x only) as well as
  /usr/people/4Dgifts/.4Dwmrc (if you have the IDO option).  The
  OSF/Motif manuals listed in the bibliography are also good places to
  find information. (4Dwm is based on mwm).

------------------------------

Subject:   -33- What files affect the window manager and what is their
                relationship to each other?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  1) ~/.4Dwmrc, if you have one
  2) /usr/lib/X11/system.4Dwmrc
  3) /usr/bin/X11/4Dwm
  4) /usr/lib/X11/app-defaults/4Dwm
  5) ~/.Xdefaults (or wherever you set resources)

  When 4Dwm is started, it looks for ~/.4Dwmrc. If it does not exist,
  it looks at /usr/lib/X11/system.4Dwmrc. The definitions for button
  bindings, menus, etc are contained in these files. For a better
  description of bindings, look in /usr/tutor/Customize/example.4Dwmrc
  and /usr/people/ 4Dgifts/.4Dwmrc. Also see the man pages for 4Dwm.

  The resource set for the bindings will actually "choose" which
  binding definition is set.

------------------------------

Subject:   -34- Do I need my own .4Dwmrc file?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  Not necessarily. As mentioned in the previous question, actual
  bindings are determined by resource names. If there is a binding
  definition in /usr/lib/X11/system.4Dwmrc that you like, you may
  choose it by setting the appropriate resource.

------------------------------

Subject:   -35- Can I run a different window manager?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  IRIX has 4Dwm, mwm, twm, and uwm. However, GL programs are guaranteed
  to work only under 4Dwm.

------------------------------

Subject:   -36- How can I choose a different window manager as the
                default?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  You must use a .xsession file and explicitly invoke the window
  manager and any other applications you want to use, such as
  'toolchest' and 'xwsh'.

  After making this change, you may only be able to log out by using
  the "Log Out" selection in the toolchest, or by executing
  /usr/bin/X11/endsession.

  Here are the contents of a sample .xsession file:

      xhost + &
      toolchest -name ToolChest > /dev/console 2&>1 &
      winterm -bg red &
      winterm -bg blue &
      mwm > /dev/console 2&>1 &
      /usr/bin/X11/reaper

  Note that 'reaper' is not put into the background.  When 'reaper'
  exits you will be logged out.

  Alternatively, you can do the following steps:

  1. cp /usr/lib/X11/xdm/Xsession ~/.xsession

  2. Remove the lines in ~/.xsession that say:

     if [ -r $xsession -a "$0" != $xsession ]; then
  	if [ -x $xsession ]; then
  		exec $xsession
  	else
  		exec /bin/sh $xsession
  	fi
     fi

  3. Change the line that says

     /usr/bin/X11/4Dwm >/dev/console 2>&1 &

     to

     /usr/bin/X11/mwm > /dev/console 2>&1 &

------------------------------

Subject:   -37- How can I recover from a failed window manager
                customization attempt?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  If your attempt at customization leaves you in a state where buttons
  and menus are no longer recognized, you can recover by pressing the
  <Alt><CTRL><Shift><!>keys simultaneously. A menu appears that will
  let you choose Motif, Iris, or user defaults. Choose either Motif or
  Iris defaults and then push OK. This restarts the window manager to a
  usable state.

------------------------------

Subject:   -38- ADMINISTRATION
Date: 15 May 1994 00:00:01 EST

  This section describes how to start and stop parts of the graphics
  system in various funky ways.

------------------------------

Subject:   -39- How can I log into pandora/clogin without bringing up
                graphics?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  Add the magic word 'failsafe' after your username. E.g. to log in as
  root without graphics, you'd type 'root failsafe', whack Enter, and
  type your password.

------------------------------

Subject:   -40- How can I restart the console?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  Use /usr/sbin/startconsole. 'startconsole' and 'winterm' (which
  'startconsole' calls) are scripts, so you can see how they do it.

------------------------------

Subject:   -41- How can I start and stop the graphics system?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  Use /usr/gfx/startgfx and /usr/gfx/stopgfx.  Be aware that stopgfx
  will kill any active windows and log you out.

------------------------------

Subject:   -42- How can I restart the X server?
Date: 10 Sep 1995 00:00:01 EST

  To restart the X server (Xsgi) once, do any one of the following
  (in increasing order of brutality):

  - killall -TERM Xsgi
  - hold down the left-Control, left-Shift, F12 and keypad slash keys
    (this is fondly known as the "Vulcan Death Grip")
  - /usr/gfx/stopgfx; /usr/gfx/startgfx
  - reboot

  To restart the X server every time someone logs out of the console,
  edit /var/X11/xdm/xdm-config, change the setting of
  "DisplayManager._0.terminateServer" from "False" to "True" and do
  'killall -HUP xdm'.

------------------------------

Subject:   -43- How can I run 'xinit' manually, rather than
                automatically from 'xdm'?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  By doing the following, which will affect all users:

  1) log in as root
  2) Type:
     /usr/gfx/stopgfx
     chkconfig xdm off.

  3) all users need to copy /usr/bin/X11/X to their home directory
     (renaming the file to .xserverrc), removing the if test for
     windowsystem, OR be familiar enough with xinit to have an
     alternate command line.
  4) transfer all startup programs from .xsession/.sgisession to
     .xinitrc.
  5) the last program to start from .xinitrc must not exit.  When this
     one exits, the session terminates.

------------------------------

Subject:   -44- How can I start X on a remote host with no users logged
                in?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  This example starts up an xclock on the remote system.  The easy way
  to test this for now is to rlogin to the system and type the
  commands.  Once something works you can write some shell scripts and
  use rsh to run them:

  hydra is being used to login to oscar and start graphics on oscar.
  oscar is displaying the pandora login when this is done:

  hydra 2% rlogin oscar -l root
  oscar 1# /usr/gfx/stopgfx     (screen blanks)
  oscar 2# chkconfig windowsystem on
  oscar 3# setenv DISPLAY :0.0  (display on local screen)
  oscar 4# /usr/bin/X11/X &  (start Xsgi)
  oscar 5# xclock &  (clock is displayed)

  To clean up:

  oscar 6# /usr/gfx/stopgfx     (screen blanks)
  oscar 7# /usr/gfx/startgfx  (re-start pandora)

------------------------------

Subject:   -45- IMAGE FILES
Date: 15 May 1994 00:00:01 EST

  This section discusses image files and formats.

------------------------------

Subject:   -46- How can I convert images to and from other formats?
Date: 10 Mar 1996 00:00:01 EST

  IRIX comes with several tools which convert images to or from SGI's
  RGB format.  The executables are part of the eoe2.sw.imagetools
  subsystem, and include:

  fromalias - convert an Alias image to an IRIS image
  frombin - create an RGB IRIS image file from a binary dump of image data
  fromcmap - convert a color map into an image with one scanline
  fromcube - convert a Cubicomp/Vertigo image file to IRIS format
  fromdi - convert an old .di dithered image into an IRIS image
  fromface - convert a UNIX faceserver image into an IRIS image
  fromgif - convert a GIF image into an IRIS image
  frommac - convert a MacPaint image into an IRIS image
  frompic - convert a MOVIE BYU .PIC image to an IRIS image
  fromppm - convert an image in Jef Poskanzer's format into an IRIS image
  fromrla - convert a Wavefront image to an IRIS image
  fromsun - convert a sun image into an IRIS image
  fromtarga - convert a targa image into an IRIS image
  fromxbm - convert an X Bitmap image into an IRIS image
  fromxud - convert an xwd file into an IRIS image
  fromxwd - convert an xwd file into an IRIS image
  fromyuv - convert an Abekas yuv image into an IRIS image
  toalias - convert an IRIS image to an Alias image
  toascii - convert an IRIS image to text characters
  tobin - convert an IRIS image to binary dump of pixel data
  tobw - convert an IRIS image to black and white
  togif - convert an IRIS image to a Compuserve GIF image
  tomac - convert an IRIS image to MacPaint format
  tonews - convert an IRIS image into NeWS format
  topict - convert an IRIS image to Macintosh PICT format
  toppm - convert an IRIS image file into Jef Poskanzer's ppm image format
  tops - convert an IRIS image to PostScript
  toscitex - Convert IRIS images into Scitex CT2T images
  tosun - convert an IRIS image to a sun raster file
  totarga - convert an IRIS image to a type 2 targa image
  toyuv - convert an IRIS image to yuv format

  The source for each of these tools is in the 4Dgifts
  dev.dev_sw.giftsfull subsystem and installed in the directory
  /usr/people/4Dgifts/iristools/imgtools.  Each also has a manpage.

  Similar tools for more formats ('fromeps', 'frompict', 'frompixar',
  'fromps', 'fromtiff', 'fromutah', 'totiff', 'toutah', 'toxbm' and
  'toxpm' at last count), as well as some which come with IRIX and a few
  miscellaneous cool image editing tools, are in
  ftp://ftp.sgi.com/graphics/bin/. 'fromjpeg' and 'tojpeg' can be found
  in ftp://ftp.clr.toronto.edu/pub/sgi/sgijpeg/.
  ftp://swedishchef.lerc.nasa.gov/ has 'fromvicar' in
  /image/conversion/from/, 'tocolps' and 'topcl' in
  /image/conversion/to/ and many other image-related tools in nearby
  directories.

  The Independent JPEG Group's free JPEG software (in
  ftp://ftp.uu.net/graphics/jpeg/) and ghostscript (in
  ftp://ftp.cs.wisc.edu/ghost/) don't speak RGB, but do convert many
  common formats to and from JPEG and PostScript respectively. Note
  that older versions ghostscript understand GIF images but newer
  ones do not due to copyright restrictions.

  Finally, 'imgworks' (in the imgtools.sw.tools subsystem) understands
  RGB, TIFF and FIT formats, and there are several freeware programs
  which work on SGIs and understand SGI's RGB format as well as many
  other formats:

  imtools	ftp://ftp.sdsc.edu/pub/sdsc/graphics/imtools/sgi_4d/
  xv		ftp://ftp.cis.upenn.edu/pub/xv/
  ImageMagick	ftp://ftp.x.org/contrib/applications/ImageMagick/
  netpbm	ftp://wuarchive.wustl.edu/graphics/graphics/packages/NetPBM/

  The Graphics File Formats FAQ (in
  ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/graphics/fileformats-faq/)
  lists many other graphics file viewing and conversion programs.

------------------------------

Subject:   -47- How can I convert models to and from other formats?
Date: Wed Sep 22 14:32:29 CDT 1999

  Converters to and from SGI's Inventor format are at
  ftp://ftp.sgi.com/sgi/inventor/ and
  ftp://viz.tamu.edu/pub/sgi/software/graphics/.

------------------------------

Subject:   -48- What is the format of SGI's RGB files?
Date: Wed Sep 22 16:52:40 CDT 1999

  Read http://reality.sgi.com/grafica/sgiimage.html

------------------------------

Subject:   -49- How can I compress RGB bitmaps?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  Use /usr/sbin/rle, which is part of eoe2.sw.imagetools.

------------------------------

Subject:   -50- How can I make a screen dump?
Date: 13 Nov 1994 00:00:01 EST

  Use the utilities 'imgsnap' (IRIX 4.0.x only), 'scrsave', 'snapshot'
  or 'xwd'. All have manpages. 'imgsnap' is in the imgtools.sw.tools
  subsystem, 'scrsave' and 'snapshot' are in the eoe2.sw.gltools
  subsystem, 'xwd' is in x_eoe.sw.Xapps and their manpages are in the
  respective *.man.* subsystems.

  From within a GL program, you should call readdisplay().  For an
  example look at ~4Dgifts/iristools/imgtools/scrsave.c.

------------------------------

Subject:   -51- Why does the IRIX 5.3 desktop recognize but not deal
                with JPEG files?
Date: 18 Jun 1995 00:00:01 EST

  It's a bug in the IRIX 5.3 filetype rules. It is fixed in WebForce
  and will be fixed in future IRIXes. If you don't have WebForce, get
  the file ftp://viz.tamu.edu/pub/sgi/software/desktop/jpeg.ftr, put it
  in /usr/lib/filetype/local, cd to /usr/lib/filetype and type 'make'.

------------------------------

Subject:   -52- PROGRAMMING
Date: 15 May 1994 00:00:01 EST

  This section discusses graphics programming. See the apps, audio and
  movie FAQs for general, audio and movie programming issues and the
  impressario, inventor and performer FAQs for discussions of those
  packages.

------------------------------

Subject:   -53- Can I use 4Dgifts code in my application?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  Yes.  The 4Dgifts are a "gift" and developers are welcome to use the
  code.  However, SGI does not support the code in 4Dgifts.  Note that
  certain restrictions apply.  Please read the copyright statement in
  ~4Dgifts/README.Copyright.

------------------------------

Subject:   -54- What does ERR_WMANIPC mean?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  The "WMAN" in that message means "window manager."  However, this no
  longer means "window manager" such as 4Dwm, but rather the entire X
  Window system.  The error means that the GL program triggered a fatal
  X error.

  A GL program can get an X error, because all GL programs are actually
  X clients.  When a GL program does a winopen(), libgl actually calls
  XCreateWindow, etc.)

  When a GL program gets an X error, libgl prints out these X errors
  using this error message:

      GL: X request = maj.min,  error code = ercode

  where

      maj = major request code that caused the error
      min = minor request code
      ercode = X error code

  This turns out to be easy to interpret, so long as the request was a
  core X protocol request (e.g., a CreateWindow request).  In that
  case:

      1. You can look up the major code in /usr/include/X11/Xproto.h.
      2. The minor code is not used.
      3. The X error code can be found in /usr/include/X11/X.h.

  As you can see in Xproto.h, the core X protocol requests have request
  codes <= 127.

  However, if maj > 127, then the request is an X extension request.
  Unfortunately, it can be difficult to interpret this unless you built
  your program with a debugging libgl.a (compiled with -g).  The reason
  is that for an X extension, the major request code and the starting
  error code are copied from the X server during client startup, and
  these codes are saved in variables inside libgl.  With a debugging
  libgl, these variables can be printed out from within a debugger,
  such as dbx.

  If the major code indicates an X Input extension request, then the
  minor numbers then tell the X input request type, and these are found
  in /usr/include/X11/extensions/XIproto.h.

  Finally, the X Input Extension uses 132 as its "starting error code."
  The possible errors are found in /usr/include/X11/extensions/XI.h,
  where they're defined like this:

      #define XI_BadDevice   0
      #define XI_BadEvent    1
      #define XI_BadMode     2
      #define XI_DeviceBusy  3
      #define XI_BadClass    4

  If you add 132 to these numbers, you get the error that's reported by
  the libgl error message.

------------------------------

Subject:   -55- How can I translate screen (x,y) coords into world
                (x,y,z) coords?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  Check the manual page for mapw(3G) or mapw2(3G). mapw() returns a
  line into (x,y,z) space.

------------------------------

Subject:   -56- How can I translate world (x,y,z) coords into screen
                (x,y) coords?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  There are two methods.  The first method is detailed in
  ~4Dgifts/examples/grafix/world2scrn.c, which is part of the
  dev.dev_sw.giftsfull package.  It multiplies the (x,y,z) vector into
  the current modeling and projection matrixes, and uses the result to
  interpolate based on the window size and position.

  The second method uses the current cursor position as a trick and is
  much simpler.  Use cmov() to set the cursor position to the point of
  interest in world space, then call getcpos() to return the cursor
  position in screen coordinates.  Note that if your entire viewport is
  off-screen, the results are undefined and you'll have to use the
  first method.

      float x,y,z;
      short x1, y1;

      cmov (x,y,z);
      getcpos (&x1, &y1);

------------------------------

Subject:   -57- Why does nothing happen when I call mapcolor(index, R,
                G, B)?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  You either need to call glcompat(GLC_SLOWMAPCOLORS, TRUE) at the
  beginning of your program, or call gflush() after calling mapcolor.

  See the NOTES section in "man mapcolors" and also "man glcompat" for
  further info. (This may also be in the GL release notes)

------------------------------

Subject:   -58- Why can't 'cc' find some standard Xwindows functions?
Date: 14 May 1994 00:00:01 EST

  You may be linking X libraries, which have complex interdependencies,
  in the wrong order. Mark Kilgard <mjk@hoot.asd.sgi.com> provided this
  handy chart:

  libXm--libXirisw
                  \
                   libXt--libXmu--libgl--libXi--libXext--libX11
                  /
            libXaw

  Libraries should be listed in the same order on the cc or ld command
  line, left to right, as they appear above. If you don't use routines
  from a library, of course, you don't need it.

------------------------------

Subject:   -59- What is a GL widget?
Date: 10 Jun 1993 00:00:01 EST

  GL widget refers to the GlxDraw (generic) and GlxMDraw (Motif)
  widgets that allow you to embed GL windows in Xt-based programs.  To
  embed a GL windows in X-based programs is frequently called
  "Mixed-model" or "GLX" programming.

  There are several examples of mixed-model programming in the
  directory /usr/people/4Dgifts/examples/GLX.

------------------------------

Subject:   -60- I'm using the GlxMDraw widget and it doesn't seem that
                colors are being installed correctly.  Overlays in the
                GlxMDraw widget are displayed in red and gray instead of
                the colors I specify.  What's wrong?
Date: 10 Jun 1993 00:00:01 EST

  The window manager must be directed to install all appropriate
  colormaps.  Use the XSetWMColormapWindows() call to do this -- list
  one window for each colormap to be installed plus the top level
  window.  If using overlays, include the overlay window as well as the
  normal GL window.

  If your window is TrueColor, you should still install the appropriate
  colormap, as Indigo TrueColor is simulated using a colormap.

------------------------------

Subject:   -61- Is there a way to switch between single and double
                buffering within a GL widget on the fly?
Date: 10 Jun 1993 00:00:01 EST

  There is no way to switch between single and double buffered mode
  within the same window. (In X, this would mean changing the depth,
  which is not allowed.)

  To simulate this, you can create two GL widgets: a double buffered GL
  widget and a single buffered GL widget.  When it is time to change
  the buffering mode, restack the windows so that the appropriate one
  is on top. If the two windows are created with a common parent, they
  move together when the parent is moved.

  For non-mixed mode applications, the GL performs this switching when
  you call gconfig().

------------------------------

Subject:   -62- Why doesn't my X server use backing store? How can I
                turn it on?
Date: 12 Feb 1994 00:00:01 EST

  Mark Kilgard of SGI <mjk@hoot.asd.sgi.com> writes,
  SGI ships its X server with backing store disabled.  If you edit
  /usr/lib/X11/xdm/Xservers and remove the -bs option, then restart the
  X server, backing store will be available.

  The reason for not turning on backing store by default is two-fold.

  1) In IRIX 4.0.X the code for managing overlay planes didn't properly
     take overlays into account so backing store doesn't work if you
     have overlay windows on the screen. This is fixed in IRIX 5.x.

  2) In most cases, backing store hurts your performance.  It cases ALL
     X rendering operations to make an extra (small) traversal through
     backing store code even if backing store isn't in use.  Also when
     backing store is in use, it tends to grow the X server since a
     large amount of memory can easily be used to maintain backing
     store.

  One alternative to backing store is to render your image to a pixmap
  and then blit from the pixmap to the screen in response to expose
  events.  This will stress the X server a great deal less than using
  backing store.  Additionally, make sure you are compressing expose
  events when you redraw.

------------------------------

Subject:   -63- What is "/dev/tport" used for?
Date: 26 May 1993 00:00:01 CST

  Mark Stadler (mds@sgi.com) says:
  /dev/tport is a streams-based tty device driver which can be in one
  of 2 modes:

  - when X is not running, /dev/tport gets its input from the graphics
    keyboard and images in the frame buffer (textport mode).  This mode
    is only intended to be used in single-user mode or during
    transitional periods when the X server is not running.

  - when X is running, /dev/tport doesn't get any input and generates
    no output.  Any programs or shells using /dev/tport hang on reads
    and toss writes.

  Kind of a strange device.  But it makes more sense with a clear
  understanding of how /dev/console works.

  /dev/console is kind of like a terminal switch box.  Rather than
  switching physical rs232 cables, we direct console output onto the
  output stream of other streams-based devices who request such
  behavior with TIOCCONS ioctl.

  By default, /dev/console directs its output to /dev/tport.  In the
  absence of a windowing system this causes console output (including
  kernel prints) to show up on the textport in front of you.

  Once the window system is started, the /dev/tport is no longer
  visible.  Thus the console is no longer visible.  At this point, a
  terminal emulation window (using streams based ttys) can issue the
  TIOCCONS ioctl to cause console output (including kernel printfs) to
  show up in the emulation in the window in front of you.

  Note that when you bring the window system down, /dev/tport is still
  there with the same session it started with and the console output
  redirected back to it again.

------------------------------

Subject:   -64- Why is OpenGL's glDrawPixels slower than IrisGL's
                lrectwrite?
Date: 28 Jul 1995 00:00:01 EST

  Allen Akin of SGI <akin@tuolumne.asd.sgi.com> says: It's not, for the
  most common cases.  After all, similar microcode and the same hardware
  are used for both commands.  However, there are three issues to keep
  in mind.

  First, some midrange and low-end SGI graphics adaptors (particularly
  XS, XZ, Elan, and Extreme) transfer ABGR-ordered images much faster
  than they transfer RGBA-ordered images.  The normal image format in
  IrisGL was ABGR, while in OpenGL it's RGBA.  So to achieve the same
  performance in OpenGL that you did in IrisGL on those machines, you
  need to use ABGR-format images in OpenGL.  The ABGR extension
  available in Irix 5.3 and later releases allows you to do this.  See
  ``man glintro'' for background information on using OpenGL extensions,
  and ``man gldrawpixels'' for details on ABGR.  Note that
  RealityEngine, IMPACT, and all future machines will process RGBA data
  at least as fast as ABGR, so RGBA is the way to go for new code.

  Second, some OpenGL pixel data types are faster than others.  For most
  machines, unsigned byte RGBA (or ABGR) is the fastest full-color type.
  Unsigned byte and unsigned short are usually the fastest gray-scale
  types.  Signed integer types are slower.

  Third, OpenGL pixel operations have a much richer set of features than
  IrisGL, and if any of those features are enabled, then image transfer
  can be significantly slower.  Always disable the features that you
  don't need.  The following code fragment disables features that are
  likely to make glDrawPixels slow:

        /*
         * Disable stuff that's likely to slow down glDrawPixels.
         * (Omit as much of this as possible, when you know in advance
         * that the OpenGL state will already be set correctly.)
         */
        glDisable(GL_ALPHA_TEST);
        glDisable(GL_BLEND);
        glDisable(GL_DEPTH_TEST);
        glDisable(GL_DITHER);
        glDisable(GL_FOG);
        glDisable(GL_LIGHTING);
        glDisable(GL_LOGIC_OP);
        glDisable(GL_STENCIL_TEST);
        glDisable(GL_TEXTURE_1D);
        glDisable(GL_TEXTURE_2D);
        glPixelTransferi(GL_MAP_COLOR, GL_FALSE);
        glPixelTransferi(GL_RED_SCALE, 1);
        glPixelTransferi(GL_RED_BIAS, 0);
        glPixelTransferi(GL_GREEN_SCALE, 1);
        glPixelTransferi(GL_GREEN_BIAS, 0);
        glPixelTransferi(GL_BLUE_SCALE, 1);
        glPixelTransferi(GL_BLUE_BIAS, 0);
        glPixelTransferi(GL_ALPHA_SCALE, 1);
        glPixelTransferi(GL_ALPHA_BIAS, 0);

        /*
         * Disable extensions that could slow down glDrawPixels.
         * (Actually, you should check for the presence of the proper
         * extension before making these calls.  I've omitted that
         * code for simplicity.)
         */

	#ifdef GL_EXT_convolution
		glDisable(GL_CONVOLUTION_1D_EXT);
		glDisable(GL_CONVOLUTION_2D_EXT);
		glDisable(GL_SEPARABLE_2D_EXT);
	#endif

	#ifdef GL_EXT_histogram
		glDisable(GL_HISTOGRAM_EXT);
	        glDisable(GL_MINMAX_EXT);
	#endif

	#ifdef GL_EXT_texture3D
	        glDisable(GL_TEXTURE_3D_EXT);
	#endif

------------------------------

Subject:   -65- BUGS AND PROBLEMS
Date: 15 May 1994 00:00:01 EST

  This section discusses real and apparent bugs and problems we haven't
  covered already.

------------------------------

Subject:   -66- Why do I get a "Broken Pipe" error when I close an X
                client window?
Date: 10 Jun 1993 00:00:01 EST

  Typically the error message looks like:  XIO: fatal IO error 32
  (Broken pipe) on X server ":0.0" after 214 requests (214 known
  processed) with 0 events remaining.  The connection was probably
  broken by a server shutdown or KillClient.

  The Window Manager is reporting that the pipe for your X client has
  been broken.  This is normal when an X client exits.  There is
  nothing wrong with your system. This message will also occur when the
  system is shut down.  This is not an error condition and no core
  files are produced.

------------------------------

Subject:   -67- What do the errors in my 'xdm-errors' file mean?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  It depends on the error message, obviously.  Some are:

    unable to load display mode, rnid = 196614, errno = 22
    Failed to unbind rn from clip, rnid = 3,errno = 22
    bogus window id in rrm request type(2)

  These are messages related to the communication between the rrm layer
  in the kernel and the X server.  The messages usually occur when a GL
  window is being destroyed in a sequence that the X server did not
  expect.  They are quite benign.

------------------------------

Subject:   -68- Why doesn't SGI's xlock lock my screen?
Date: 10 Jun 1993 00:00:01 EST

  If you or the super-user don't have a password, xlock will not lock.

  Under IRIX 4.0.x, xlock is set up by default to act as if invoked
  with the "-nolock" option, which tells it not to lock the screen.  If
  you want force xlock to lock, do either of the following:

  a) Use the "+nolock" option when invoking xlock.  This means
     "not nolock" (the opposite of "-nolock").  For example:

     % xlock +nolock

  b) Add the following line to your ~/.Xdefaults file:

     XLock.nolock:    False

  In IRIX 5.x, the default behavior of xlock has been reversed, so
  xlock does indeed lock by default.  If you wish to keep the IRIX 4.x
  behavior, invoke xlock with the -nolock option.

------------------------------

Subject:   -69- Why can't my XView application find its fonts?
Date: 11 Feb 1996 00:00:01 EST

  You haven't installed the x_eoe.sw.Xoptfonts subsystem.

------------------------------

Subject:   -70- After running a few programs, the colors change as the
                cursor moves. The colors are usually all wrong in other
                windows.
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  This is known as colormap flashing. It is caused by the server
  maintaining 2 separate colormaps, one for GL windows and one for X
  windows.  As the cursor moves around, the window manager will install
  the correct colormap for each window.  This will cause colors to be
  wrong in other windows.  For more information on colormaps and
  installation please see the Xlib Programming manual, chapter 7 (Vol I
  of the O'Reilly series).

  You can sometimes avoid colormap flashing by configuring your X
  Server to use a 12-bit or 24-bit visual by default.

------------------------------

Subject:   -71- How can I make my X Server use a 12-bit PseudoColor, 12-
                bit TrueColor or 24-bit TrueColor visual by default?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  By default, the SGI X Server is configured to use an 8-bit
  PseudoColor visual.  X-based applications can request other visuals
  directly if they are available.  Alternatively, you can change the
  default visual by performing the following steps:

  a) Run "/usr/bin/X11/xdpyinfo" and check that your server is
     capable of using a 12-bit or 24-bit visual.  If it is,
     you will see lines similar to the following:

     visual id, max buffers, depth:    0x28, 0, 12
     visual id, max buffers, depth:    0x29, 0, 12
     visual id, max buffers, depth:    0x2a, 0, 24

     The last number on each line represents the number of bits
     available for that visual.

  b) Log in as root

  c) Edit the file /usr/lib/X11/xdm/Xservers.  By default it
     will contain the string:
       :0 secure /usr/bin/X11/X -bs -c -pseudomap 4sight
     for a 24-bit TrueColor visual change it to:
       :0 secure /usr/bin/X11/X -bs -c -class TrueColor -depth 24
     for a 12-bit PseudoColor visual change it to:
       :0 secure /usr/bin/X11/X -bs -c -class PseudoColor -depth 12

  d) Restart your X server as above.

  Note:  X Server visuals are an advanced topic; before making the
  above changes you should be aware that some 3rd-party and freeware
  applications might not gracefully adapt to an X Server which supplies
  anything but an 8-bit PseudoColor visual by default.

------------------------------

Subject:   -72- When I try to run UIM/X uxserverd, I get an error
                message saying, "license file has been modified, cannot
                start the UIM/X license server".
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  You probably have been given a bad key.  The most frequent causes of
  incorrect keys have been incorrect capitalization and incorrect IP
  addresses.

  The program that generates the UIM/X key requires that the "host ID"
  (or IP address) be in hexadecimal format.  If you feed it the
  standard form of IP address (i.e., 123.45.678.90) it will generate
  the wrong key and will not complain.

  To ensure that you are is giving the correct information when
  requesting a UIM/X key, please do the following:

  Hostname:  Type in 'hostname' at the prompt, and be sure to say
  exactly what it says (including capitalization, if any).

  Host ID:  Type in 'hostid' at the prompt, and be sure to say exactly
  what it says.  You will be reading back a series of numbers of the
  form 0xc030c844.  The leading 0x indicates that the following number
  is hexadecimal.

  The key generating script is highly sensitive to capital letters.
  Make sure you confirm the case of the letters, both when getting the
  hostname/hostid and when having your key read back to you.

  If this still doesn't fix the problem, you may have mixed files
  between UIM/X 1.0 and 2.0.  Completely remove UIM/X, re-install it,
  and reproduce a Uimx2_0.license file with the correct information.

------------------------------

Subject:   -73- I just upgraded from IRIX 5.2 to 5.3. Why does my PI or
                VGX say "extension GLX missing on display :0.0"?
Date: 14 May 1995 00:00:01 EST

  Mark Kilgard of SGI <mjk@woodsy.asd.sgi.com> explains:
  /usr/lib/X11/dyDDX/glx.so, without which OpenGL doesn't work, is
  missing due to peculiar installation circumstances. (See the
  INSTALLING section of the SGI admin FAQ for general comments on that
  sort of thing.) Either remove the 5.2 gl_dev.sw.glprof subsystem
  *before* upgrading, or reinstall the 5.3 x_eoe.sw.Server subsystem
  *after* upgrading, and reboot.  If you do the latter, be sure to "set
  neweroverride on" in 'inst'.

------------------------------

Subject:   -74- Why does my X server (Xsgi) grow inexorably?
Date: 04 May 1996 00:00:01 EST

  It's a combination of bugs in the kernel and X server (Xsgi) which
  result in leaked memory being allocated to Xsgi. Its total size (but
  not its resident size) increases until swap space is completely
  filled. It is fixed by the combination of patches 1187 (for non-Impact
  graphics) or 1098 (for Impact graphics) and 1255 for IRIX 5.3.

  You might also add the following to /usr/bin/X11/X before the lines
  where it starts Xsgi

    MALLOC_CONFIG=2:mm_minunmapsrch=0:mm_xf[0].mm_flindx=7:mm_xf[0].mm_szshft=5:mm_xf[1].mm_flindx=2055:mm_xf[1].mm_szshft=8:mm_xf[2].mm_flindx=2065:mm_xf[2].mm_szshft=20:mm_flsearh=30:mm_missthrash=4:mm_nszmult=32
    export MALLOC_CONFIG

  (two lines, one beginning with "MALLOC_CONFIG=" and one with
  "export") or restart Xsgi periodically by hand or at each logout as
  described above.

------------------------------

Subject:   -75- Why does my GL application run slower on newer SGI
                hardware than it did on older SGI hardware?
Date: 8 Mar 1997 00:00:01 CST

  One probable explanation is that your program is using IrisGL 
  (sometimes referred to as just "GL") rather than OpenGL.  Starting
  with Impact graphics, SGI graphics hardware is optimized for native
  OpenGL.  IrisGL calls are executed through an emulation layer known
  as IGLOO, or "IrisGL On OpenGL."  This layer of emulation reduces
  performance. 

  The best solution is to port your program to OpenGL.

------------------------------

Subject:   -76- MISCELLANEOUS
Date: 15 May 1994 00:00:01 EST

  Everything else.

------------------------------

Subject:   -77- What books about the X Window System and OSF/Motif do
                you recommend?
Date: 07 May 1993 00:00:01 EST

  Introductory Texts on the X Window System

  - O'Reilly and Associates Inc., "The Definitive Guides to the X
    Window System", by Valerie Quercia and Tim O'Reilly. Vol.  3, "X
    Window System User's Guide", Sebastopol, CA., 1988, 1989.

    Discusses being an end user of the X window system.  Covers topics
    like window manages, font specifications, standard X clients and
    resources.

  Texts on X Window System Programming

  - O'Reilly and Associates, Inc. "The Definitive Guides to the X
    Window System", by Adrian Nye. Vol. 1, "Xlib Programming Manual",
    Sebastopol, CA, 1990.

    Contains the introductory elements for programming with the Xlib,
    the lowest level of the X window system.  Discusses concepts such
    as X color capacities, windows, events, drawing primitives.

  - Young, Douglas A., "X Window Systems Programming and Applications
    with Xt" (OSF/Motif Edition). Prentice Hall. Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
    1990.

    A thorough book starting with the basics of programming with a
    toolkit though advanced topics.  Contains source code for several
    small complete applications.  (Source code for this book is also
    available on line in the /usr/src directory of the Motif
    Development option.)

  - O'Reilly and Associates Inc., "The Definitive Guides to the X
    Window System", by Adrian Nye and Tim O'Reilly. Vol. 4, "X Toolkit
    Intrinsics Programming Manual", Sebastopol, CA., 1990.

    Another reference for programming with the OSF/Motif toolkit.
    Covers topics including basic programming, widgets, resources, and
    more advanced topics.

  Reference Texts for the X Window System :

  - O'Reilly and Associates Inc., "The Definitive Guides to the X
    Window System", by Adrian Nye. Vol. 2, "Xlib Reference Manual",
    Sebastopol, CA., 1988.

    Complete reference for Xlib library routines.

  - Scheifler, Robert and James Gettys, X Window System, Second
    Edition, Digital Press, 1990.  ISBN 1-55558-050-5.

    Referred to as "the Bible" of Xlib and X Protocol reference.

  Reference Texts for the OSF/Motif Toolkit :

  - Open Software Foundation, "OSF/Motif Programmer's Guide". Release
    1.1, Prentice Hall. Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 1990.

    Exhaustive reference of every widget in the OSF/Motif library.

  - Asente, Paul J. and Ralph R. Swick. "X Window System Toolkit".
    X Version 11, Release 4. Digital Press. 1990.

    Very in-depth reference to the structure and operation of an X
    window system toolkit.

------------------------------

Subject:   -78- Does the IRIX 5.2 Magic user environment display on an X
                terminal?
Date: 30 Apr 1994 00:00:01 EST

  Joel Tesler <joel@jellotrees.esd.sgi.com> says:  Although it is not
  officially supported, it should work in IRIX 5.2 MR (but not in the
  beta release).  There are some glitches.  You probably don't have to
  set the environment variable _NO_DESKTOP_IMAGES, but try it if you
  have problems.  There should be no reason to set _SGI_NO_REMOTE_GL.

------------------------------

Subject:   -79- What about OpenGL?
Date: 11 Aug 1995 00:00:01 EST

  It has its own newsgroup, comp.graphics.api.opengl, which has an FAQ,
  which is listed in the misc FAQ.

------------------------------

Subject:   -80- Which SGI machines can run OpenGL now? Which will in the
                future?
Date: 04 Oct 1995 00:00:01 EST

  The version of OpenGL which comes with IRIX 5.3 supports Entry, XS,
  XS24, XZ, XL, Elan, Extreme, VTX, Reality Engine, Reality Engine 2, G
  (on 4D20, 25, 30 and 35s only) TG (as G), VGX, and VGXT graphics.
  There are no plans for ports to any more older systems. See also
  'relnotes gl_dev 6' under IRIX 5.3.

------------------------------

Subject:   -81- What's this about a copyright dispute over virtual desks
                in Indigo Magic?
Date: 27 Nov 1995 00:00:01 EST

  Xerox has a software patent which they claimed covered the virtual
  desks which are part of Indigo Magic.  IRIX 5.3 and 6.x include
  licensing code which turned off virtual desks on 15 May 1995.  See
  chapter 1 of the desktop_eoe release notes for details.

  The dispute has been resolved (we don't know how) and SGI has provided
  a new licensing code which will allow one to use virtual desks until
  2038.  The code and installation instructions are, among other places,
  at ftp://viz.tamu.edu/pub/sgi/software/desktop/overview-license and in
  the May/Jun 1995 Pipeline. Here's the punchline: Edit
  /var/netls/nodelock and replace the line containing the word "Desks"
  (this is the only non-blank line on a clean IRIX 5.3 system) with the
  following two lines:

  #:# "Silicon Graphics" Desks A "2038/01/01"
  546fb4684914.02.c0.1a.3d.52.00.00.00 y49ga6qrewn69tqaq4r6m44g22

  (Although the two lines are preceded by spaces here, they should be
  flush left in /var/netls/nodelock.)

  OR, if you like, you can get patch 455 from the TAC, which includes an
  'ov' which doesn't check the license manager at all. Note, however,
  that patch 455 makes 'showfiles -F' fail. We don't yet know why.

------------------------------

End of sgi/faq/graphics Digest
******************************
-- 
The SGI FAQ group <sgi-faq@viz.tamu.edu>   http://www-viz.tamu.edu/~sgi-faq/
Finger us for info on the SGI FAQs, or look in ftp://viz.tamu.edu/pub/sgi/.

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