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unzip (1)
  • >> unzip (1) ( Solaris man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • unzip (1) ( Linux man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
         unzip - list, test and extract compressed  files  in  a  ZIP
         unzip     [-Z]     [-cflptuvz[abjnoqsCLMVX$]]     file[.zip]
         [file(s) ...]  [-x xfile(s) ...] [-d exdir]
         unzip will list, test, or extract files from a ZIP  archive,
         commonly  found  on  MS-DOS  systems.   The default behavior
         (with no options) is to extract into the  current  directory
         (and  subdirectories  below it) all files from the specified
         ZIP archive.  A  companion  program,  zip(1L),  creates  ZIP
         archives; both programs are compatible with archives created
         by PKWARE's PKZIP and PKUNZIP for MS-DOS, but in many  cases
         the program options or default behaviors differ.
              Path of the ZIP archive(s).  If the file  specification
              is  a  wildcard,  each matching file is processed in an
              order determined by the operating system (or file  sys-
              tem).   Only  the  filename can be a wildcard; the path
              itself cannot.  Wildcard  expressions  are  similar  to
              Unix egrep(1) (regular) expressions and may contain:
              *    matches a sequence of 0 or more characters
              ?    matches exactly 1 character
                   matches any  single  character  found  inside  the
                   brackets;  ranges  are  specified  by  a beginning
                   character, a hyphen, and an ending character.   If
                   an  exclamation point or a caret (`!' or `^') fol-
                   lows the left bracket, then the range  of  charac-
                   ters within the brackets is complemented (that is,
                   anything except the characters inside the brackets
                   is considered a match).
              (Be sure to quote any character that might otherwise be
              interpreted  or  modified by the operating system, par-
              ticularly under Unix  and  VMS.)   If  no  matches  are
              found,  the  specification  is  assumed to be a literal
              filename; and if that also fails, the  suffix  .zip  is
              appended.  Note that self-extracting ZIP files are sup-
              ported, as with any other ZIP archive; just specify the
              .exe suffix (if any) explicitly.
              An optional list of archive members  to  be  processed,
              separated  by  spaces.   (VMS  versions  compiled  with
              VMSCLI defined must delimit files with commas  instead.
              See  -v  in OPTIONS below.)  Regular expressions (wild-
              cards) may be  used  to  match  multiple  members;  see
              above.   Again, be sure to quote expressions that would
              otherwise be expanded or modified by the operating sys-
         [-x xfile(s)]
              An optional list of archive members to be excluded from
              processing.   Since wildcard characters match directory
              separators (`/'), this option may be  used  to  exclude
              any  files  that  are  in subdirectories.  For example,
              ``unzip foo *.[ch] -x */*'' would extract all C  source
              files  in the main directory, but none in any subdirec-
              tories.  Without the -x option, all C source  files  in
              all directories within the zipfile would be extracted.
         [-d exdir]
              An optional directory to which to  extract  files.   By
              default,  all files and subdirectories are recreated in
              the current directory; the -d option allows  extraction
              in an arbitrary directory (always assuming one has per-
              mission to write to the directory).  This  option  need
              not  appear  at the end of the command line; it is also
              accepted before the  zipfile  specification  (with  the
              normal options), immediately after the zipfile specifi-
              cation, or between the file(s) and the -x option.   The
              option  and  directory  may be concatenated without any
              white space between them, but note that this may  cause
              normal shell behavior to be suppressed.  In particular,
              ``-d ~'' (tilde) is expanded by Unix C shells into  the
              name  of  the  user's  home  directory,  but ``-d~'' is
              treated as a literal subdirectory ``~'' of the  current
         Note that, in order to support obsolescent hardware, unzip's
         usage  screen is limited to 22 or 23 lines and should there-
         fore be considered only a reminder of the basic unzip syntax
         rather  than  an exhaustive list of all possible flags.  The
         exhaustive list follows:
         -Z   zipinfo(1L) mode.  If the first option on  the  command
              line  is  -Z,  the  remaining  options  are taken to be
              zipinfo(1L) options.  See the appropriate  manual  page
              for a description of these options.
         -A   [OS/2, Unix DLL] print extended help for the DLL's pro-
              gramming interface (API).
         -c   extract files to stdout/screen (``CRT'').  This  option
              is  similar  to  the  -p option except that the name of
              each file is printed as it is extracted, the -a  option
              is  allowed,  and  ASCII-EBCDIC conversion is automati-
              cally performed if appropriate.   This  option  is  not
              listed in the unzip usage screen.
         -f   freshen existing files, i.e., extract only those  files
              that  already exist on disk and that are newer than the
              disk copies.  By default unzip queries before overwrit-
              ing,  but  the  -o  option  may be used to suppress the
              queries.  Note that under many operating  systems,  the
              TZ   (timezone)   environment   variable  must  be  set
              correctly in order for  -f  and  -u  to  work  properly
              (under Unix the variable is usually set automatically).
              The reasons for this are somewhat subtle but have to do
              with  the  differences  between  DOS-format  file times
              (always local time) and Unix-format  times  (always  in
              GMT/UTC) and the necessity to compare the two.  A typi-
              cal TZ value  is  ``PST8PDT''  (US  Pacific  time  with
              automatic  adjustment  for  Daylight  Savings  Time  or
              ``summer time'').
         -l   list  archive  files  (short   format).    The   names,
              uncompressed  file  sizes  and  modification  dates and
              times of the specified files are  printed,  along  with
              totals  for all files specified.  If UnZip was compiled
              with OS2_EAS defined, the -l option also lists  columns
              for  the sizes of stored OS/2 extended attributes (EAs)
              and OS/2 access control lists (ACLs).  In addition, the
              zipfile  comment  and individual file comments (if any)
              are displayed.  If a file was archived from  a  single-
              case  file system (for example, the old MS-DOS FAT file
              system) and the -L option was given,  the  filename  is
              converted  to  lowercase  and  is prefixed with a caret
         -p   extract files to pipe (stdout).  Nothing but  the  file
              data  is  sent  to  stdout,  and  the  files are always
              extracted in binary format, just as they are stored (no
         -t   test archive files.  This option extracts  each  speci-
              fied file in memory and compares the CRC (cyclic redun-
              dancy check, an enhanced checksum) of the expanded file
              with the original file's stored CRC value.
         -T   [most OSes] set the timestamp on the archive(s) to that
              of  the  newest  file in each one.  This corresponds to
              zip's -go option except that it can be used on wildcard
              zipfiles  (e.g.,  ``unzip -T \*.zip'') and is much fas-
         -u   update existing files and create new  ones  if  needed.
              This  option  performs  the  same  function  as  the -f
              option, extracting (with query) files  that  are  newer
              than  those with the same name on disk, and in addition
              it extracts those files that do not  already  exist  on
              disk.   See  -f  above  for  information on setting the
              timezone properly.
         -v   be verbose or  print  diagnostic  version  info.   This
              option  has  evolved  and now behaves as both an option
              and a modifier.  As an  option  it  has  two  purposes:
              when  a  zipfile is specified with no other options, -v
              lists archive files verbosely, adding to the  basic  -l
              info  the compression method, compressed size, compres-
              sion ratio and 32-bit CRC.  When no zipfile  is  speci-
              fied  (that  is, the complete command is simply ``unzip
              -v''), a diagnostic screen is printed.  In addition  to
              the  normal header with release date and version, unzip
              lists the home Info-ZIP ftp site and where  to  find  a
              list of other ftp and non-ftp sites; the target operat-
              ing system for which it was compiled, as well as  (pos-
              sibly)  the hardware on which it was compiled, the com-
              piler and version used, and the compilation  date;  any
              special  compilation  options  that  might  affect  the
              program's operation (see also  DECRYPTION  below);  and
              any  options stored in environment variables that might
              do the same (see  ENVIRONMENT  OPTIONS  below).   As  a
              modifier  it  works  in  conjunction with other options
              (e.g., -t) to produce more verbose or debugging output;
              this is not yet fully implemented but will be in future
         -z   display only the archive comment.
         -a   convert text files.  Ordinarily all files are extracted
              exactly  as they are stored (as ``binary'' files).  The
              -a option causes files identified by zip as text  files
              (those  with  the `t' label in zipinfo listings, rather
              than `b') to be automatically extracted as  such,  con-
              verting  line  endings,  end-of-file characters and the
              character set itself as necessary.  (For example,  Unix
              files  use  line  feeds (LFs) for end-of-line (EOL) and
              have no end-of-file (EOF) marker; Macintoshes use  car-
              riage  returns  (CRs)  for  EOLs; and most PC operating
              systems use CR+LF for EOLs and control-Z for  EOF.   In
              addition, IBM mainframes and the Michigan Terminal Sys-
              tem use EBCDIC rather than the more common ASCII  char-
              acter  set,  and NT supports Unicode.)  Note that zip's
              identification of text files is by  no  means  perfect;
              some  ``text''  files  may  actually be binary and vice
              versa.    unzip   therefore   prints   ``[text]''    or
              ``[binary]''  as  a  visual  check  for  each  file  it
              extracts when using the  -a  option.   The  -aa  option
              forces all files to be extracted as text, regardless of
              the supposed file type.
         -b   [non-VMS] treat all files as binary  (no  text  conver-
              sions).  This is a shortcut for ---a.
         -b   [VMS] auto-convert  binary  files  (see  -a  above)  to
              fixed-length,  512-byte  record  format.   Doubling the
              option (-bb) forces all files to be extracted  in  this
         -B   [Unix  only,  and  only  if  compiled  with  UNIXBACKUP
              defined]  save  a  backup copy of each overwritten file
              with a tilde appended (e.g., the old copy of ``foo'' is
              renamed  to  ``foo~'').  This is similar to the default
              behavior of emacs(1) in many locations.
         -C   match filenames case-insensitively.  unzip's philosophy
              is ``you get what you ask for'' (this is also responsi-
              ble for the -L/-U  change;  see  the  relevant  options
              below).   Because  some  file  systems  are fully case-
              sensitive (notably those under the Unix operating  sys-
              tem) and because both ZIP archives and unzip itself are
              portable across platforms, unzip's default behavior  is
              to  match  both  wildcard  and  literal filenames case-
              sensitively.  That is, specifying ``makefile''  on  the
              command  line  will  only  match  ``makefile''  in  the
              archive, not ``Makefile'' or  ``MAKEFILE''  (and  simi-
              larly  for  wildcard  specifications).  Since this does
              not  correspond  to  the   behavior   of   many   other
              operating/file  systems  (for example, OS/2 HPFS, which
              preserves mixed case but is not sensitive to  it),  the
              -C  option may be used to force all filename matches to
              be case-insensitive.  In the example above,  all  three
              files  would  then match ``makefile'' (or ``make*'', or
              similar).  The -C option affects files in both the nor-
              mal file list and the excluded-file list (xlist).
         -E   [MacOS only] display contents of MacOS extra field dur-
              ing restore operation.
         -F   [Acorn only] suppress removal of NFS filetype extension
              from stored filenames.
         -F   [Unix only, and only if compiled  with  ACORN_FTYPE_NFS
              defined] translate filetype information from ACORN RISC
              OS extra field blocks into a NFS filetype extension and
              append  it  to the names of the extracted files.  (When
              the stored filename appears to already have an appended
              NFS filetype extension, it is replaced by the info from
              the extra field.)
         -i   [MacOS only] ignore filenames  stored  in  MacOS  extra
              fields. Instead, the most compatible filename stored in
              the generic part of the entry's header is used.
         -j   junk paths.  The archive's directory structure  is  not
              recreated;  all  files  are deposited in the extraction
              directory (by default, the current one).
         -J   [BeOS only] junk file attributes.  The file's BeOS file
              attributes are not restored, just the file's data.
         -J   [MacOS only] ignore MacOS extra fields.  All  Macintosh
              specific  info  is skipped. Data-fork and resource-fork
              are restored as separate files.
         -L   convert to lowercase any  filename  originating  on  an
              uppercase-only  operating system or file system.  (This
              was unzip's default behavior in releases prior to 5.11;
              the  new  default  behavior  is  identical  to  the old
              behavior with the -U option, which is now obsolete  and
              will be removed in a future release.)  Depending on the
              archiver, files archived under single-case file systems
              (VMS,  old  MS-DOS  FAT,  etc.)  may  be stored as all-
              uppercase names; this can be ugly or inconvenient  when
              extracting  to  a  case-preserving  file system such as
              OS/2 HPFS or a case-sensitive one such as  under  Unix.
              By  default  unzip  lists  and  extracts such filenames
              exactly  as  they're  stored   (excepting   truncation,
              conversion   of  unsupported  characters,  etc.);  this
              option causes the names of all files from certain  sys-
              tems to be converted to lowercase.
         -M   pipe all output through an internal  pager  similar  to
              the  Unixmore(1) command.  At the end of a screenful of
              output, unzip pauses with a  ``--More--''  prompt;  the
              next  screenful  may  be  viewed  by pressing the Enter
              (Return) key or the space bar.  unzip can be terminated
              by  pressing  the  ``q''  key and, on some systems, the
              Enter/Return key.  Unlike Unix  more(1),  there  is  no
              forward-searching  or  editing capability.  Also, unzip
              doesn't notice if long lines wrap at the  edge  of  the
              screen, effectively resulting in the printing of two or
              more lines and  the  likelihood  that  some  text  will
              scroll  off  the top of the screen before being viewed.
              On some systems the number of available  lines  on  the
              screen is not detected, in which case unzip assumes the
              height is 24 lines.
         -n   never overwrite existing  files.   If  a  file  already
              exists,  skip  the  extraction  of  that  file  without
              prompting.  By default unzip queries before  extracting
              any  file  that  already exists; the user may choose to
              overwrite only the current file, overwrite  all  files,
              skip extraction of the current file, skip extraction of
              all existing files, or rename the current file.
         -N   [Amiga] extract file comments as Amiga filenotes.  File
              comments  are created with the -c option of zip(1L), or
              with the -N option of the Amiga port of zip(1L),  which
              stores filenotes as comments.
         -o   overwrite existing files without prompting.  This is  a
              dangerous  option,  so  use it with care.  (It is often
              used with -f, however, and is the only way to overwrite
              directory EAs under OS/2.)
         unzip's default behavior may be modified via options  placed
         in  an  environment  variable.   This  can  be done with any
         option, but it is probably most useful with the -a, -L,  -C,
         -q, -o, or -n modifiers:  make unzip auto-convert text files
         by default, make it convert filenames from uppercase systems
         to  lowercase,  make it match names case-insensitively, make
         it quieter, or make it always overwrite or  never  overwrite
         files  as  it extracts them.  For example, to make unzip act
         as quietly as possible, only reporting errors, one would use
         one of the following commands:
             UNZIP=-qq; export UNZIP    Unix Bourne shell
             setenv UNZIP -qq           Unix C shell
             set UNZIP=-qq              OS/2 or MS-DOS
             define UNZIP_OPTS "-qq"    VMS (quotes for lowercase)
         Environment options are, in effect, considered  to  be  just
         like  any  other  command-line options, except that they are
         effectively the first options on the command line.  To over-
         ride  an  environment option, one may use the ``minus opera-
         tor'' to remove it.  For instance, to override  one  of  the
         quiet-flags in the example above, use the command
             unzip --q[other options] zipfile
         The first hyphen is the normal  switch  character,  and  the
         second  is  a  minus sign, acting on the q option.  Thus the
         effect here is to cancel one quantum of quietness.  To  can-
         cel both quiet flags, two (or more) minuses may be used:
             unzip -t--q zipfile
             unzip ---qt zipfile
         (the two are equivalent).  This may seem awkward or  confus-
         ing,  but it is reasonably intuitive:  just ignore the first
         hyphen and go from there.  It is also  consistent  with  the
         behavior of Unix nice(1).
         As suggested by the examples  above,  the  default  variable
         names  are  UNZIP_OPTS  for  VMS  (where  the symbol used to
         install unzip as a foreign command would otherwise  be  con-
         fused  with  the  environment  variable),  and UNZIP for all
         other operating systems.  For  compatibility  with  zip(1L),
         UNZIPOPT  is  also  accepted (don't ask).  If both UNZIP and
         UNZIPOPT  are  defined,  however,  UNZIP  takes  precedence.
         unzip's  diagnostic  option (-v with no zipfile name) can be
         used to check the values of  all  four  possible  unzip  and
         zipinfo environment variables.
         The timezone variable (TZ) should be set  according  to  the
         local  timezone  in  order  for  the  -f  and  -u to operate
         correctly.  See the description of  -f  above  for  details.
         This  variable may also be necessary in order for timestamps
         on extracted files to be set correctly.  Under Windows 95/NT
         unzip  should know the correct timezone even if TZ is unset,
         assuming the timezone is correctly set in the Control Panel.
         Encrypted archives are fully supported by Info-ZIP software,
         but due to United States export restrictions, the encryption
         and decryption sources are not  packaged  with  the  regular
         unzip  and  zip distributions.  Since the crypt sources were
         written by Europeans, however, they are freely available  at
         sites  throughout  the  world; see the file ``WHERE'' in any
         Info-ZIP source or binary distribution  for  locations  both
         inside and outside the US.
         Because of the separate distribution, not all compiled  ver-
         sions  of  unzip support decryption.  To check a version for
         crypt  support,  either  attempt  to  test  or  extract   an
         encrypted  archive,  or else check unzip's diagnostic screen
         (see the -v option above) for ``[decryption]'' as one of the
         special compilation options.
         As noted above, the -P option may be used to supply a  pass-
         word  on  the  command line, but at a cost in security.  The
         preferred decryption method is simply to  extract  normally;
         if  a zipfile member is encrypted, unzip will prompt for the
         password without echoing what is typed.  unzip continues  to
         use  the same password as long as it appears to be valid, by
         testing a 12-byte header on each file.  The correct password
         will  always check out against the header, but there is a 1-
         in-256 chance that  an  incorrect  password  will  as  well.
         (This is a security feature of the PKWARE zipfile format; it
         helps prevent brute-force attacks that might otherwise  gain
         a large speed advantage by testing only the header.)  In the
         case that an incorrect password is given but it  passes  the
         header   test  anyway,  either  an  incorrect  CRC  will  be
         generated for the extracted data or  else  unzip  will  fail
         during the extraction because the ``decrypted'' bytes do not
         constitute a valid compressed data stream.
         If the first password fails the header check on  some  file,
         unzip  will prompt for another password, and so on until all
         files are extracted.  If a password is not known, entering a
         null password (that is, just a carriage return or ``Enter'')
         is taken as a signal to skip all  further  prompting.   Only
         unencrypted  files  in  the  archive(s)  will  thereafter be
         extracted.  (In fact, that's not quite true; older  versions
         of zip(1L) and zipcloak(1L) allowed null passwords, so unzip
         checks each encrypted file  to  see  if  the  null  password
         works.   This  may result in ``false positives'' and extrac-
         tion errors, as noted above.)
         Archives encrypted with 8-bit passwords (for example,  pass-
         words with accented European characters) may not be portable
         across systems and/or other archivers.  This  problem  stems
         from  the  use of multiple encoding methods for such charac-
         ters, including Latin-1 (ISO 8859-1) and OEM code page  850.
         DOS  PKZIP  2.04g uses the OEM code page; Windows PKZIP 2.50
         uses Latin-1 (and is therefore incompatible with DOS PKZIP);
         Info-ZIP  uses  the  OEM  code  page on DOS, OS/2 and Win3.x
         ports but Latin-1 everywhere else; and Nico Mak's WinZip 6.x
         does  not  allow 8-bit passwords at all.  UnZip 5.3 attempts
         to use the default character set first (e.g., Latin-1), fol-
         lowed  by  the  alternate  one (e.g., OEM code page) to test
         passwords.  On EBCDIC systems, if both of these fail, EBCDIC
         encoding  will be tested as a last resort.  (Since there are
         no known  archivers  that  encrypt  using  EBCDIC  encoding,
         EBCDIC  is not tested on non-EBCDIC systems.)  ISO character
         encodings other than Latin-1 are not supported.
         To  use  unzip  to  extract  all  members  of  the   archive  into  the  current directory and subdirectories
         below it, creating any subdirectories as necessary:
             unzip letters
         To extract all  members  of  into  the  current
         directory only:
             unzip -j letters
         To test, printing only a summary  message  indi-
         cating whether the archive is OK or not:
             unzip -tq letters
         To test all zipfiles in the current directory, printing only
         the summaries:
             unzip -tq \*.zip
         (The backslash before the asterisk is only required  if  the
         shell  expands  wildcards,  as  in Unix; double quotes could
         have  been  used  instead,  as  in   the   source   examples
         below.)  To  extract  to  standard  output  all  members  of whose names end in .tex, auto-converting to  the
         local  end-of-line  convention  and  piping  the output into
             unzip -ca letters \*.tex | more
         To extract the binary file paper1.dvi to standard output and
         pipe it to a printing program:
             unzip -p articles paper1.dvi | dvips
         To extract all FORTRAN and C source  files--*.f,  *.c,  *.h,
         and Makefile--into the /tmp directory:
             unzip "*.[fch]" Makefile -d /tmp
         (the double quotes are necessary only in Unix  and  only  if
         globbing is turned on).  To extract all FORTRAN and C source
         files, regardless of case (e.g., both *.c and *.C,  and  any
         makefile, Makefile, MAKEFILE or similar):
             unzip -C "*.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp
         To extract any such files but convert any  uppercase  MS-DOS
         or  VMS  names  to lowercase and convert the line-endings of
         all of the files to the local standard (without  respect  to
         any files that might be marked ``binary''):
             unzip -aaCL "*.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp
         To extract only newer versions of the files already  in  the
         current  directory,  without  querying (NOTE:  be careful of
         unzipping in one timezone a zipfile created in  another--ZIP
         archives  other  than those created by Zip 2.1 or later con-
         tain no timezone information, and a ``newer'' file  from  an
         eastern timezone may, in fact, be older):
             unzip -fo sources
         To extract newer  versions  of  the  files  already  in  the
         current  directory and to create any files not already there
         (same caveat as previous example):
             unzip -uo sources
         To display a  diagnostic  screen  showing  which  unzip  and
         zipinfo options are stored in environment variables, whether
         decryption support was compiled in, the compiler with  which
         unzip was compiled, etc.:
             unzip -v
         In the last five examples, assume that UNZIP  or  UNZIP_OPTS
         is set to -q.  To do a singly quiet listing:
             unzip -l
         To do a doubly quiet listing:
             unzip -ql
         (Note that the ``.zip'' is generally not necessary.)  To  do
         a standard listing:
             unzip --ql
             unzip -l-q
             unzip -l--q       (extra minuses don't hurt)
         The current maintainer, being a lazy  sort,  finds  it  very
         useful  to  define  a pair of aliases:  tt for ``unzip -tq''
         and ii for ``unzip -Z'' (or ``zipinfo'').  One may then sim-
         ply  type  ``tt zipfile'' to test an archive, something that
         is worth making a habit of  doing.   With  luck  unzip  will
         report   ``No   errors   detected   in  compressed  data  of,'' after which one may breathe a sigh of relief.
         The maintainer  also  finds  it  useful  to  set  the  UNZIP
         environment variable to ``-aL'' and is tempted to add ``-C''
         as well.  His ZIPINFO variable is set to ``-z''.
         The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes
         defined  by PKWARE and takes on the following values, except
         under VMS:
              0    normal; no errors or warnings detected.
              1    one or more warning errors were  encountered,  but
                   processing  completed  successfully  anyway.  This
                   includes zipfiles where  one  or  more  files  was
                   skipped  due  to unsupported compression method or
                   encryption with an unknown password.
              2    a  generic  error  in  the  zipfile   format   was
                   detected.   Processing may have completed success-
                   fully anyway;  some  broken  zipfiles  created  by
                   other archivers have simple work-arounds.
              3    a severe error in the zipfile format was detected.
                   Processing probably failed immediately.
              4    unzip was unable to allocate  memory  for  one  or
                   more buffers during program initialization.
              5    unzip was unable to allocate memory or  unable  to
                   obtain a tty to read the decryption password(s).
              6    unzip  was  unable  to  allocate   memory   during
                   decompression to disk.
              7    unzip was unable to  allocate  memory  during  in-
                   memory decompression.
              8    [currently not used]
              9    the specified zipfiles were not found.
              10   invalid options  were  specified  on  the  command
              11   no matching files were found.
              50   the disk is (or was) full during extraction.
              51   the end of the ZIP archive was encountered  prema-
              80   the user aborted unzip prematurely with  control-C
                   (or similar)
              81   testing or extraction of one or more files  failed
                   due  to  unsupported compression methods or unsup-
                   ported decryption.
              82   no  files  were  found  due  to   bad   decryption
                   password(s).   (If  even  one file is successfully
                   processed, however, the exit status is 1.)
         VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as other,
         scarier-looking  things,  so  unzip  instead  maps them into
         VMS-style status codes.  The current mapping is as  follows:
         1  (success) for normal exit, 0x7fff0001 for warning errors,
         and (0x7fff000? + 16*normal_unzip_exit_status) for all other
         errors,  where the `?' is 2 (error) for unzip values 2, 9-11
         and 80-82, and 4 (fatal error) for the remaining ones  (3-8,
         50,  51).   In  addition,  there  is a compilation option to
         expand upon this behavior:  defining RETURN_CODES results in
         a human-readable explanation of what the error status means.
         Multi-part archives are not yet supported,  except  in  con-
         junction with zip.  (All parts must be concatenated together
         in order, and then ``zip -F'' must be performed on the  con-
         catenated archive in order to ``fix'' it.)  This will defin-
         itely be corrected in the next major release.
         Archives read from standard input  are  not  yet  supported,
         except  with  funzip  (and then only the first member of the
         archive can be extracted).
         Archives encrypted with  8-bit  passwords  (e.g.,  passwords
         with  accented  European  characters)  may  not  be portable
         across systems and/or other archivers.  See  the  discussion
         in DECRYPTION above.
         unzip's -M (``more'') option is  overly  simplistic  in  its
         handling  of  screen  output;  as  noted  above, it fails to
         detect the wrapping of long  lines  and  may  thereby  cause
         lines  at  the  top  of the screen to be scrolled off before
         being read.  unzip should detect and treat  each  occurrence
         of  line-wrap as one additional line printed.  This requires
         knowledge of the screen's width as well as its  height.   In
         addition,  unzip  should  detect the true screen geometry on
         all systems.
         Dates, times and permissions of stored directories  are  not
         restored except under Unix.
         [MS-DOS] When extracting or testing files from an archive on
         a  defective  floppy  diskette,  if  the  ``Fail'' option is
         chosen from DOS's ``Abort,  Retry,  Fail?''  message,  older
         versions  of  unzip may hang the system, requiring a reboot.
         This  problem  appears  to  be  fixed,  but  control-C   (or
         control-Break) can still be used to terminate unzip.
         Under DEC Ultrix, unzip would sometimes fail  on  long  zip-
         files   (bad   CRC,  not  always  reproducible).   This  was
         apparently due either to a hardware bug (cache memory) or an
         operating  system  bug  (improper handling of page faults?).
         Since Ultrix has been abandoned in  favor  of  Digital  Unix
         (OSF/1), this may not be an issue anymore.
         [Unix] Unix  special  files  such  as  FIFO  buffers  (named
         pipes), block devices and character devices are not restored
         even if they are somehow represented in the zipfile, nor are
         hard-linked  files  relinked.  Basically the only file types
         restored  by  unzip  are  regular  files,  directories   and
         symbolic (soft) links.
         [OS/2] Extended attributes for existing directories are only
         updated if the -o (``overwrite all'') option is given.  This
         is a limitation of the operating system; because directories
         only have a creation time associated with them, unzip has no
         way to determine whether the stored attributes are newer  or
         older  than those on disk.  In practice this may mean a two-
         pass approach is required:  first unpack  the  archive  nor-
         mally  (with or without freshening/updating existing files),
         then overwrite just the directory entries (e.g., ``unzip  -o
         foo */'').
         [VMS] When extracting to another directory, only the  [.foo]
         syntax  is  accepted  for the -d option; the simple Unix foo
         syntax is silently  ignored  (as  is  the  less  common  VMS
         foo.dir syntax).
         [VMS] When the file being extracted already exists,  unzip's
         query  only  allows skipping, overwriting or renaming; there
         should additionally be a choice for creating a  new  version
         of  the file.  In fact, the ``overwrite'' choice does create
         a new  version;  the  old  version  is  not  overwritten  or
         funzip(1L), zip(1L), zipcloak(1L), zipgrep(1L), zipinfo(1L),
         zipnote(1L), zipsplit(1L)
         The    Info-ZIP    home     page     is     currently     at .
         The primary Info-ZIP authors (current semi-active members of
         the  Zip-Bugs  workgroup)  are:   Greg ``Cave Newt'' Roelofs
         (UnZip);  Onno  van  der  Linden  (Zip);  Jean-loup   Gailly
         (compression); Mark Adler (decompression, fUnZip); Christian
         Spieler (UnZip maintance coordination, VMS, MS-DOS,  Windows
         95,  NT,  shared code, general Zip and UnZip integration and
         optimization); Mike White (Windows GUI, Windows  DLLs);  Kai
         Uwe  Rommel  (OS/2); Paul Kienitz (Amiga, Windows 95); Chris
         Herborth (BeOS, QNX,  Atari);  Jonathan  Hudson  (SMS/QDOS);
         Sergio  Monesi  (Acorn RISC OS); Harald Denker (Atari, MVS);
         John Bush (Solaris,  Amiga);  Hunter  Goatley  (VMS);  Steve
         Salisbury  (Windows  95, NT); Steve Miller (Windows CE GUI),
         Johnny Lee (MS-DOS, Windows 95, NT); and Dave Smith  (Tandem
         NSK).   The  author  of  the  original unzip code upon which
         Info-ZIP's was based is Samuel H. Smith;  Carl  Mascott  did
         the  first Unix port; and David P.  Kirschbaum organized and
         led Info-ZIP in its early days with Keith  Petersen  hosting
         the  original  mailing list at WSMR-SimTel20.  The full list
         of contributors to UnZip has grown quite large; please refer
         to  the CONTRIBS file in the UnZip source distribution for a
         relatively complete version.
         v1.2   15 Mar 89   Samuel H. Smith
         v2.0    9 Sep 89   Samuel H. Smith
         v2.x   fall 1989   many Usenet contributors
         v3.0    1 May 90   Info-ZIP (DPK, consolidator)
         v3.1   15 Aug 90   Info-ZIP (DPK, consolidator)
         v4.0    1 Dec 90   Info-ZIP (GRR, maintainer)
         v4.1   12 May 91   Info-ZIP
         v4.2   20 Mar 92   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
         v5.0   21 Aug 92   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
         v5.01  15 Jan 93   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
         v5.1    7 Feb 94   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
         v5.11   2 Aug 94   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
         v5.12  28 Aug 94   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
         v5.2   30 Apr 96   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
         v5.3   22 Apr 97   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
         v5.31  31 May 97   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
         v5.32   3 Nov 97   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
         v5.4   28 Nov 98   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)

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