Интерактивная система просмотра системных руководств (man-ов)
>> top (1) ( Solaris man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня ) top (1) ( FreeBSD man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня ) top (1) ( Linux man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
top - display and update information about the top cpu
top [ -SbiInquv ] [ -dcount ] [ -stime ] [ -ofield ] [
-Uusername ] [ number ]
Top displays the top 15 processes on the system and periodi-
cally updates this information. Raw cpu percentage is used
to rank the processes. If number is given, then the top
number processes will be displayed instead of the default.
Top makes a distinction between terminals that support
advanced capabilities and those that do not. This distinc-
tion affects the choice of defaults for certain options. In
the remainder of this document, an "intelligent" terminal is
one that supports cursor addressing, clear screen, and clear
to end of line. Conversely, a "dumb" terminal is one that
does not support such features. If the output of top is
redirected to a file, it acts as if it were being run on a
-S Show system processes in the display. Normally, system
processes such as the pager and the swapper are not
shown. This option makes them visible.
-b Use "batch" mode. In this mode, all input from the
terminal is ignored. Interrupt characters (such as ^C
and ^\) still have an effect. This is the default on a
dumb terminal, or when the output is not a terminal.
-i Use "interactive" mode. In this mode, any input is
immediately read for processing. See the section on
"Interactive Mode" for an explanation of which keys
perform what functions. After the command is pro-
cessed, the screen will immediately be updated, even if
the command was not understood. This mode is the
default when standard output is an intelligent termi-
-I Do not display idle processes. By default, top
displays both active and idle processes.
-n Use "non-interactive" mode. This is indentical to
-q Renice top to -20 so that it will run faster. This can
be used when the system is being very sluggish to
improve the possibility of discovering the problem.
This option can only be used by root.
-u Do not take the time to map uid numbers to usernames.
Normally, top will read as much of the file
"/etc/passwd" as is necessary to map all the user id
numbers it encounters into login names. This option
disables all that, while possibly decreasing execution
time. The uid numbers are displayed instead of the
-v Write version number information to stderr then exit
immediately. No other processing takes place when this
option is used. To see current revision information
while top is running, use the help command "?".
Show only count displays, then exit. A display is con-
sidered to be one update of the screen. This option
allows the user to select the number of displays he
wants to see before top automatically exits. For
intelligent terminals, no upper limit is set. The
default is 1 for dumb terminals.
Set the delay between screen updates to time seconds.
The default delay between updates is 5 seconds.
Sort the process display area on the specified field.
The field name is the name of the column as seen in the
output, but in lower case. Likely values are "cpu",
"size", "res", and "time", but may vary on different
operating systems. Note that not all operating systems
support this option.
Show only those processes owned by username. This
option currently only accepts usernames and will not
understand uid numbers.
Both count and number fields can be specified as "infinite",
indicating that they can stretch as far as possible. This
is accomplished by using any proper prefix of the keywords
"infinity", "maximum", or "all". The default for count on
an intelligent terminal is, in fact, infinity.
The environment variable TOP is examined for options before
the command line is scanned. This enables a user to set his
or her own defaults. The number of processes to display can
also be specified in the environment variable TOP. The
options -I, -S, and -u are actually toggles. A second
specification of any of these options will negate the first.
Thus a user who has the environment variable TOP set to "-I"
may use the command "top -I" to see idle processes.
When top is running in "interactive mode", it reads commands
from the terminal and acts upon them accordingly. In this
mode, the terminal is put in "CBREAK", so that a character
will be processed as soon as it is typed. Almost always, a
key will be pressed when top is between displays; that is,
while it is waiting for time seconds to elapse. If this is
the case, the command will be processed and the display will
be updated immediately thereafter (reflecting any changes
that the command may have specified). This happens even if
the command was incorrect. If a key is pressed while top is
in the middle of updating the display, it will finish the
update and then process the command. Some commands require
additional information, and the user will be prompted
accordingly. While typing this information in, the user's
erase and kill keys (as set up by the command stty) are
recognized, and a newline terminates the input.
These commands are currently recognized (^L refers to
^L Redraw the screen.
h or ?
Display a summary of the commands (help screen). Ver-
sion information is included in this display.
q Quit top.
d Change the number of displays to show (prompt for new
number). Remember that the next display counts as one,
so typing d1 will make top show one final display and
then immediately exit.
n or #
Change the number of processes to display (prompt for
s Change the number of seconds to delay between displays
(prompt for new number).
k Send a signal ("kill" by default) to a list of
processes. This acts similarly to the command
r Change the priority (the "nice") of a list of
processes. This acts similarly to the command ren-
u Display only processes owned by a specific username
(prompt for username). If the username specified is
simply "+", then processes belonging to all users will
o Change the order in which the display is sorted. This
command is not available on all systems. The sort key
names vary fron system to system but usually include:
"cpu", "res", "size", "time". The default is cpu.
e Display a list of system errors (if any) generated by
the last kill or renice command.
i (or I) Toggle the display of idle processes.
The actual display varies depending on the specific variant
of Unix that the machine is running. This description may
not exactly match what is seen by top running on this par-
ticular machine. Differences are listed at the end of this
The top few lines of the display show general information
about the state of the system, including the last process id
assigned to a process (on most systems), the three load
averages, the current time, the number of existing
processes, the number of processes in each state (sleeping,
running, starting, zombies, and stopped), and a percentage
of time spent in each of the processor states (user, nice,
system, and idle). It also includes information about phy-
sial and virtual memory allocation.
The remainder of the screen displays information about indi-
vidual processes. This display is similar in spirit to
ps(1) but it is not exactly the same. PID is the process
id, USERNAME is the name of the process's owner (if -u is
specified, a UID column will be substituted for USERNAME),
PRI is the current priority of the process, NICE is the nice
amount (in the range -20 to 20), SIZE is the total size of
the process (text, data, and stack), RES is the current
amount of resident memory (both SIZE and RES are given in
kilobytes), STATE is the current state (one of "sleep",
"WAIT", "run", "idl", "zomb", or "stop"), TIME is the number
of system and user cpu seconds that the process has used,
WCPU, when displayed, is the weighted cpu percentage (this
is the same value that ps(1) displays as CPU), CPU is the
raw percentage and is the field that is sorted to determine
the order of the processes, and COMMAND is the name of the
command that the process is currently running (if the pro-
cess is swapped out, this column is marked "<swapped>").
The "ABANDONED" state (known in the kernel as "SWAIT") was
abandoned, thus the name. A process should never end up in
William LeFebvre, EECS Department, Northwestern University
TOP user-configurable defaults for options.
/dev/kmem kernel memory
/dev/mem physical memory
/etc/passwd used to map uid numbers to user names
/vmunix system image
Don't shoot me, but the default for -I has changed once
again. So many people were confused by the fact that top
wasn't showing them all the processes that I have decided to
make the default behavior show idle processes, just like it
did in version 2. But to appease folks who can't stand that
behavior, I have added the ability to set "default" options
in the environment variable TOP (see the OPTIONS section).
Those who want the behavior that version 3.0 had need only
set the environment variable TOP to "-I".
The command name for swapped processes should be tracked
down, but this would make the program run slower.
As with ps(1), things can change while top is collecting
information for an update. The picture it gives is only a
close approximation to reality.
kill(1), ps(1), stty(1), mem(4), renice(8)
SUNOS 5 NOTES
CPU percentage is calculated as a fraction of total avail-
able computing resources. Hence on a multiprocessor machine
a single threaded process can never consume cpu time in
excess of 1 divided by the number of processors. For exam-
ple, on a 4 processor machine, a single threaded process
will never show a cpu percentage higher than 25%. The CPU
percentage column will always total approximately 100,
regardless of the number of processors.
The memory summary line displays the following: "real" is
the total amount of physical memory that can be allocated
for use by processes (it does not include memory reserved
for the kernel's use), "free" is the amount of unallocated
physical memory, "swap in use" is the amount of swap area on
disk that is being used, "swap free" is the amount of swap
area on disk that is still available. The swap figures will
differ from the summary output of swap(1M) since the latter
includes physical memory as well.
The column "THR" indicates the number of execution threads
in the process.
In BSD Unix, process priority was represented internally as
a signed offset from a zero value with an unsigned value.
The "zero" value was usually something like 20, allowing for
a range of priorities from -20 to 20. As implemented on
SunOS 5, older version of top continued to interpret process
priority in this manner, even though it was no longer
correct. Starting with top version 3.5, this was changed to
agree with the rest of the system.
The SunOS 5 (Solaris 2) port was oroginally written by
Torsten Kasch, <email@example.com>. Many
contributions have been provided by Casper Dik
<Casper.Dik@sun.com>. Support for multi-cpu, calculation of
CPU% and memory stats provided by Robert Boucher
<firstname.lastname@example.org>, Marc Cohen <email@example.com>, Charles
Hedrick <firstname.lastname@example.org>, and William L. Jones