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sysinstall (8)
  • >> sysinstall (8) ( FreeBSD man: Команды системного администрирования )

  • BSD mandoc
     

    NAME

    
    
    sysinstall
    
     - system installation and configuration tool
    
     
    

    SYNOPSIS

    [var=value ] [function ] [... ]  

    DESCRIPTION

    The utility is used for installing and configuring Fx systems. It is the first utility invoked by the Fx installation boot floppy and is also available as /usr/sbin/sysinstall on newly installed Fx systems for use in later configuring the system.

    The utility is generally invoked without arguments for the default behavior, where the main installation/configuration menu is presented.

    On those occasions where it is deemed necessary to invoke a subsystem of sysinstall directly, however, it is also possible to do so by naming the appropriate function entry points on the command line. Since this action is essentially identical to running an installation script, each command-line argument corresponding to a line of script, the reader is encouraged to read the section on scripting for more information on this feature.  

    NOTES

    The utility is essentially nothing more than a monolithic C program with the ability to write MBRs and disk labels (through the services of the libdisk(3) library) and install distributions or packages onto new and existing Fx systems. It also contains some extra intelligence for running as a replacement for init(8) when it is invoked by the Fx installation boot procedure. It assumes very little in the way of additional utility support and performs most file system operations by calling the relevant syscalls (such as mount(2)) directly.

    The utility currently uses the dialog(3) library to do user interaction with simple ANSI line graphics, color support for which is enabled by either running on a syscons VTY or some other color-capable terminal emulator (newer versions of xterm will support color when using the ``xterm-color'' termcap entry).

    This product is currently at the end of its life cycle and will eventually be replaced.  

    RUNNING SCRIPTS

    The utility may be either driven interactively through its various internal menus or run in batch mode, driven by an external script. Such a script may be loaded and executed in one of 3 ways:

    LOAD_CONFIG_FILE
    If is compiled with LOAD_CONFIG_FILE set in the environment (or in the Makefile) to some value, then that value will be used as the filename to automatically look for and load when starts up and with no user interaction required. This option is aimed primarily at large sites who wish to create a single prototype install for multiple machines with largely identical configurations and/or installation options.
    MAIN MENU
    If is run interactively, that is to say in the default manner, it will bring up a main menu which contains a "load config file" option. Selecting this option will prompt for the name of a script file which it then will attempt to load from a DOS or UFS formatted floppy.
    COMMAND LINE
    Each command line argument is treated as a script directive when is run in multi-user mode. Execution ends either by explicit request (e.g. calling the shutdown directive), upon reaching the end of the argument list or on error.

    For example:

    /usr/sbin/sysinstall _ftpPath=ftp://ziggy/pub/ mediaSetFTP configPackages
    

    Would initialize for FTP installation media (using the server `ziggy') and then bring up the package installation editor, exiting when finished.

     

    SCRIPT SYNTAX

    A script is a list of one or more directives, each directive taking the form of:

    var=value

    function

    or #somecomment

    Where var=value is the assignment of some internal variable, e.g. "ftpPass=FuNkYChiKn", and function is the name of an internal function, e.g. "mediaSetFTP", and #comment is a single-line comment for documentation purposes (ignored by sysinstall). Each directive must be by itself on a single line, functions taking their arguments by examining known variable names. This requires that you be sure to assign the relevant variables before calling a function which requires them.

    The noError variable can be assigned before each directive: this will cause any error detected while processing the directive itself to be ignored. The value of noError will automatically reset to the default "unassigned" every time a directive is processed.

    When and where a function depends on the settings of one or more variables will be noted in the following table:

    Function Glossary

    configAnonFTP
    Invoke the Anonymous FTP configuration menu.

    Variables None

    configRouter
    Select which routing daemon you wish to use, potentially loading any required 3rd-party routing daemons as necessary.

    Variables

    router
    can be set to the name of the desired routing daemon, e.g. ``routed'' or ``gated'' otherwise it is prompted for.

    configNFSServer
    Configure host as an NFS server.

    Variables None

    configNTP
    Configure host as a user of the Network Time Protocol.

    Variables

    ntpdate_flags
    The flags to ntpdate(8), that is to say the name of the server to sync from.

    configPCNFSD
    Configure host to support PC NFS.

    Variables

    pcnfsd_pkg
    The name of the PCNFSD package to load if necessary (defaults to hard coded version).

    configPackages
    Bring up the interactive package management menu.

    Variables None

    configUsers
    Add users and/or groups to the system.

    Variables None

    diskPartitionEditor
    Invokes the disk partition (MBR) editor.

    Variables

    geometry
    The disk geometry, as a cyls/heads/sectors formatted string. Default: no change to geometry.
    partition
    Set to disk partitioning type or size, its value being free in order to use only remaining free space for Fx , all to use the entire disk for Fx but maintain a proper partition table, existing to use an existing Fx partition (first found), exclusive to use the disk in ``dangerously dedicated'' mode or, finally, somenumber to allocate somenumber blocks of available free space to a new Fx partition. Default: Interactive mode.
    bootManager
    is set to one of boot to signify the installation of a boot manager, standard to signify installation of a "standard" non-boot MGR DOS MBR or none to indicate that no change to the boot manager is desired. Default: none.
    diskInteractive
    If set, bring up the interactive disk partition editor.

    Note: Nothing is actually written to disk by this function, an explicit call to diskPartitionWrite being required for that to happen.

    diskPartitionWrite
    Causes any pending MBR changes (typically from the diskPartitionEditor function) to be written out.

    Variables None

    diskLabelEditor
    Invokes the disk label editor. This is a bit trickier from a script since you need to essentially label everything inside each Fx (type 0xA5) partition created by the diskPartitionEditor function, and that requires knowing a few rules about how things are laid out. When creating a script to automatically allocate disk space and partition it up, it is suggested that you first perform the installation interactively at least once and take careful notes as to what the slice names will be, then and only then hardwiring them into the script.

    For example, let's say you have a SCSI disk on which you have created a new Fx partition in slice 2 (your DOS partition residing in slice 1). The slice name would be da0s2 for the whole Fx partition ( da0s1 being your DOS primary partition). Now let's further assume that you have 4GB in this partition and you want to sub-partition that space into root, swap, var and usr file systems for Fx . Your invocation of the diskLabelEditor function might involve setting the following variables:

    da0s2-1=ufs 2097152 /
    A 1GB root file system (all sizes are in 512 byte blocks).
    da0s2-2=swap 1048576 /
    A 512MB swap partition.
    da0s2-3=ufs 524288 /var
    A 256MB /var file system.
    da0s2-4=ufs 0 /usr 1
    With the balance of free space (around 2.25GB) going to the /usr file system and with soft-updates enabled (the argument following the mount point, if non-zero, means to set the soft updates flag).

    One can also use the diskLabelEditor for mounting or erasing existing partitions as well as creating new ones. Using the previous example again, let's say that we also wanted to mount our DOS partition and make sure that an /etc/fstab entry is created for it in the new installation. Before calling the diskLabelEditor function, we simply add an additional line:

    "da0s1=/dos_c N"

    before the call. This tells the label editor that you want to mount the first slice on /dos_c and not to attempt to newfs it (not that would attempt this for a DOS partition in any case, but it could just as easily be an existing UFS partition being named here and the 2nd field is non-optional).

    You can also set the diskInteractive variable to request that the disk label editor use an interactive dialog to partition the disk instead of using variables to explicitly layout the disk as described above.

    Note: No file system data is actually written to disk until an explicit call to diskLabelCommit is made.

    diskLabelCommit
    Writes out all pending disklabel information and creates and/or mounts any file systems which have requests pending from the diskLabelEditor function.

    Variables None

    distReset
    Resets all selected distributions to the empty set (no distributions selected).

    Variables None

    distSetCustom
    Allows the selection of a custom distribution set (e.g. not just one of the existing "canned" sets) with no user interaction.

    Variables

    dists
    List of distributions to load. Possible distribution values are:

    base
    The base binary distribution.
    generic
    The GENERIC kernel.
    smp
    A kernel suitable for multiple processor systems.
    doc
    Miscellaneous documentation
    games
    Games
    manpages
    Manual pages (unformatted)
    catpages
    Pre-formatted manual pages
    proflibs
    Profiled libraries for developers.
    dict
    Dictionary information (for tools like spell).
    info
    GNU info files and other extra docs.
    lib32
    (amd64 only) 32-bit runtime compatibility libraries.
    ports
    The ports collection.
    ssecure
    /usr/src/secure
    sbase
    /usr/src/[top level files]
    scontrib
    /usr/src/contrib
    scrypto
    /usr/src/crypto
    sgnu
    /usr/src/gnu
    setc
    /usr/src/etc
    sgames
    /usr/src/games
    sinclude
    /usr/src/include
    skrb5
    /usr/src/kerberos5
    slib
    /usr/src/lib
    slibexec
    /usr/src/libexec
    srelease
    /usr/src/release
    srescue
    /usr/src/rescue
    stools
    /usr/src/tools
    sbin
    /usr/src/bin
    ssbin
    /usr/src/sbin
    sshare
    /usr/src/share
    ssys
    /usr/src/sys
    stools
    /usr/src/tools
    subin
    /usr/src/usr.bin
    susbin
    /usr/src/usr.sbin
    Xbin
    X.Org client applications.
    Xlib
    X.Org libraries.
    Xman
    X.Org manual pages.
    Xdoc
    X.Org protocol and library documentation.
    Xprog
    X.Org imake distribution.
    Xsrv
    X.Org X server.
    Xnest
    X.Org nested X server.
    Xprt
    X.Org print server.
    Xvfb
    X.Org virtual frame-buffer X server.
    Xfmsc
    X.Org miscellaneous font set.
    Xf75
    X.Org 75DPI font set.
    Xf100
    X.Org 100DPI font set.
    Xfcyr
    X.Org Cyrillic font set.
    Xft1
    X.Org Type 1 font set.
    Xftt
    X.Org TrueType font set.
    Xfs
    X.Org font server.
    local
    Local additions collection.

    distSetDeveloper
    Selects the standard Developer's distribution set.

    Variables None

    distSetXDeveloper
    Selects the standard X Developer's distribution set.

    Variables None

    distSetKernDeveloper
    Selects the standard kernel Developer's distribution set.

    Variables None

    distSetUser
    Selects the standard user distribution set.

    Variables None

    distSetXUser
    Selects the standard X user's distribution set.

    Variables None

    distSetMinimum
    Selects the very minimum distribution set.

    Variables None

    distSetEverything
    Selects the full whack - all available distributions.

    Variables None

    distSetSrc
    Interactively select source subcomponents.

    Variables None

    distSetXOrg
    Interactively select X.Org subcomponents.

    Variables None

    distExtractAll
    Install all currently selected distributions (requires that media device also be selected).

    Variables None

    docBrowser
    Install (if necessary) an HTML documentation browser and go to the HTML documentation submenu.

    Variables

    browserPackage
    The name of the browser package to try and install as necessary. Defaults to latest links package.
    browserBinary
    The name of the browser binary itself (if overriding the browserPackage variable). Defaults to links.

    installCommit
    Commit any and all pending changes to disk. This function is essentially shorthand for a number of more granular "commit" functions.

    Variables None

    installExpress
    Start an "express" installation, asking few questions of the user.

    Variables None

    installStandard
    Start a "standard" installation, the most user-friendly installation type available.

    Variables None

    installUpgrade
    Start an upgrade installation.

    Variables None

    installFixitHoloShell
    Start up the "emergency holographic shell" over on VTY4 if running as init. This will also happen automatically as part of the installation process unless noHoloShell is set.

    Variables None

    installFixitCDROM
    Go into "fixit" mode, assuming a live file system CDROM currently in the drive.

    Variables None

    installFixitFloppy
    Go into "fixit" mode, assuming an available fixit floppy disk (user will be prompted for it).

    Variables None

    installFilesystems
    Do just the file system initialization part of an install.

    Variables None

    installVarDefaults
    Initialize all variables to their defaults, overriding any previous settings.

    Variables None

    loadConfig
    Sort of like an #include statement, it allows you to load one configuration file from another.

    Variables

    configFile
    The fully qualified pathname of the file to load.

    mediaOpen
    If a media device is set, mount it.

    Variables None

    mediaClose
    If a media device is open, close it.

    Variables None

    mediaSetCDROM
    Select a Fx CDROM as the installation media.

    Variables None

    mediaSetFloppy
    Select a pre-made floppy installation set as the installation media.

    Variables None

    mediaSetDOS
    Select an existing DOS primary partition as the installation media. The first primary partition found is used (e.g. C:).

    Variables None

    mediaSetTape
    Select a tape device as the installation media.

    Variables None

    mediaSetFTP
    Select an FTP site as the installation media.

    Variables

    hostname
    The name of the host being installed (non-optional).
    domainname
    The domain name of the host being installed (optional).
    defaultrouter
    The default router for this host (non-optional).
    netDev
    Which host interface to use ( ed0 or ep0 for example. Non-optional).
    netInteractive
    If set, bring up the interactive network setup form even if all relevant configuration variables are already set (optional).
    ipaddr
    The IP address for the selected host interface (non-optional).
    netmask
    The netmask for the selected host interface (non-optional).
    _ftpPath
    The fully qualified URL of the FTP site containing the Fx distribution you are interested in, e.g. ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/

    mediaSetFTPActive
    Alias for mediaSetFTP using "active" FTP transfer mode.

    Variables Same as for mediaSetFTP

    mediaSetFTPPassive
    Alias for mediaSetFTP using "passive" FTP transfer mode.

    Variables Same as for mediaSetFTP

    mediaSetHTTP
    Alias for mediaSetFTP using an HTTP proxy.

    Variables See mediaSetFTP plus

    _httpPath
    The proxy to use (host:port) (non-optional).

    mediaSetUFS
    Select an existing UFS partition (mounted with the label editor) as the installation media.

    Variables

    ufs
    full /path to directory containing the Fx distribution you are interested in.

    mediaSetNFS

    Variables

    hostname
    The name of the host being installed (non-optional).
    domainname
    The domain name of the host being installed (optional).
    defaultrouter
    The default router for this host (non-optional).
    netDev
    Which host interface to use ( ed0 or ep0 for example. Non-optional).
    netInteractive
    If set, bring up the interactive network setup form even if all relevant configuration variables are already set (optional).
    ipaddr
    The IP address for the selected host interface (non-optional).
    netmask
    The netmask for the selected host interface (non-optional).
    nfs
    full hostname:/path specification for directory containing the Fx distribution you are interested in.

    mediaSetFTPUserPass

    Variables

    ftpUser
    The username to log in as on the ftp server site. Default: ftp
    ftpPass
    The password to use for this username on the ftp server site. Default: user@host

    mediaSetCPIOVerbosity

    Variables

    cpioVerbose
    Can be used to set the verbosity of cpio extractions to low, medium or high.

    mediaGetType
    Interactively get the user to specify some type of media.

    Variables None

    optionsEditor
    Invoke the interactive options editor.

    Variables None

    packageAdd
    Try to fetch and add a package to the system (requires that a media type be set),

    Variables

    package
    The name of the package to add, e.g. bash-1.14.7 or ncftp-2.4.2.

    addGroup
    Invoke the interactive group editor.

    Variables None

    addUser
    Invoke the interactive user editor.

    Variables None

    shutdown
    Stop the script, terminate sysinstall and reboot the system. On the sparc64 platform, the system is halted rather than rebooted.

    Variables None

    system
    Execute an arbitrary command with system(3)

    Variables

    command
    The name of the command to execute. When running from a boot floppy, very minimal expectations should be made as to what is available until/unless a relatively full system installation has just been done.

    tcpMenuSelect
    Configure a network device.

    Variables Same as for mediaSetFTP except that _ftpPath is not used.

     

    DISTRIBUTION MEDIA

    The following files can be used to affect the operation of when used during initial system installation.

    cdrom.inf
    A text file of properties, listed one per line, that describe the contents of the media in use. The syntax for each line is simply ``property = value '' Currently, only the following properties are recognized.

    CD_VERSION
    This property should be set to the Fx version on the current media volume. For example, ``CD_VERSION = 5.3 ''
    CD_MACHINE_ARCH
    This property should be set to the architecture of the contents on this volume. This property is normally only used with Fx products that contain CDs for different architectures, to provide better error messages if users try to install Alpha packages on an i386 machine. For example, ``CD_MACHINE_ARCH = alpha ''
    CD_VOLUME
    In a multi-volume collection (such as the Fx 4-CD set), the ports/INDEX file on each disc should contain the full package index for the set. The last field of the INDEX file denotes which volume the package appears on, and the CD_VOLUME property here defines the volume ID of the current disc.

    packages/INDEX
    The package index file. Each package is listed on a separate line with additional meta-data such as the required dependencies. This index is generated by ``make index '' from the ports(7) collection. When multi-volume support is enabled, an additional field should be added to each line indicating which media volume contains the given package.

    For information about building a full release of Fx , please see release(7).  

    FILES

    This utility may edit the contents of /etc/rc.conf /etc/hosts and /etc/resolv.conf as necessary to reflect changes in the network configuration.  

    SEE ALSO

    If you have a reasonably complete source tree online, take a look at /usr/src/usr.sbin/sysinstall/install.cfg for a sample installation script.  

    HISTORY

    This version of first appeared in Fx 2.0 .  

    AUTHORS

    An Jordan K. Hubbard Aq jkh@FreeBSD.org  

    BUGS

    Editing slice and partition tables on disks which are currently mounted by the system is not allowed. This is generally only a problem when is run on a system that is already installed. Use fdisk(8) and bsdlabel(8) for these tasks.

    This utility is a prototype which lasted several years past its expiration date and is greatly in need of death.


     

    Index

    NAME
    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    NOTES
    RUNNING SCRIPTS
    SCRIPT SYNTAX
    DISTRIBUTION MEDIA
    FILES
    SEE ALSO
    HISTORY
    AUTHORS
    BUGS


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