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ncurses (3)
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         ncurses - CRT screen handling and optimization package
         #include <curses.h>
         The ncurses library  routines  give  the  user  a  terminal-
         independent   method  of  updating  character  screens  with
         reasonable  optimization.   This  implementation  is   ``new
         curses''  (ncurses)  and  is  the  approved  replacement for
         4.4BSD classic curses, which has been discontinued.
         The ncurses  routines  emulate  the  curses(3X)  library  of
         System  V  Release 4 UNIX, and the XPG4 curses standard (XSI
         curses) but the ncurses library is freely redistributable in
         source   form.    Differences   from  the  SVr4  curses  are
         summarized under the EXTENSIONS and BUGS sections below  and
         described  in  detail in the EXTENSIONS and BUGS sections of
         individual man pages.
         A program using these  routines  must  be  linked  with  the
         -lncurses  option,  or  (if  it has been generated) with the
         debugging library -lncurses_g.  (Your system integrator  may
         also have installed these libraries under the names -lcurses
         and -lcurses_g.)  The ncurses_g library generates trace logs
         (in  a  file  called  'trace' in the current directory) that
         describe curses actions.
         The ncurses package supports: overall screen, window and pad
         manipulation;  output  to windows and pads; reading terminal
         input; control over terminal and  curses  input  and  output
         options; environment query routines; color manipulation; use
         of soft label keys; terminfo  capabilities;  and  access  to
         low-level terminal-manipulation routines.
         To initialize the routines, the routine initscr  or  newterm
         must  be  called  before any of the other routines that deal
         with windows and screens are used.  The routine endwin  must
         be  called before exiting.  To get character-at-a-time input
         without echoing (most interactive, screen oriented  programs
         want this), the following sequence should be used:
               initscr(); cbreak(); noecho();
         Most programs would additionally use the sequence:
               intrflush(stdscr, FALSE);
               keypad(stdscr, TRUE);
         Before a curses  program  is  run,  the  tab  stops  of  the
         terminal  should  be  set and its initialization strings, if
         defined, must be output.  This can be done by executing  the
         tput  init command after the shell environment variable TERM
         has been exported.  tset(1) is usually responsible for doing
         this.  [See terminfo(5) for further details.]
         The ncurses library permits manipulation of data structures,
         called  windows,  which can be thought of as two-dimensional
         arrays of characters representing  all  or  part  of  a  CRT
         screen.   A  default window called stdscr, which is the size
         of the terminal screen, is supplied.  Others may be  created
         with newwin.
         Note that curses does not handle overlapping windows, that's
         done  by  the  panel(3X)  library.  This  means that you can
         either use stdscr or divide the screen  into  tiled  windows
         and  not  using stdscr at all. Mixing the two will result in
         unpredictable, and undesired, effects.
         Windows are referred to by variables declared as  WINDOW  *.
         These   data   structures   are  manipulated  with  routines
         described here and elsewhere in the  ncurses  manual  pages.
         Among  which  the  most  basic  routines are move and addch.
         More general versions of these routines  are  included  with
         names  beginning  with  w,  allowing  the  user to specify a
         window.  The routines not beginning with w affect stdscr.)
         After using routines to  manipulate  a  window,  refresh  is
         called,  telling  curses  to make the user's CRT screen look
         like stdscr.  The characters in a  window  are  actually  of
         type  chtype,  (character  and attribute data) so that other
         information about the character may also be stored with each
         Special windows called pads may also be manipulated.   These
         are  windows  which  are  not constrained to the size of the
         screen and whose contents need not be completely  displayed.
         See curs_pad(3X) for more information.
         In addition to  drawing  characters  on  the  screen,  video
         attributes   and   colors  may  be  supported,  causing  the
         characters to show  up  in  such  modes  as  underlined,  in
         reverse  video,  or  in color on terminals that support such
         display  enhancements.   Line  drawing  characters  may   be
         specified  to  be  output.  On input, curses is also able to
         translate arrow  and  function  keys  that  transmit  escape
         sequences  into  single  values.  The video attributes, line
         drawing characters, and input values use names,  defined  in
         <curses.h>, such as A_REVERSE, ACS_HLINE, and KEY_LEFT.
         If the environment variables LINES and COLUMNS are  set,  or
         if  the  program  is executing in a window environment, line
         and column information  in  the  environment  will  override
         information  read  by terminfo.  This would effect a program
         running in an AT&T 630 layer, for example, where the size of
         a screen is changeable (see ENVIRONMENT).
         If the environment variable TERMINFO is defined, any program
         using  curses  checks for a local terminal definition before
         checking in the standard place.  For example, if TERM is set
         to  att4424,  then the compiled terminal definition is found
         (The a is copied from the first letter of att4424  to  avoid
         creation  of huge directories.)  However, if TERMINFO is set
         to $HOME/myterms, curses first checks
         and if that fails, it then checks
         This is useful for developing  experimental  definitions  or
         when  write  permission  in  /opt/sfw/share/terminfo  is not
         The  integer  variables  LINES  and  COLS  are  defined   in
         <curses.h> and will be filled in by initscr with the size of
         the screen.  The constants TRUE and FALSE have the values  1
         and 0, respectively.
         The curses routines also define the WINDOW * variable curscr
         which is used for certain low-level operations like clearing
         and redrawing a screen containing garbage.  The  curscr  can
         be used in only a few routines.
      Routine and Argument Names
         Many  curses  routines  have  two  or  more  versions.   The
         routines  prefixed  with  w  require a window argument.  The
         routines prefixed with p  require  a  pad  argument.   Those
         without a prefix generally use stdscr.
         The routines prefixed with mv require a y and  x  coordinate
         to move to before performing the appropriate action.  The mv
         routines imply a call to move before the call to  the  other
         routine.   The coordinate y always refers to the row (of the
         window), and x always  refers  to  the  column.   The  upper
         left-hand corner is always (0,0), not (1,1).
         The routines prefixed with mvw take both a  window  argument
         and  x  and  y  coordinates.   The window argument is always
         specified before the coordinates.
         In each case, win is the window affected, and pad is the pad
         affected; win and pad are always pointers to type WINDOW.
         Option setting routines require a Boolean flag bf  with  the
         value  TRUE  or  FALSE;  bf  is  always  of  type bool.  The
         variables ch and attrs below are always of type chtype.  The
         types  WINDOW,  SCREEN,  bool,  and  chtype  are  defined in
         <curses.h>.  The type TERMINAL is defined in <term.h>.   All
         other arguments are integers.
      Routine Name Index
         The following table lists each curses routine and  the  name
         of  the  manual  page  on  which  it is described.  Routines
         flagged with `*' are ncurses-specific, not described by XPG4
         or present in SVr4.
                  curses Routine Name     Manual Page Name
                  COLOR_PAIR              curs_color(3X)
                  PAIR_NUMBER             curs_attr(3X)
                  _nc_tracebits           curs_trace(3X)*
                  _traceattr              curs_trace(3X)*
                  _traceattr2             curs_trace(3X)*
                  _tracechar              curs_trace(3X)*
                  _tracechtype            curs_trace(3X)*
                  _tracechtype2           curs_trace(3X)*
                  _tracedump              curs_trace(3X)*
                  _tracef                 curs_trace(3X)*
                  _tracemouse             curs_trace(3X)*
                  addch                   curs_addch(3X)
                  addchnstr               curs_addchstr(3X)
                  addchstr                curs_addchstr(3X)
                  addnstr                 curs_addstr(3X)
                  addstr                  curs_addstr(3X)
                  assume_default_colors   dft_fgbg(3X)*
                  attr_get                curs_attr(3X)
                  attr_off                curs_attr(3X)
                  attr_on                 curs_attr(3X)
                  attr_set                curs_attr(3X)
                  attroff                 curs_attr(3X)
                  attron                  curs_attr(3X)
                  attrset                 curs_attr(3X)
                  baudrate                curs_termattrs(3X)
                  beep                    curs_beep(3X)
                  bkgd                    curs_bkgd(3X)
                  bkgdset                 curs_bkgd(3X)
                  border                  curs_border(3X)
                  box                     curs_border(3X)
                  can_change_color        curs_color(3X)
                  cbreak                  curs_inopts(3X)
                  chgat                   curs_attr(3X)
                  clear                   curs_clear(3X)
                  clearok                 curs_outopts(3X)
                  clrtobot                curs_clear(3X)
                  clrtoeol                curs_clear(3X)
                  color_content           curs_color(3X)
                  color_set               curs_attr(3X)
                  copywin                 curs_overlay(3X)
                  curs_set                curs_kernel(3X)
                  curses_version          curs_extend(3X)*
                  def_prog_mode           curs_kernel(3X)
                  def_shell_mode          curs_kernel(3X)
                  define_key              define_key(3X)*
                  del_curterm             curs_terminfo(3X)
                  delay_output            curs_util(3X)
                  delch                   curs_delch(3X)
                  deleteln                curs_deleteln(3X)
                  delscreen               curs_initscr(3X)
                  delwin                  curs_window(3X)
                  derwin                  curs_window(3X)
                  doupdate                curs_refresh(3X)
                  dupwin                  curs_window(3X)
                  echo                    curs_inopts(3X)
                  echochar                curs_addch(3X)
                  endwin                  curs_initscr(3X)
                  erase                   curs_clear(3X)
                  erasechar               curs_termattrs(3X)
                  filter                  curs_util(3X)
                  flash                   curs_beep(3X)
                  flushinp                curs_util(3X)
                  getbegyx                curs_getyx(3X)
                  getbkgd                 curs_bkgd(3X)
                  getch                   curs_getch(3X)
                  getmaxyx                curs_getyx(3X)
                  getmouse                curs_mouse(3X)*
                  getnstr                 curs_getstr(3X)
                  getparyx                curs_getyx(3X)
                  getstr                  curs_getstr(3X)
                  getsyx                  curs_kernel(3X)
                  getwin                  curs_util(3X)
                  getyx                   curs_getyx(3X)
                  halfdelay               curs_inopts(3X)
                  has_colors              curs_color(3X)
                  has_ic                  curs_termattrs(3X)
                  has_il                  curs_termattrs(3X)
                  has_key                 curs_getch(3X)*
                  hline                   curs_border(3X)
                  idcok                   curs_outopts(3X)
                  idlok                   curs_outopts(3X)
                  immedok                 curs_outopts(3X)
                  inch                    curs_inch(3X)
                  inchnstr                curs_inchstr(3X)
                  inchstr                 curs_inchstr(3X)
                  init_color              curs_color(3X)
                  init_pair               curs_color(3X)
                  initscr                 curs_initscr(3X)
                  innstr                  curs_instr(3X)
                  insch                   curs_insch(3X)
                  insdelln                curs_deleteln(3X)
                  insertln                curs_deleteln(3X)
                  insnstr                 curs_insstr(3X)
                  insstr                  curs_insstr(3X)
                  instr                   curs_instr(3X)
                  intrflush               curs_inopts(3X)
                  is_linetouched          curs_touch(3X)
                  is_wintouched           curs_touch(3X)
                  isendwin                curs_initscr(3X)
                  keybound                keybound(3X)*
                  keyname                 curs_util(3X)
                  keyok                   keyok(3X)*
                  keypad                  curs_inopts(3X)
                  killchar                curs_termattrs(3X)
                  leaveok                 curs_outopts(3X)
                  longname                curs_termattrs(3X)
                  mcprint                 curs_print(3X)*
                  meta                    curs_inopts(3X)
                  mouse_trafo             curs_mouse(3X)*
                  mouseinterval           curs_mouse(3X)*
                  mousemask               curs_mouse(3X)*
                  move                    curs_move(3X)
                  mvaddch                 curs_addch(3X)
                  mvaddchnstr             curs_addchstr(3X)
                  mvaddchstr              curs_addchstr(3X)
                  mvaddnstr               curs_addstr(3X)
                  mvaddstr                curs_addstr(3X)
                  mvchgat                 curs_attr(3X)
                  mvcur                   curs_terminfo(3X)
                  mvdelch                 curs_delch(3X)
                  mvderwin                curs_window(3X)
                  mvgetch                 curs_getch(3X)
                  mvgetnstr               curs_getstr(3X)
                  mvgetstr                curs_getstr(3X)
                  mvhline                 curs_border(3X)
                  mvinch                  curs_inch(3X)
                  mvinchnstr              curs_inchstr(3X)
                  mvinchstr               curs_inchstr(3X)
                  mvinnstr                curs_instr(3X)
                  mvinsch                 curs_insch(3X)
                  mvinsnstr               curs_insstr(3X)
                  mvinsstr                curs_insstr(3X)
                  mvinstr                 curs_instr(3X)
                  mvprintw                curs_printw(3X)
                  mvscanw                 curs_scanw(3X)
                  mvvline                 curs_border(3X)
                  mvwaddch                curs_addch(3X)
                  mvwaddchnstr            curs_addchstr(3X)
                  mvwaddchstr             curs_addchstr(3X)
                  mvwaddnstr              curs_addstr(3X)
                  mvwaddstr               curs_addstr(3X)
                  mvwchgat                curs_attr(3X)
                  mvwdelch                curs_delch(3X)
                  mvwgetch                curs_getch(3X)
                  mvwgetnstr              curs_getstr(3X)
                  mvwgetstr               curs_getstr(3X)
                  mvwhline                curs_border(3X)
                  mvwin                   curs_window(3X)
                  mvwinch                 curs_inch(3X)
                  mvwinchnstr             curs_inchstr(3X)
                  mvwinchstr              curs_inchstr(3X)
                  mvwinnstr               curs_instr(3X)
                  mvwinsch                curs_insch(3X)
                  mvwinsnstr              curs_insstr(3X)
                  mvwinsstr               curs_insstr(3X)
                  mvwinstr                curs_instr(3X)
                  mvwprintw               curs_printw(3X)
                  mvwscanw                curs_scanw(3X)
                  mvwvline                curs_border(3X)
                  napms                   curs_kernel(3X)
                  newpad                  curs_pad(3X)
                  newterm                 curs_initscr(3X)
                  newwin                  curs_window(3X)
                  nl                      curs_outopts(3X)
                  nocbreak                curs_inopts(3X)
                  nodelay                 curs_inopts(3X)
                  noecho                  curs_inopts(3X)
                  nonl                    curs_outopts(3X)
                  noqiflush               curs_inopts(3X)
                  noraw                   curs_inopts(3X)
                  notimeout               curs_inopts(3X)
                  overlay                 curs_overlay(3X)
                  overwrite               curs_overlay(3X)
                  pair_content            curs_color(3X)
                  pechochar               curs_pad(3X)
                  pnoutrefresh            curs_pad(3X)
                  prefresh                curs_pad(3X)
                  printw                  curs_printw(3X)
                  putp                    curs_terminfo(3X)
                  putwin                  curs_util(3X)
                  qiflush                 curs_inopts(3X)
                  raw                     curs_inopts(3X)
                  redrawwin               curs_refresh(3X)
                  refresh                 curs_refresh(3X)
                  reset_prog_mode         curs_kernel(3X)
                  reset_shell_mode        curs_kernel(3X)
                  resetty                 curs_kernel(3X)
                  resizeterm              resizeterm(3X)*
                  restartterm             curs_terminfo(3X)
                  ripoffline              curs_kernel(3X)
                  savetty                 curs_kernel(3X)
                  scanw                   curs_scanw(3X)
                  scr_dump                curs_scr_dump(3X)
                  scr_init                curs_scr_dump(3X)
                  scr_restore             curs_scr_dump(3X)
                  scr_set                 curs_scr_dump(3X)
                  scrl                    curs_scroll(3X)
                  scroll                  curs_scroll(3X)
                  scrollok                curs_outopts(3X)
                  set_curterm             curs_terminfo(3X)
                  set_term                curs_initscr(3X)
                  setscrreg               curs_outopts(3X)
                  setsyx                  curs_kernel(3X)
                  setterm                 curs_terminfo(3X)
                  setupterm               curs_terminfo(3X)
                  slk_attr                curs_slk(3X)*
                  slk_attr_off            curs_slk(3X)
                  slk_attr_on             curs_slk(3X)
                  slk_attr_set            curs_slk(3X)
                  slk_attroff             curs_slk(3X)
                  slk_attron              curs_slk(3X)
                  slk_attrset             curs_slk(3X)
                  slk_clear               curs_slk(3X)
                  slk_color               curs_slk(3X)
                  slk_init                curs_slk(3X)
                  slk_label               curs_slk(3X)
                  slk_noutrefresh         curs_slk(3X)
                  slk_refresh             curs_slk(3X)
                  slk_restore             curs_slk(3X)
                  slk_set                 curs_slk(3X)
                  slk_touch               curs_slk(3X)
                  standend                curs_attr(3X)
                  standout                curs_attr(3X)
                  start_color             curs_color(3X)
                  subpad                  curs_pad(3X)
                  subwin                  curs_window(3X)
                  syncok                  curs_window(3X)
                  termattrs               curs_termattrs(3X)
                  termname                curs_termattrs(3X)
                  tgetent                 curs_termcap(3X)
                  tgetflag                curs_termcap(3X)
                  tgetnum                 curs_termcap(3X)
                  tgetstr                 curs_termcap(3X)
                  tgoto                   curs_termcap(3X)
                  tigetflag               curs_terminfo(3X)
                  tigetnum                curs_terminfo(3X)
                  tigetstr                curs_terminfo(3X)
                  timeout                 curs_inopts(3X)
                  touchline               curs_touch(3X)
                  touchwin                curs_touch(3X)
                  tparm                   curs_terminfo(3X)
                  tputs                   curs_termcap(3X)
                  tputs                   curs_terminfo(3X)
                  trace                   curs_trace(3X)*
                  typeahead               curs_inopts(3X)
                  unctrl                  curs_util(3X)
                  ungetch                 curs_getch(3X)
                  ungetmouse              curs_mouse(3X)*
                  untouchwin              curs_touch(3X)
                  use_default_colors      dft_fgbg(3X)*
                  use_env                 curs_util(3X)
                  use_extended_names      curs_extend(3X)*
                  vidattr                 curs_terminfo(3X)
                  vidputs                 curs_terminfo(3X)
                  vline                   curs_border(3X)
                  vw_printw               curs_printw(3X)
                  vw_scanw                curs_scanw(3X)
                  vwprintw                curs_printw(3X)
                  vwscanw                 curs_scanw(3X)
                  waddch                  curs_addch(3X)
                  waddchnstr              curs_addchstr(3X)
                  waddchstr               curs_addchstr(3X)
                  waddnstr                curs_addstr(3X)
                  waddstr                 curs_addstr(3X)
                  wattr_get               curs_attr(3X)
                  wattr_off               curs_attr(3X)
                  wattr_on                curs_attr(3X)
                  wattr_set               curs_attr(3X)
                  wattroff                curs_attr(3X)
                  wattron                 curs_attr(3X)
                  wattrset                curs_attr(3X)
                  wbkgd                   curs_bkgd(3X)
                  wbkgdset                curs_bkgd(3X)
                  wborder                 curs_border(3X)
                  wchgat                  curs_attr(3X)
                  wclear                  curs_clear(3X)
                  wclrtobot               curs_clear(3X)
                  wclrtoeol               curs_clear(3X)
                  wcolor_set              curs_attr(3X)
                  wcursyncup              curs_window(3X)
                  wdelch                  curs_delch(3X)
                  wdeleteln               curs_deleteln(3X)
                  wechochar               curs_addch(3X)
                  wenclose                curs_mouse(3X)*
                  werase                  curs_clear(3X)
                  wgetch                  curs_getch(3X)
                  wgetnstr                curs_getstr(3X)
                  wgetstr                 curs_getstr(3X)
                  whline                  curs_border(3X)
                  winch                   curs_inch(3X)
                  winchnstr               curs_inchstr(3X)
                  winchstr                curs_inchstr(3X)
                  winnstr                 curs_instr(3X)
                  winsch                  curs_insch(3X)
                  winsdelln               curs_deleteln(3X)
                  winsertln               curs_deleteln(3X)
                  winsnstr                curs_insstr(3X)
                  winsstr                 curs_insstr(3X)
                  winstr                  curs_instr(3X)
                  wmouse_trafo            curs_mouse(3X)*
                  wmove                   curs_move(3X)
                  wnoutrefresh            curs_refresh(3X)
                  wprintw                 curs_printw(3X)
                  wredrawln               curs_refresh(3X)
                  wrefresh                curs_refresh(3X)
                  wresize                 wresize(3X)*
                  wscanw                  curs_scanw(3X)
                  wscrl                   curs_scroll(3X)
                  wsetscrreg              curs_outopts(3X)
                  wstandend               curs_attr(3X)
                  wstandout               curs_attr(3X)
                  wsyncdown               curs_window(3X)
                  wsyncup                 curs_window(3X)
                  wtimeout                curs_inopts(3X)
                  wtouchln                curs_touch(3X)
                  wvline                  curs_border(3X)
         Routines that return an integer return ERR upon failure  and
         an  integer value other than ERR upon successful completion,
         unless otherwise noted in the routine descriptions.
         All macros  return  the  value  of  the  w  version,  except
         setscrreg,   wsetscrreg,  getyx,  getbegyx,  getmaxyx.   The
         return values of setscrreg, wsetscrreg, getyx, getbegyx, and
         getmaxyx  are  undefined  (i.e., these should not be used as
         the right-hand side of assignment statements).
         Routines that return pointers return NULL on error.
         The following environment symbols are useful for customizing
         the  runtime  behavior  of  the  ncurses  library.  The most
         important ones have been already discussed in detail.
              The debugging library checks  this  environment  symbol
              when  the  application has redirected output to a file.
              The symbol's numeric value is used  for  the  baudrate.
              If  no  value  is found ncurses uses 9600.  This allows
              testers to construct repeatable  test-cases  that  take
              into account costs that depend on baudrate.
         CC   When set, change occurrences of  the  command_character
              (i.e.,  the  cmdch  capability)  of the loaded terminfo
              entries to the value of this symbol.  Very few terminfo
              entries provide this feature.
              Specify  the  width  of  the  screen   in   characters.
              Applications running in a windowing environment usually
              are able to obtain the width of  the  window  in  which
              they  are executing.  If neither the $COLUMNS value nor
              the terminal's screen size is available,  ncurses  uses
              the  size  which  may  be  specified  in  the  terminfo
              database (i.e., the cols capability).
              It is important that your  application  use  a  correct
              size  for  the  screen.   However,  this  is not always
              possible because your application may be running  on  a
              host  which  does  not  honor  NAWS (Negotiations About
              Window Size), or because you are temporarily running as
              another user.
              Either  COLUMNS  or  LINES  symbols  may  be  specified
              independently.   This  is  mainly  useful to circumvent
              legacy  misfeatures  of  terminal  descriptions,  e.g.,
              xterm  which  commonly specifies a 65 line screen.  For
              best results, lines and cols should not be specified in
              a  terminal  description for terminals which are run as
              Use the use_env function to disable this feature.
              Specifies the total time, in  milliseconds,  for  which
              ncurses  will  await  a  character  sequence,  e.g.,  a
              function key.  The default value, 1000 milliseconds, is
              enough  for  most uses.  However, it is made a variable
              to accommodate unusual applications.
              The most common instance where you may wish  to  change
              this value is to work with slow hosts, e.g., running on
              a network.  If the host cannot read characters  rapidly
              enough, it will have the same effect as if the terminal
              did not send characters rapidly  enough.   The  library
              will still see a timeout.
              Note  that  xterm  mouse  events  are  built  up   from
              character  sequences  received from the xterm.  If your
              application makes heavy use of  multiple-clicking,  you
              may  wish  to  lengthen  this default value because the
              timeout applies to the composed  multi-click  event  as
              well as the individual clicks.
         HOME Tells ncurses where your home directory  is.   That  is
              where   it   may  read  and  write  auxiliary  terminal
              Like COLUMNS, specify  the  height  of  the  screen  in
              characters.  See COLUMNS for a detailed description.
              This applies only to the OS/2 EMX port.   It  specifies
              the  order  of buttons on the mouse.  OS/2 numbers a 3-
              button mouse inconsistently from other platforms:
              1 = left
              2 = right
              3 = middle.
              This symbol lets you customize the mouse.   The  symbol
              must  be  three  numeric digits 1-3 in any order, e.g.,
              123 or 321.  If it is not specified, ncurses uses 132.
              Most of  the  terminal  descriptions  in  the  terminfo
              database  are  written  for  real "hardware" terminals.
              Many people use  terminal  emulators  which  run  in  a
              windowing     environment    and    use    curses-based
              applications.  Terminal emulators can duplicate all  of
              the  important aspects of a hardware terminal, but they
              do not have the same limitations.  The chief limitation
              of  a  hardware  terminal  from  the standpoint of your
              application  is  the  management  of  dataflow,   i.e.,
              timing.   Unless a hardware terminal is interfaced into
              a terminal concentrator (which does flow  control),  it
              (or  your application) must manage dataflow, preventing
              overruns.  The cheapest solution (no hardware cost)  is
              for your program to do this by pausing after operations
              that the terminal does slowly,  such  as  clearing  the
              As a result, many terminal descriptions (including  the
              vt100)  have delay times embedded.  You may wish to use
              these descriptions, but not want to pay the performance
              Set the NCURSES_NO_PADDING symbol to  disable  all  but
              mandatory padding.  Mandatory padding is used as a part
              of special control sequences such as flash.
              Normally  ncurses  enables   buffered   output   during
              terminal  initialization.   This  is  done  (as in SVr4
              curses) for performance reasons.  For testing purposes,
              both  of ncurses and certain applications, this feature
              is  made  optional.   Setting   the   NCURSES_NO_SETBUF
              variable  disables output buffering, leaving the output
              in the original (usually line buffered) mode.
              During initialization, the  ncurses  debugging  library
              checks  the NCURSES_TRACE symbol.  If it is defined, to
              a numeric value,  ncurses  calls  the  trace  function,
              using that value as the argument.
              The argument values, which  are  defined  in  curses.h,
              provide  several  types  of  information.  When running
              with traces enabled, your application  will  write  the
              file trace to the current directory.
         TERM Denotes your terminal  type.   Each  terminal  type  is
              distinct, though many are similar.
              If the ncurses library has been configured with termcap
              support,   ncurses   will   check   for   a  terminal's
              description in termcap form if it is not  available  in
              the terminfo database.
              The  TERMCAP  symbol   contains   either   a   terminal
              description  (with  newlines  stripped  out), or a file
              name telling where the information denoted by the  TERM
              symbol  exists.   In  either  case,  setting it directs
              ncurses to ignore the usual place for this information,
              e.g., /etc/termcap.
              Overrides the directory in which ncurses  searches  for
              your  terminal  description.  This is the simplest, but
              not the only way to change  the  list  of  directories.
              The complete list of directories in order follows:
              -  the last directory to which ncurses wrote,  if  any,
                 is searched first.
              -  the directory specified by the TERMINFO symbol
              -  $HOME/.terminfo
              -  directories listed in the TERMINFO_DIRS symbol
              -  one or more directories whose names  are  configured
                 and   compiled   into  the  ncurses  library,  e.g.,
              Specifies a list of directories to search for  terminal
              descriptions.   The  list is separated by colons (i.e.,
              ":").  All of the terminal descriptions are in terminfo
              form,  which  makes  a subdirectory named for the first
              letter of the terminal names therein.
              If TERMCAP does not  hold  a  file  name  then  ncurses
              checks   the  TERMPATH  symbol.   This  is  a  list  of
              filenames separated by  colons  (i.e.,  ":").   If  the
              TERMPATH  symbol is not set, ncurses looks in the files
              /etc/termcap,        /usr/share/misc/termcap        and
              $HOME/.termcap, in that order.
              directory  containing  initialization  files  for   the
              terminal  capability  database  /opt/sfw/share/terminfo
              terminal capability database
         terminfo(5) and 3X  pages  whose  names  begin  "curs_"  for
         detailed routine descriptions.
         The ncurses library  can  be  compiled  with  an  option  (-
         DUSE_GETCAP)  that  falls back to the old-style /etc/termcap
         file if the terminal setup code cannot find a terminfo entry
         corresponding   to   TERM.   Use  of  this  feature  is  not
         recommended, as it essentially includes  an  entire  termcap
         compiler in the ncurses startup code, at significant cost in
         core and startup cycles.
         The ncurses library includes facilities for capturing  mouse
         events  on  certain  terminals  (including  xterm).  See the
         curs_mouse(3X) manual page for details.
         The ncurses library includes facilities  for  responding  to
         window resizing events, e.g., when running in an xterm.  See
         the resizeterm(3X) and wresize(3X) manual pages for details.
         In  addition,  the library may be configured with a SIGWINCH
         The ncurses library extends the fixed set  of  function  key
         capabilities   of  terminals  by  allowing  the  application
         designer to define additional key sequences at runtime.  See
         the define_key(3X) and keyok(3X) manual pages for details.
         The  ncurses  library  can  exploit  the   capabilities   of
         terminals  which  implement  the  ISO-6429 SGR 39 and SGR 49
         controls, which allow an application to reset  the  terminal
         to  its original foreground and background colors.  From the
         users' perspective, the application is able to draw  colored
         text  on  a  background  whose  color  is set independently,
         providing better control  over  color  contrasts.   See  the
         use_default_colors(3X) manual page for details.
         The  ncurses  library  includes  a  function  for  directing
         application  output  to  a  printer attached to the terminal
         device.  See the curs_print(3X) manual page for details.
         The ncurses library is intended to be BASE-level  conformant
         with  the  XSI  Curses  standard.   Certain  portions of the
         EXTENDED XSI Curses functionality (including color  support)
         are  supported.   The following EXTENDED XSI Curses calls in
         support  of  wide  (multibyte)  characters   are   not   yet
         implemented:   add_wch,  add_wchnstr,  add_wchstr, addnwstr,
         addwstr, bkgrnd, bkgrndset, border_set, box_set, echo_wchar,
         erasewchar,    get_wch,   get_wstr,   getbkgrnd,   getcchar,
         getn_wstr,  getwchtype,   hline_set,   in_wch,   in_wchnstr,
         in_wchstr, innwstr, ins_nwstr, ins_wch, ins_wstr, inwchnstr,
         inwchstr,   inwstr,    key_name,    killwchar,    mvadd_wch,
         mvadd_wchnstr,    mvadd_wchstr,    mvaddnwstr,    mvaddwstr,
         mvget_wch, mvget_wstr, mvgetn_wstr,  mvhline_set,  mvin_wch,
         mvinnwstr,  mvins_nwstr, mvins_wch, mvins_wstr, mvinwchnstr,
         mvinwchstr, mvinwchstr, mvinwstr,  mvvline_set,  mvwadd_wch,
         mvwadd_wchnstr,   mvwadd_wchstr,   mvwaddnwstr,  mvwaddwstr,
         mvwget_ch,    mvwget_wch,     mvwget_wstr,     mvwgetn_wstr,
         mvwhline_set,    mvwin_wch,   mvwin_wchnstr,   mvwin_wchstr,
         mvwinnwstr,    mvwins_nwstr,    mvwins_wch,     mvwins_wstr,
         mvwinwchnstr.     mvwinwstr,    mvwvline_set,   pecho_wchar,
         setcchar,  slk_wset,  term_attrs,   unget_wch,   vhline_set,
         vid_attr,   vid_puts,   vline_set,  wadd_wch,  wadd_wchnstr,
         wadd_wchstr,   waddnwstr,   waddwstr,   waddwstr,   wbkgrnd,
         wbkgrndset,     wbkgrndset,     wborder_set,    wecho_wchar,
         wecho_wchar, wget_wch,  wget_wstr,  wgetbkgrnd,  wgetn_wstr,
         whline_set,   win_wch,  win_wchnstr,  win_wchstr,  winnwstr,
         wins_nwstr,  wins_wch,  wins_wstr,  winwchnstr,   winwchstr,
         winwstr, wunctrl, wvline_set,
         A small number of local  differences  (that  is,  individual
         differences  between  the  XSI Curses and ncurses calls) are
         described in PORTABILITY sections of the library man pages.
         The routine has_key is not part of XPG4, nor is  it  present
         in SVr4.  See the curs_getch(3X) manual page for details.
         The routine slk_attr is not part of XPG4, nor is it  present
         in SVr4.  See the curs_slk(3X) manual page for details.
         The routines getmouse, mousemask, ungetmouse, mouseinterval,
         and  wenclose  relating to mouse interfacing are not part of
         XPG4, nor are they present in SVr4.  See the  curs_mouse(3X)
         manual page for details.
         The routine mcprint was not present in any  previous  curses
         implementation.   See  the  curs_print(3X)  manual  page for
         The routine wresize is not part of XPG4, nor is  it  present
         in SVr4.  See the wresize(3X) manual page for details.
         In  historic  curses  versions,  delays  embedded   in   the
         capabilities   cr,   ind,   cub1,   ff   and  tab  activated
         corresponding delay bits in the UNIX tty  driver.   In  this
         implementation,  all  padding  is  done  by NUL sends.  This
         method is slightly more expensive, but narrows the interface
         to the UNIX kernel significantly and increases the package's
         portability correspondingly.
         In the XSI standard and SVr4 manual pages, many entry points
         have  prototype arguments of the for char *const (or cchar_t
         *const, or wchar_t *const, or void  *const).   Depending  on
         one's  interpretation  of  the  ANSI C standard (see section, these declarations are either (a) meaningless,  or
         (b)  meaningless and illegal.  The declaration const char *x
         is a modifiable  pointer  to  unmodifiable  data,  but  char
         *const  x'  is  an  unmodifiable pointer to modifiable data.
         Given that C passes arguments by value, <type> *const  as  a
         formal type is at best dubious.  Some compilers choke on the
         prototypes.  Therefore, in this  implementation,  they  have
         been changed to const <type> * globally.
         The header file <curses.h> automatically includes the header
         files <stdio.h> and <unctrl.h>.
         If standard output from a ncurses program is re-directed  to
         something  which  is  not  a  tty,  screen  updates  will be
         directed  to  standard  error.   This  was  an  undocumented
         feature of AT&T System V Release 3 curses.
         Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based
         on pcurses by Pavel Curtis.

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