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Интерактивная система просмотра системных руководств (man-ов)

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less (1)
  • >> less (1) ( Solaris man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • less (1) ( FreeBSD man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • less (1) ( Linux man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • less (3) ( Solaris man: Библиотечные вызовы )
  • less (3) ( Linux man: Библиотечные вызовы )
  • Ключ less обнаружен в базе ключевых слов.
  • 
    NAME
         less - opposite of more
    
    SYNOPSIS
         less -?
         less --help
         less -V
         less --version
         less [-[+]aBcCdeEfgGiImMnNqQrsSuUVwX]
              [-b bufs] [-h lines] [-j line] [-k keyfile]
              [-{oO} logfile] [-p pattern] [-P prompt] [-t tag]
              [-T tagsfile] [-x tab] [-y lines] [-[z] lines]
              [+[+]cmd] [--] [filename]...
         (See the OPTIONS section for alternate  option  syntax  with
         long option names.)
    
    
    DESCRIPTION
         Less is a program similar to  more  (1),  but  which  allows
         backward  movement  in the file as well as forward movement.
         Also, less does not have  to  read  the  entire  input  file
         before starting, so with large input files it starts up fas-
         ter than text editors like vi (1).  Less  uses  termcap  (or
         terminfo  on  some  systems),  so it can run on a variety of
         terminals.  There is even limited support for hardcopy  ter-
         minals.   (On  a  hardcopy  terminal,  lines which should be
         printed at the top of the screen are prefixed with a caret.)
    
         Commands are based on both more and vi. Commands may be pre-
         ceded  by  a  decimal  number,  called N in the descriptions
         below.  The number is used by some commands, as indicated.
    
    
    COMMANDS
         In the following  descriptions,  ^X  means  control-X.   ESC
         stands  for  the ESCAPE key; for example ESC-v means the two
         character sequence "ESCAPE", then "v".
    
         h or H
              Help: display a summary of these commands.  If you for-
              get all the other commands, remember this one.
    
         SPACE or ^V or f or ^F
              Scroll forward N lines, default one window (see  option
              -z below).  If N is more than the screen size, only the
              final screenful is displayed.   Warning:  some  systems
              use ^V as a special literalization character.
    
         z    Like SPACE, but if N is specified, it becomes  the  new
              window size.
    
         ESC-SPACE
              Like SPACE, but scrolls a full screenful,  even  if  it
              reaches end-of-file in the process.
    
         RETURN or ^N or e or ^E or j or ^J
              Scroll forward N lines, default 1.  The entire N  lines
              are displayed, even if N is more than the screen size.
    
         d or ^D
              Scroll forward N lines, default one half of the  screen
              size.   If  N  is specified, it becomes the new default
              for subsequent d and u commands.
    
         b or ^B or ESC-v
              Scroll backward N lines, default one window (see option
              -z below).  If N is more than the screen size, only the
              final screenful is displayed.
    
         w    Like ESC-v, but if N is specified, it becomes  the  new
              window size.
    
         y or ^Y or ^P or k or ^K
              Scroll backward N lines, default 1.  The entire N lines
              are  displayed, even if N is more than the screen size.
              Warning: some systems use ^Y as a special  job  control
              character.
    
         u or ^U
              Scroll backward N lines, default one half of the screen
              size.   If  N  is specified, it becomes the new default
              for subsequent d and u commands.
    
         ESC-) or RIGHTARROW
              Scroll horizontally  right  N  characters,  default  8.
              This  behaves  best if you also set the -S option (chop
              lines).  Note that if you wish to enter a number N, you
              must  use  ESC-),  not RIGHTARROW, because the arrow is
              taken to be a line editing command (see the LINE  EDIT-
              ING section).
    
         ESC-( or LEFTARROW
              Scroll horizontally left N characters, default 8.
    
         r or ^R or ^L
              Repaint the screen.
    
         R    Repaint the  screen,  discarding  any  buffered  input.
              Useful  if  the  file  is  changing  while  it is being
              viewed.
    
         F    Scroll forward, and keep trying to read when the end of
              file  is  reached.  Normally this command would be used
              when already at the end of the file.  It is  a  way  to
              monitor the tail of a file which is growing while it is
              being viewed.  (The behavior is similar  to  the  "tail
              -f" command.)
    
         g or < or ESC-<
              Go to line N in  the  file,  default  1  (beginning  of
              file).  (Warning: this may be slow if N is large.)
    
         G or > or ESC->
              Go to line N in the file, default the end of the  file.
              (Warning:  this  may  be slow if N is large, or if N is
              not specified and standard input, rather than  a  file,
              is being read.)
    
         p or %
              Go to a position N percent into the file.  N should  be
              between 0 and 100.
    
         {    If a  left  curly  bracket  appears  in  the  top  line
              displayed  on  the screen, the { command will go to the
              matching right curly bracket.  The matching right curly
              bracket is positioned on the bottom line of the screen.
              If there is more than one left curly bracket on the top
              line,  a  number  N  may  be  used  to specify the N-th
              bracket on the line.
    
         }    If a right curly bracket appears  in  the  bottom  line
              displayed  on  the screen, the } command will go to the
              matching left curly bracket.  The matching  left  curly
              bracket  is  positioned  on the top line of the screen.
              If there is more than one right curly  bracket  on  the
              top  line,  a  number N may be used to specify the N-th
              bracket on the line.
    
         (    Like {, but applies to parentheses  rather  than  curly
              brackets.
    
         )    Like }, but applies to parentheses  rather  than  curly
              brackets.
    
         [    Like {, but applies  to  square  brackets  rather  than
              curly brackets.
    
         ]    Like }, but applies  to  square  brackets  rather  than
              curly brackets.
    
         ESC-^F
              Followed by two characters, acts like {, but  uses  the
              two  characters  as  open  and  close brackets, respec-
              tively.  For example, "ESC ^F < >" could be used to  go
              forward  to  the  >  which  matches  the  <  in the top
              displayed line.
    
         ESC-^B
              Followed by two characters, acts like }, but  uses  the
              two  characters  as  open  and  close brackets, respec-
              tively.  For example, "ESC ^B < >" could be used to  go
              backward  to  the  <  which matches the > in the bottom
              displayed line.
    
         m    Followed by any lowercase  letter,  marks  the  current
              position with that letter.
    
         '    (Single quote.)   Followed  by  any  lowercase  letter,
              returns  to  the  position  which was previously marked
              with that letter.  Followed by  another  single  quote,
              returns to the position at which the last "large" move-
              ment command was executed.  Followed by a ^ or $, jumps
              to  the  beginning  or  end  of  the file respectively.
              Marks are preserved when a new file is examined, so the
              ' command can be used to switch between input files.
    
         ^X^X Same as single quote.
    
         /pattern
              Search forward in the file for the N-th line containing
              the  pattern.  N defaults to 1.  The pattern is a regu-
              lar expression, as recognized by ed. The search  starts
              at  the  second  line  displayed (but see the -a and -j
              options, which change this).
    
              Certain characters are special if entered at the begin-
              ning  of  the  pattern;  they modify the type of search
              rather than become part of the pattern:
    
              ^N or !
                   Search for lines which do NOT match the pattern.
    
              ^E or *
                   Search multiple files.  That  is,  if  the  search
                   reaches  the END of the current file without find-
                   ing a match, the search continues in the next file
                   in the command line list.
    
              ^F or @
                   Begin the search at the first line  of  the  FIRST
                   file  in the command line list, regardless of what
                   is currently displayed on the screen or  the  set-
                   tings of the -a or -j options.
    
              ^K   Highlight any text which matches  the  pattern  on
                   the  current  screen,  but don't move to the first
                   match (KEEP current position).
    
              ^R   Don't interpret regular expression metacharacters;
                   that is, do a simple textual comparison.
    
         ?pattern
              Search backward in the file for the N-th line  contain-
              ing the pattern.  The search starts at the line immedi-
              ately before the top line displayed.
    
              Certain characters are special as in the / command:
    
              ^N or !
                   Search for lines which do NOT match the pattern.
    
              ^E or *
                   Search multiple files.  That  is,  if  the  search
                   reaches  the beginning of the current file without
                   finding a match, the search continues in the  pre-
                   vious file in the command line list.
    
              ^F or @
                   Begin the search at the last line of the last file
                   in  the  command  line list, regardless of what is
                   currently displayed on the screen or the  settings
                   of the -a or -j options.
    
              ^K   As in forward searches.
    
              ^R   As in forward searches.
    
         ESC-/pattern
              Same as "/*".
    
         ESC-?pattern
              Same as "?*".
    
         n    Repeat previous search, for N-th  line  containing  the
              last  pattern.   If the previous search was modified by
              ^N, the search is made for the N-th line NOT containing
              the  pattern.   If  the previous search was modified by
              ^E, the search continues in the next (or previous) file
              if  not satisfied in the current file.  If the previous
              search was modified by ^R, the search is  done  without
              using  regular  expressions.  There is no effect if the
              previous search was modified by ^F or ^K.
    
         N    Repeat previous search, but in the reverse direction.
    
         ESC-n
              Repeat previous search, but crossing  file  boundaries.
              The  effect  is as if the previous search were modified
              by *.
    
         ESC-N
              Repeat previous search, but in  the  reverse  direction
              and crossing file boundaries.
    
         ESC-u
              Undo search highlighting.   Turn  off  highlighting  of
              strings   matching   the  current  search  pattern.  If
              highlighting is already off because of a previous ESC-u
              command, turn highlighting back on.  Any search command
              will also turn highlighting back on.  (Highlighting can
              also  be  disabled  by  toggling the -G option; in that
              case search commands do not turn highlighting back on.)
    
         :e [filename]
              Examine a new file.  If the filename  is  missing,  the
              "current"  file (see the :n and :p commands below) from
              the list of files in the command line  is  re-examined.
              A  percent  sign (%) in the filename is replaced by the
              name of the current file. A pound sign (#) is  replaced
              by  the name of the previously examined file.  However,
              two consecutive percent signs are simply replaced  with
              a  single  percent  sign.  This  allows  you to enter a
              filename that contains a  percent  sign  in  the  name.
              Similarly,  two  consecutive  pound  signs are replaced
              with a single pound sign.   The  filename  is  inserted
              into  the  command line list of files so that it can be
              seen by subsequent :n and :p commands.  If the filename
              consists  of  several files, they are all inserted into
              the list of files and the first one  is  examined.   If
              the  filename  contains  one or more spaces, the entire
              filename should be enclosed in double quotes (also  see
              the -" option).
    
         ^X^V or E
              Same as :e.  Warning: some systems use ^V as a  special
              literalization character.  On such systems, you may not
              be able to use ^V.
    
         :n   Examine the next file (from the list of files given  in
              the  command line).  If a number N is specified, the N-
              th next file is examined.
    
         :p   Examine the previous file in the command line list.  If
              a  number  N  is  specified,  the N-th previous file is
              examined.
    
         :x   Examine the first file in the command line list.  If  a
              number  N  is  specified,  the N-th file in the list is
              examined.
    
         :d   Remove the current file from the list of files.
    
         = or ^G or :f
              Prints some information about the  file  being  viewed,
              including  its name and the line number and byte offset
              of the bottom line being displayed.   If  possible,  it
              also prints the length of the file, the number of lines
              in the file and the percent of the file above the  last
              displayed line.
    
         -    Followed by one of the command line option letters (see
              OPTIONS  below),  this  will change the setting of that
              option and print a message describing the new  setting.
              If  a  ^P  (CONTROL-P) is entered immediately after the
              dash, the setting of the option is changed but no  mes-
              sage  is  printed.   If the option letter has a numeric
              value (such as -b or -h), or a string value (such as -P
              or  -t),  a  new  value may be entered after the option
              letter.  If no new value is entered, a message describ-
              ing  the  current  setting  is  printed  and nothing is
              changed.
    
         --   Like the - command, but takes a long option  name  (see
              OPTIONS below) rather than a single option letter.  You
              must press RETURN after typing the option name.   A  ^P
              immediately  after  the second dash suppresses printing
              of a message describing the new setting, as  in  the  -
              command.
    
         -+   Followed by one of the command line option letters this
              will  reset the option to its default setting and print
              a message describing the new setting.  (The "-+X"  com-
              mand does the same thing as "-+X" on the command line.)
              This does not work for string-valued options.
    
         --+  Like the -+ command,  but  takes  a  long  option  name
              rather than a single option letter.
    
         -!   Followed by one of the  command  line  option  letters,
              this  will  reset  the  option to the "opposite" of its
              default setting and print a message describing the  new
              setting.   This  does  not  work for numeric or string-
              valued options.
    
         --!  Like the -! command,  but  takes  a  long  option  name
              rather than a single option letter.
    
         _    (Underscore.)  Followed by  one  of  the  command  line
              option  letters,  this  will print a message describing
              the current setting of that option.  The setting of the
              option is not changed.
    
         __   (Double underscore.)  Like the _ (underscore)  command,
              but  takes  a  long  option  name  rather than a single
              option letter.  You must press RETURN after typing  the
              option name.
    
         +cmd Causes the specified cmd to be executed each time a new
              file  is examined.  For example, +G causes less to ini-
              tially display each file starting  at  the  end  rather
              than the beginning.
    
         V    Prints the version number of less being run.
    
         q or Q or :q or :Q or ZZ
              Exits less.
    
         The following four commands may or may not be valid, depend-
         ing on your particular installation.
    
         v    Invokes an  editor  to  edit  the  current  file  being
              viewed.  The editor is taken from the environment vari-
              able VISUAL if defined, or  EDITOR  if  VISUAL  is  not
              defined, or defaults to "vi" if neither VISUAL nor EDI-
              TOR is defined.  See also the  discussion  of  LESSEDIT
              under the section on PROMPTS below.
    
         ! shell-command
              Invokes a shell to run the shell-command given.  A per-
              cent sign (%) in the command is replaced by the name of
              the current file. A pound sign (#) is replaced  by  the
              name of the previously examined file.  "!!" repeats the
              last shell command.  "!" with no shell  command  simply
              invokes  a  shell.  On Unix systems, the shell is taken
              from the environment variable  SHELL,  or  defaults  to
              "sh".   On  MS-DOS  and  OS/2 systems, the shell is the
              normal command processor.
    
         | <m> shell-command
              <m> represents any mark letter.  Pipes a section of the
              input  file to the given shell command.  The section of
              the file to be piped is between the first line  on  the
              current  screen  and the position marked by the letter.
              <m> may also be ^ or $ to indicate beginning or end  of
              file respectively.  If <m> is . or newline, the current
              screen is piped.
    
         s filename
              Save the input to a file.  This only works if the input
              is a pipe, not an ordinary file.
    
    OPTIONS
         Command line options are described below.  Most options  may
         be changed while less is running, via the "-" command.
    
         Most options may be given in one of two forms: either a dash
         followed  by  a  single  letter, or two dashes followed by a
         long option name.  A long option name may be abbreviated  as
         long  as  the  abbreviation is unambiguous.  For example, --
         quit-at-eof may be abbreviated --quit, but not --qui,  since
         both  --quit-at-eof and --quiet begin with --qui.  Some long
         option names are in uppercase,  such  as  --QUIT-AT-EOF,  as
         distinct  from  --quit-at-eof.   Such option names need only
         have their first letter capitalized; the  remainder  of  the
         name  may  be in either case.  For example, --Quit-at-eof is
         equivalent to --QUIT-AT-EOF.
    
         Options are also taken from the environment variable "LESS".
         For  example,  to avoid typing "less -options ..." each time
         less is invoked, you might tell csh:
    
         setenv LESS "-options"
    
         or if you use sh:
    
         LESS="-options"; export LESS
    
         On MS-DOS, you don't need the quotes, but you should replace
         any  percent  signs  in the options string by double percent
         signs.
    
         The environment variable is parsed before the command  line,
         so  command line options override the LESS environment vari-
         able.  If an option appears in the LESS variable, it can  be
         reset  to its default value on the command line by beginning
         the command line option with "-+".
    
         For options like -P or -D which take a following  string,  a
         dollar  sign  ($)  must  be  used  to  signal the end of the
         string.  For example, to set two -D options on  MS-DOS,  you
         must have a dollar sign between them, like this:
    
         LESS="-Dn9.1$-Ds4.1"
    
    
         -? or --help
              This option displays a summary of the commands accepted
              by less (the same as the h command).  (Depending on how
              your shell interprets the  question  mark,  it  may  be
              necessary to quote the question mark, thus: "-\?".)
    
         -a or --search-skip-screen
              Causes searches to start after the last line  displayed
              on the screen, thus skipping all lines displayed on the
              screen.  By default, searches start at the second  line
              on the screen (or after the last found line; see the -j
              option).
    
         -bn or --buffers=n
              Specifies the number of buffers less will use for  each
              file.   Buffers  are  1K, and by default 10 buffers are
              used for each file (except if the file is a  pipe;  see
              the  -B  option).   The  number n specifies a different
              number of buffers to use.
    
         -B or --auto-buffers
              By default, when data is read from a pipe, buffers  are
              allocated  automatically  as needed.  If a large amount
              of data is read from the pipe, this can cause  a  large
              amount  of  memory to be allocated.  The -B option dis-
              ables this automatic allocation of buffers  for  pipes,
              so  that only the number of buffers specified by the -b
              option are used.  Warning: use  of  -B  can  result  in
              erroneous  display, since only the most recently viewed
              part of the file is kept in memory; any earlier data is
              lost.
    
         -c or --clear-screen
              Causes full screen repaints to be painted from the  top
              line  down.   By default, full screen repaints are done
              by scrolling from the bottom of the screen.
    
         -C or --CLEAR-SCREEN
              The -C option is like -c, but  the  screen  is  cleared
              before it is repainted.
    
         -d or --dumb
              The -d option suppresses  the  error  message  normally
              displayed  if the terminal is dumb; that is, lacks some
              important capability, such as the ability to clear  the
              screen or scroll backward.  The -d option does not oth-
              erwise change the behavior of less on a dumb terminal).
    
         -Dxcolor or --color=xcolor
              [MS-DOS only] Sets the color of the text displayed.   x
              is  a  single  character which selects the type of text
              whose color is being set: n=normal, s=standout, d=bold,
              u=underlined,  k=blink.   color  is  a  pair of numbers
              separated by a period. The  first  number  selects  the
              foreground  color and the second selects the background
              color of the text.  A single number N is  the  same  as
              N.0.
    
         -e or --quit-at-eof
              Causes less to automatically exit the  second  time  it
              reaches  end-of-file.  By default, the only way to exit
              less is via the "q" command.
    
         -E or --QUIT-AT-EOF
              Causes less to automatically exit  the  first  time  it
              reaches end-of-file.
    
         -f or --force
              Forces non-regular files to be opened.  (A  non-regular
              file  is  a  directory or a device special file.)  Also
              suppresses the warning message when a  binary  file  is
              opened.   By  default,  less  will  refuse to open non-
              regular files.
    
         -g or --hilite-search
              Normally, less will highlight ALL strings  which  match
              the  last  search  command.  The -g option changes this
              behavior to highlight only the particular string  which
              was  found  by the last search command.  This can cause
              less to run somewhat faster than the default.
    
         -G or --HILITE-SEARCH
              The -G option suppresses all  highlighting  of  strings
              found by search commands.
    
         -hn or ---max-back-scroll=n
              Specifies a maximum number of lines to scroll backward.
              If  it  is  necessary  to  scroll  backward more than n
              lines, the screen is repainted in a  forward  direction
              instead.  (If the terminal does not have the ability to
              scroll backward, -h0 is implied.)
    
         -i or --ignore-case
              Causes searches to ignore case; that is, uppercase  and
              lowercase  are  considered  identical.   This option is
              ignored if any uppercase letters appear in  the  search
              pattern;  in  other words, if a pattern contains upper-
              case letters, then that search does not ignore case.
    
         -I or --IGNORE-CASE
              Like -i, but searches ignore case even if  the  pattern
              contains uppercase letters.
    
         -jn or --jump-target=n
              Specifies a line on the screen where the "target"  line
              is  to be positioned.  A target line is the object of a
              text search, tag search, jump to a line number, jump to
              a  file  percentage, or jump to a marked position.  The
              screen line is specified by a number: the top  line  on
              the  screen is 1, the next is 2, and so on.  The number
              may be negative to specify a line relative to the  bot-
              tom of the screen: the bottom line on the screen is -1,
              the second to the bottom is -2, and so on.  If  the  -j
              option  is used, searches begin at the line immediately
              after the target line.  For example, if "-j4" is  used,
              the  target  line  is the fourth line on the screen, so
              searches begin at the fifth line on the screen.
    
         -kfilename or --lesskey-file=filename
              Causes less to open and interpret the named file  as  a
              lesskey  (1)  file.   Multiple -k options may be speci-
              fied.  If the LESSKEY environment variable is  set,  or
              if a lesskey file is found in a standard place (see KEY
              BINDINGS), it is also used as a lesskey file.
    
         -m or --long-prompt
              Causes less to prompt verbosely (like more),  with  the
              percent into the file.  By default, less prompts with a
              colon.
    
         -M or --LONG-PROMPT
              Causes less to prompt even more verbosely than more.
    
         -n or --line-numbers
              Suppresses line numbers.   The  default  (to  use  line
              numbers)  may  cause  less  to  run more slowly in some
              cases,  especially  with  a  very  large  input   file.
              Suppressing  line numbers with the -n option will avoid
              this problem.   Using  line  numbers  means:  the  line
              number  will  be displayed in the verbose prompt and in
              the = command, and the v command will pass the  current
              line  number  to the editor (see also the discussion of
              LESSEDIT in PROMPTS below).
    
         -N or --LINE-NUMBERS
              Causes a line number to be displayed at  the  beginning
              of each line in the display.
    
         -ofilename or --log-file=filename
              Causes less to copy its input to the named file  as  it
              is being viewed.  This applies only when the input file
              is a pipe, not an ordinary file.  If the  file  already
              exists, less will ask for confirmation before overwrit-
              ing it.
    
         -Ofilename or --LOG-FILE=filename
              The -O option is like -o,  but  it  will  overwrite  an
              existing file without asking for confirmation.
    
              If no log file  has  been  specified,  the  -o  and  -O
              options  can  be used from within less to specify a log
              file.  Without a file name, they will simply report the
              name of the log file.  The "s" command is equivalent to
              specifying -o from within less.
    
         -ppattern or --pattern=pattern
              The -p option on the  command  line  is  equivalent  to
              specifying  +/pattern;  that is, it tells less to start
              at the first occurrence of pattern in the file.
    
         -Pprompt or --prompt=prompt
              Provides a way to tailor the  three  prompt  styles  to
              your own preference.  This option would normally be put
              in the LESS environment  variable,  rather  than  being
              typed  in  with each less command.  Such an option must
              either be the last option in the LESS variable,  or  be
              terminated  by a dollar sign.  -Ps followed by a string
              changes the default (short) prompt to that string.  -Pm
              changes  the  medium (-m) prompt.  -PM changes the long
              (-M) prompt.  -Ph  changes  the  prompt  for  the  help
              screen.   -P= changes the message printed by the = com-
              mand.  All prompt strings  consist  of  a  sequence  of
              letters  and special escape sequences.  See the section
              on PROMPTS for more details.
    
         -q or --quiet or --silent
              Causes moderately "quiet" operation:  the terminal bell
              is  not  rung  if an attempt is made to scroll past the
              end of the file or before the beginning  of  the  file.
              If  the  terminal  has  a  "visual  bell",  it  is used
              instead.  The  bell  will  be  rung  on  certain  other
              errors,  such  as  typing  an  invalid  character.  The
              default is to ring the terminal bell in all such cases.
    
         -Q or --QUIET or --SILENT
              Causes totally "quiet" operation:  the terminal bell is
              never rung.
    
         -r or --raw-control-chars
              Causes "raw" control characters to be  displayed.   The
              default  is  to  display  control  characters using the
              caret notation; for example, a control-A (octal 001) is
              displayed  as  "^A".   Warning:  when  the -r option is
              used, less cannot keep track of the  actual  appearance
              of  the  screen  (since  this depends on how the screen
              responds to each type  of  control  character).   Thus,
              various display problems may result, such as long lines
              being split in the wrong place.
    
         -s or --squeeze-blank-lines
              Causes consecutive blank lines to be  squeezed  into  a
              single  blank  line.  This is useful when viewing nroff
              output.
    
         -S or --chop-long-lines
              Causes lines longer than the screen width to be chopped
              rather  than  folded.  That is, the remainder of a long
              line is simply discarded.  The default is to fold  long
              lines; that is, display the remainder on the next line.
    
         -ttag or --tag=tag
              The -t option, followed immediately by a TAG, will edit
              the  file containing that tag.  For this to work, there
              must be a file called "tags" in the current  directory,
              which  was  previously  built by the ctags (1) command.
              This option may also  be  specified  from  within  less
              (using the - command) as a way of examining a new file.
              The command ":t" is equivalent to  specifying  -t  from
              within less.
    
         -Ttagsfile or --tag-file=tagsfile
              Specifies a tags file to be used instead of "tags".
    
         -u or --underline-special
              Causes backspaces and carriage returns to be treated as
              printable  characters;  that  is,  they are sent to the
              terminal when they appear in the input.
    
         -U or --UNDERLINE-SPECIAL
              Causes backspaces, tabs  and  carriage  returns  to  be
              treated  as  control characters; that is, they are han-
              dled as specified by the -r option.
    
              By default, if neither -u nor -U is  given,  backspaces
              which  appear  adjacent  to an underscore character are
              treated specially:  the underlined  text  is  displayed
              using  the  terminal's hardware underlining capability.
              Also, backspaces which  appear  between  two  identical
              characters  are  treated specially: the overstruck text
              is printed using the terminal's hardware boldface capa-
              bility.   Other  backspaces are deleted, along with the
              preceding character.  Carriage returns immediately fol-
              lowed by a newline are deleted.  other carriage returns
              are handled as specified by the -r option.  Text  which
              is overstruck or underlined can be searched for if nei-
              ther -u nor -U is in effect.
    
         -V or --version
              Displays the version number of less.
    
         -w or --hilite-unread
              Temporarily highlights the first  "new"  line  after  a
              forward  movement of a full page.  The first "new" line
              is the line immediately following the  line  previously
              at  the bottom of the screen.  The highlight is removed
              at the next command which causes movement.
    
         -W or --HILITE-UNREAD
              Like -w, but temporarily highlights the first new  line
              after  any  forward  movement  command  larger than one
              line.
    
         -xn or --tabs=n
              Sets tab stops every n positions.  The default for n is
              8.
    
         -X or --no-init
              Disables sending the termcap initialization and  deini-
              tialization strings to the terminal.  This is sometimes
              desirable if the deinitialization string does something
              unnecessary, like clearing the screen.
    
         -yn or --max-forw-scroll=n
              Specifies a maximum number of lines to scroll  forward.
              If it is necessary to scroll forward more than n lines,
              the screen is repainted instead.  The -c or  -C  option
              may  be  used  to repaint from the top of the screen if
              desired.   By  default,  any  forward  movement  causes
              scrolling.
    
         -[z]n or --window=n
              Changes the default scrolling window size to  n  lines.
              The default is one screenful.  The z and w commands can
              also be used to change the window size.  The "z" may be
              omitted for compatibility with more. If the number n is
              negative, it indicates n lines less  than  the  current
              screen  size.   For example, if the screen is 24 lines,
              -z-4 sets the scrolling window to  20  lines.   If  the
              screen  is  resized  to  40 lines, the scrolling window
              automatically changes to 36 lines.
    
         -"cc or --quotes=cc
              Changes the filename quoting character.   This  may  be
              necessary  if  you are trying to name a file which con-
              tains both spaces and quote characters.  Followed by  a
              single  character,  this changes the quote character to
              that character.  Filenames containing  a  space  should
              then  be  surrounded  by  that character rather than by
              double quotes.  Followed by two characters, changes the
              open  quote to the first character, and the close quote
              to the second character.  Filenames containing a  space
              should then be preceded by the open quote character and
              followed by the close quote character.  Note that  even
              after  the  quote  characters  are changed, this option
              remains -" (a dash followed by a double quote).
    
         -~ or --tilde
              Normally lines after end of file  are  displayed  as  a
              single  tilde  (~).  This option causes lines after end
              of file to be displayed as blank lines.
    
         --   A command line argument of "--" marks the end of option
              arguments.   Any  arguments  following  this are inter-
              preted as filenames.  This can be useful when viewing a
              file whose name begins with a "-" or "+".
    
         +    If a command line option begins with +,  the  remainder
              of  that  option  is  taken to be an initial command to
              less. For example, +G tells less to start at the end of
              the  file rather than the beginning, and +/xyz tells it
              to start at the first occurrence of "xyz" in the  file.
              As a special case, +<number> acts like +<number>g; that
              is, it starts the display at the specified line  number
              (however,  see the caveat under the "g" command above).
              If the option  starts  with  ++,  the  initial  command
              applies  to every file being viewed, not just the first
              one.  The + command described previously  may  also  be
              used  to  set  (or change) an initial command for every
              file.
    
    
    LINE EDITING
         When entering command line at the bottom of the screen  (for
         example, a filename for the :e command, or the pattern for a
         search command), certain keys can be used to manipulate  the
         command  line.   Most  commands  have an alternate form in [
         brackets ] which can be used if a key does not  exist  on  a
         particular keyboard. (The bracketed forms do not work in the
         MS-DOS version.)  Any of these special keys may  be  entered
         literally  by  preceding  it  with  the "literal" character,
         either ^V or ^A.  A backslash itself  may  also  be  entered
         literally by entering two backslashes.
    
         LEFTARROW [ ESC-h ]
              Move the cursor one space to the left.
    
         RIGHTARROW [ ESC-l ]
              Move the cursor one space to the right.
    
         ^LEFTARROW [ ESC-b or ESC-LEFTARROW ]
              (That is, CONTROL and LEFTARROW simultaneously.)   Move
              the cursor one word to the left.
    
         ^RIGHTARROW [ ESC-w or ESC-RIGHTARROW ]
              (That is, CONTROL and RIGHTARROW simultaneously.)  Move
              the cursor one word to the right.
    
         HOME [ ESC-0 ]
              Move the cursor to the beginning of the line.
    
         END [ ESC-$ ]
              Move the cursor to the end of the line.
    
         BACKSPACE
              Delete the character to the left of the cursor, or can-
              cel the command if the command line is empty.
    
         DELETE or [ ESC-x ]
              Delete the character under the cursor.
    
         ^BACKSPACE [ ESC-BACKSPACE ]
              (That  is,  CONTROL  and   BACKSPACE   simultaneously.)
              Delete the word to the left of the cursor.
    
         ^DELETE [ ESC-X or ESC-DELETE ]
              (That is, CONTROL and DELETE  simultaneously.)   Delete
              the word under the cursor.
    
         UPARROW [ ESC-k ]
              Retrieve the previous command line.
    
         DOWNARROW [ ESC-j ]
              Retrieve the next command line.
    
         TAB  Complete the partial filename to the left of  the  cur-
              sor.   If  it matches more than one filename, the first
              match is entered into the command line.  Repeated  TABs
              will  cycle  thru the other matching filenames.  If the
              completed filename is a directory, a "/" is appended to
              the  filename.  (On MS-DOS systems, a "\" is appended.)
              The environment variable LESSSEPARATOR can be  used  to
              specify  a different character to append to a directory
              name.
    
         BACKTAB [ ESC-TAB ]
              Like, TAB, but cycles in the reverse direction thru the
              matching filenames.
    
         ^L   Complete the partial filename to the left of  the  cur-
              sor.  If it matches more than one filename, all matches
              are entered into the command line (if they fit).
    
         ^U (Unix) or ESC (MS-DOS)
              Delete the entire command line, or cancel  the  command
              if the command line is empty.  If you have changed your
              line-kill character in Unix to something other than ^U,
              that character is used instead of ^U.
    
    
    KEY BINDINGS
         You may define your own less commands by using  the  program
         lesskey (1) to create a lesskey file.  This file specifies a
         set of command keys and an action associated with each  key.
         You  may  also  use  lesskey to change the line-editing keys
         (see LINE EDITING), and to set  environment  variables.   If
         the  environment  variable LESSKEY is set, less uses that as
         the name of the lesskey file.  Otherwise, less  looks  in  a
         standard  place for the lesskey file:  On Unix systems, less
         looks for a lesskey file called  "$HOME/.less".   On  MS-DOS
         systems, less looks for a lesskey file called "$HOME/_less",
         and if it is not found there, then looks for a lesskey  file
         called  "_less"  in  any  directory  specified  in  the PATH
         environment variable.  On OS/2 systems,  less  looks  for  a
         lesskey  file  called  "$HOME/less.ini",  and  if  it is not
         found, then looks for a lesskey file  called  "less.ini"  in
         any  directory  specified  in the INIT environment variable,
         and if it not found there, then looks  for  a  lesskey  file
         called  "less.ini"  in  any  directory specified in the PATH
         environment variable.  See the lesskey manual page for  more
         details.
    
    
    INPUT PREPROCESSOR
         You may define an "input preprocessor" for less. Before less
         opens  a  file,  it  first  gives  your input preprocessor a
         chance to modify the  way  the  contents  of  the  file  are
         displayed.   An  input  preprocessor is simply an executable
         program (or shell script), which writes the contents of  the
         file  to a different file, called the replacement file.  The
         contents of the replacement file are then displayed in place
         of  the  contents  of  the  original file.  However, it will
         appear to the user as if the original file is  opened;  that
         is,  less  will display the original filename as the name of
         the current file.
    
         An input preprocessor receives one  command  line  argument,
         the  original  filename,  as entered by the user.  It should
         create the replacement file, and when  finished,  print  the
         name of the replacement file to its standard output.  If the
         input preprocessor does not output a  replacement  filename,
         less  uses  the original file, as normal.  The input prepro-
         cessor is not called when viewing standard input.  To set up
         an input preprocessor, set the LESSOPEN environment variable
         to a command line which will invoke your input preprocessor.
         This  command  line  should  include  one  occurrence of the
         string "%s", which will be replaced by the filename when the
         input preprocessor command is invoked.
    
         When less closes a file opened in such a way, it  will  call
         another  program,  called the input postprocessor, which may
         perform any desired clean-up action (such  as  deleting  the
         replacement   file   created  by  LESSOPEN).   This  program
         receives two command line arguments, the  original  filename
         as  entered  by  the  user,  and the name of the replacement
         file.  To set up an input postprocessor, set  the  LESSCLOSE
         environment  variable  to  a  command line which will invoke
         your input postprocessor.  It may include two occurrences of
         the  string  "%s";  the  first is replaced with the original
         name of the file  and  the  second  with  the  name  of  the
         replacement file, which was output by LESSOPEN.
    
         For example, on many Unix systems, these  two  scripts  will
         allow  you to keep files in compressed format, but still let
         less view them directly:
         lessopen.sh:
              #! /bin/sh
              case "$1" in
              *.Z) uncompress -c $1  >/tmp/less.$$  2>/dev/null
                   if [ -s /tmp/less.$$ ]; then
                        echo /tmp/less.$$
                   else
                        rm -f /tmp/less.$$
                   fi
                   ;;
              esac
    
         lessclose.sh:
              #! /bin/sh
              rm $2
    
         To use these scripts, put them both where they can  be  exe-
         cuted     and     set     LESSOPEN="lessopen.sh %s",     and
         LESSCLOSE="lessclose.sh %s %s".  More complex  LESSOPEN  and
         LESSCLOSE  scripts  may  be written to accept other types of
         compressed files, and so on.
    
         It is also possible to set up an input preprocessor to  pipe
         the file data directly to less, rather than putting the data
         into a replacement file.  This avoids the need to decompress
         the  entire  file  before  starting  to  view  it.  An input
         preprocessor that works this way is called  an  input  pipe.
         An  input pipe, instead of writing the name of a replacement
         file on its standard output, writes the entire  contents  of
         the  replacement  file on its standard output.  If the input
         pipe does not write any characters on its  standard  output,
         then there is no replacement file and less uses the original
         file, as normal.  To use an input pipe, make the first char-
         acter  in  the  LESSOPEN environment variable a vertical bar
         (|) to signify that the input preprocessor is an input pipe.
    
         For example, on many Unix systems,  this  script  will  work
         like the previous example scripts:
    
         lesspipe.sh:
              #! /bin/sh
              case "$1" in
              *.Z) uncompress -c $1  2>/dev/null
                   ;;
              esac
    
         To use this script, put it where it can be executed and  set
         LESSOPEN="|lesspipe.sh  %s".   When an input pipe is used, a
         LESSCLOSE postprocessor can be used, but it is  usually  not
         necessary  since  there  is no replacement file to clean up.
         In this case, the replacement file name passed to the  LESS-
         CLOSE postprocessor is "-".
    
    NATIONAL CHARACTER SETS
         There are three types of characters in the input file:
    
         normal characters
              can be displayed directly to the screen.
    
         control characters
              should not be displayed directly, but are  expected  to
              be  found in ordinary text files (such as backspace and
              tab).
    
         binary characters
              should not be displayed directly and are  not  expected
              to be found in text files.
    
         A "character set" is simply a description of  which  charac-
         ters  are to be considered normal, control, and binary.  The
         LESSCHARSET environment variable may be  used  to  select  a
         character set.  Possible values for LESSCHARSET are:
    
         ascii
              The default  character  set.   BS,  TAB,  NL,  CR,  and
              formfeed  are control characters, all chars with values
              between 32 and 126  are  normal,  and  all  others  are
              binary.
    
         iso8859
              Selects the ISO 8859/1 character set.  latin-1  is  the
              same  as  ASCII,  except characters between 161 and 255
              are treated as normal characters.
    
         latin1
              Same as iso8859.
    
         dos  Selects a character set appropriate for MS-DOS.
    
         ebcdic
              Selects an EBCDIC character set.
    
         koi8-r
              Selects a Russian character set.
    
         next Selects a character set appropriate for NeXT computers.
    
         In special cases, it may be desired to tailor less to use  a
         character  set other than the ones definable by LESSCHARSET.
         In this case, the environment variable  LESSCHARDEF  can  be
         used  to  define  a  character  set.   It should be set to a
         string where each character in  the  string  represents  one
         character  in  the character set.  The character "." is used
         for a normal character, "c" for control, and "b" for binary.
         A  decimal  number may be used for repetition.  For example,
         "bccc4b." would mean character 0 is binary, 1, 2 and  3  are
         control,  4,  5,  6  and 7 are binary, and 8 is normal.  All
         characters after the last are taken to be the  same  as  the
         last, so characters 9 through 255 would be normal.  (This is
         an example, and does  not  necessarily  represent  any  real
         character set.)
    
         This  table  shows  the  value  of  LESSCHARDEF   which   is
         equivalent to each of the possible values for LESSCHARSET:
    
              ascii     8bcccbcc18b95.b
              dos       8bcccbcc12bc5b95.b.
              ebcdic    5bc6bcc7bcc41b.9b7.9b5.b..8b6.10b6.b9.7b
                        9.8b8.17b3.3b9.7b9.8b8.6b10.b.b.b.
              iso8859   8bcccbcc18b95.33b.
              koi8-r    8bcccbcc18b95.b128.
              latin1    8bcccbcc18b95.33b.
              next      8bcccbcc18b95.bb125.bb
    
         If neither LESSCHARSET nor LESSCHARDEF is set, but your sys-
         tem  supports  the setlocale interface, less will use setlo-
         cale to determine the  character  set.   setlocale  is  con-
         trolled  by  setting  the LANG or LC_CTYPE environment vari-
         ables.
    
         Control and binary  characters  are  displayed  in  standout
         (reverse  video).  Each such character is displayed in caret
         notation if possible (e.g. ^A for control-A).   Caret  nota-
         tion  is  used  only  if inverting the 0100 bit results in a
         normal printable character.   Otherwise,  the  character  is
         displayed  as  a  hex number in angle brackets.  This format
         can be changed by setting the LESSBINFMT  environment  vari-
         able.   LESSBINFMT may begin with a "*" and one character to
         select the display attribute:  "*k"  is  blinking,  "*d"  is
         bold, "*u" is underlined, "*s" is standout, and "*n" is nor-
         mal.  If LESSBINFMT does not begin with a "*", normal attri-
         bute  is  assumed.   The remainder of LESSBINFMT is a string
         which may include one printf-style escape sequence (a % fol-
         lowed  by  x, X, o, d, etc.).  For example, if LESSBINFMT is
         "*u[%x]", binary characters are displayed in underlined hex-
         adecimal  surrounded  by  brackets.  The default if no LESS-
         BINFMT is specified is "*s<%X>".
    
    
    PROMPTS
         The -P option allows  you  to  tailor  the  prompt  to  your
         preference.   The string given to the -P option replaces the
         specified prompt string.  Certain characters in  the  string
         are  interpreted  specially.  The prompt mechanism is rather
         complicated to provide flexibility, but  the  ordinary  user
         need not understand the details of constructing personalized
         prompt strings.
         A percent sign followed by a single  character  is  expanded
         according to what the following character is:
    
         %bX  Replaced by the byte  offset  into  the  current  input
              file.   The  b is followed by a single character (shown
              as X above) which specifies the line whose byte  offset
              is  to  be  used.   If the character is a "t", the byte
              offset of the top line in the display is used,  an  "m"
              means  use  the middle line, a "b" means use the bottom
              line, a "B" means use the line just  after  the  bottom
              line,  and a "j" means use the "target" line, as speci-
              fied by the -j option.
    
         %B   Replaced by the size of the current input file.
    
         %dX  Replaced by the page number of  a  line  in  the  input
              file.   The  line to be used is determined by the X, as
              with the %b option.
    
         %D   Replaced by the number of pages in the input  file,  or
              equivalently,  the  page number of the last line in the
              input file.
    
         %E   Replaced by the name of the  editor  (from  the  VISUAL
              environment  variable,  or the EDITOR environment vari-
              able if VISUAL is not defined).  See the discussion  of
              the LESSEDIT feature below.
    
         %f   Replaced by the name of the current input file.
    
         %i   Replaced by the index of the current file in  the  list
              of input files.
    
         %lX  Replaced by the line number of  a  line  in  the  input
              file.   The  line to be used is determined by the X, as
              with the %b option.
    
         %L   Replaced by the line number of the  last  line  in  the
              input file.
    
         %m   Replaced by the total number of input files.
    
         %pX  Replaced by the percent into the  current  input  file.
              The  line  used  is  determined by the X as with the %b
              option.
    
         %s   Same as %B.
    
         %t   Causes any trailing spaces to be removed.  Usually used
              at the end of the string, but may appear anywhere.
    
         %x   Replaced by the name of the  next  input  file  in  the
              list.
    
         If any item is unknown (for example, the file size if  input
         is a pipe), a question mark is printed instead.
    
         The format of the prompt string can be changed depending  on
         certain  conditions.   A  question mark followed by a single
         character acts like an "IF":   depending  on  the  following
         character,  a  condition  is evaluated.  If the condition is
         true, any characters following the question mark and  condi-
         tion  character, up to a period, are included in the prompt.
         If the condition is false, such characters are not included.
         A  colon  appearing between the question mark and the period
         can be used to establish an "ELSE": any  characters  between
         the  colon  and the period are included in the string if and
         only if the IF condition  is  false.   Condition  characters
         (which follow a question mark) may be:
    
         ?a   True if any characters have been included in the prompt
              so far.
    
         ?bX  True if the byte offset of the specified line is known.
    
         ?B   True if the size of current input file is known.
    
         ?dX  True if the page number of the specified line is known.
    
         ?e   True if at end-of-file.
    
         ?f   True if there is an input filename (that is,  if  input
              is not a pipe).
    
         ?lX  True if the line number of the specified line is known.
    
         ?L   True if the line number of the last line in the file is
              known.
    
         ?m   True if there is more than one input file.
    
         ?n   True if this is the first prompt in a new input file.
    
         ?pX  True if the percent into the current input file of  the
              specified line is known.
    
         ?s   Same as "?B".
    
         ?x   True if there is a next input file  (that  is,  if  the
              current input file is not the last one).
    
         Any characters other than the special ones  (question  mark,
         colon, period, percent, and backslash) become literally part
         of the  prompt.   Any  of  the  special  characters  may  be
         included  in  the  prompt  literally  by preceding it with a
         backslash.
    
         Some examples:
    
         ?f%f:Standard input.
    
         This prompt prints the filename,  if  known;  otherwise  the
         string "Standard input".
    
         ?f%f .?ltLine %lt:?pt%pt\%:?btByte %bt:-...
    
         This  prompt  would  print  the  filename,  if  known.   The
         filename is followed by the line number, if known, otherwise
         the percent if known, otherwise the byte  offset  if  known.
         Otherwise, a dash is printed.  Notice how each question mark
         has a matching period, and  how  the  %  after  the  %pt  is
         included literally by escaping it with a backslash.
    
         ?n?f%f .?m(file %i of %m) ..?e(END) ?x- Next\: %x..%t
    
         This prints the filename if this is the first  prompt  in  a
         file, followed by the "file N of N" message if there is more
         than one input file.  Then, if we are  at  end-of-file,  the
         string  "(END)"  is printed followed by the name of the next
         file, if there is one.  Finally,  any  trailing  spaces  are
         truncated.  This is the default prompt.  For reference, here
         are the defaults for  the  other  two  prompts  (-m  and  -M
         respectively).   Each is broken into two lines here for rea-
         dability only.
    
         ?n?f%f .?m(file %i of %m) ..?e(END) ?x- Next\: %x.:
              ?pB%pB\%:byte %bB?s/%s...%t
    
         ?f%f .?n?m(file %i of %m) ..?ltline %lt?L/%L. :byte %bB?s/%s. .
              ?e(END) ?x- Next\: %x.:?pB%pB\%..%t
    
         And here is the default message produced by the = command:
    
         ?f%f .?m(file %i of %m) .?ltline %lt?L/%L. .
              byte %bB?s/%s. ?e(END) :?pB%pB\%..%t
    
         The prompt expansion features are also used for another pur-
         pose:  if an environment variable LESSEDIT is defined, it is
         used as the command to be executed when  the  v  command  is
         invoked.  The LESSEDIT string is expanded in the same way as
         the prompt strings.  The default value for LESSEDIT is:
    
              %E ?lm+%lm. %f
    
         Note that this expands to the editor name, followed by  a  +
         and  the  line  number,  followed by the file name.  If your
         editor does not accept  the  "+linenumber"  syntax,  or  has
         other  differences  in invocation syntax, the LESSEDIT vari-
         able can be changed to modify this default.
    
    
    SECURITY
         When the environment variable LESSSECURE is set to  1,  less
         runs in a "secure" mode.  This means these features are dis-
         abled:
    
              !    the shell command
    
              |    the pipe command
    
              :e   the examine command.
    
              v    the editing command
    
              s  -o
                   log files
    
              -k   use of lesskey files
    
              -t   use of tags files
    
                   metacharacters in filenames, such as *
    
                   filename completion (TAB, ^L)
    
         Less can also be compiled  to  be  permanently  in  "secure"
         mode.
    
    
    ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
         Environment variables may be specified either in the  system
         environment as usual, or in a lesskey (1) file.
    
         COLUMNS
              Sets the number of columns on the screen.   Takes  pre-
              cedence  over  the  number  of columns specified by the
              TERM variable.  (But if you  have  a  windowing  system
              which  supports  TIOCGWINSZ  or  WIOCGETD,  the  window
              system's idea of the screen size takes precedence  over
              the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables.)
    
         EDITOR
              The name of the editor (used for the v command).
    
         HOME Name of the user's home directory (used to find a less-
              key file on Unix systems).
    
         HOMEDRIVE, HOMEPATH
              Concatenation of the HOMEDRIVE and HOMEPATH environment
              variables  is  the name of the user's home directory if
              the HOME variable is not set (only in the Windows  ver-
              sion).
    
         INIT Name of the user's init directory (used to find a less-
              key file on OS/2 systems).
    
         LANG Language for determining the character set.
    
         LC_CTYPE
              Language for determining the character set.
    
         LESS Options which are passed to less automatically.
    
         LESSBINFMT
              Format for displaying non-printable, non-control  char-
              acters.
    
         LESSCHARDEF
              Defines a character set.
    
         LESSCHARSET
              Selects a predefined character set.
    
         LESSCLOSE
              Command  line   to   invoke   the   (optional)   input-
              postprocessor.
    
         LESSECHO
              Name of the lessecho program (default "lessecho").  The
              lessecho  program  is  needed to expand metacharacters,
              such as * and ?, in filenames on Unix systems.
    
         LESSEDIT
              Editor prototype string (used for the v command).   See
              discussion under PROMPTS.
    
         LESSKEY
              Name of the default lesskey(1) file.
    
         LESSMETACHARS
              List of characters which  are  considered  "metacharac-
              ters" by the shell.
    
         LESSMETAESCAPE
              Prefix which less will add before each metacharacter in
              a  command  sent to the shell.  If LESSMETAESCAPE is an
              empty string, commands containing  metacharacters  will
              not be passed to the shell.
    
         LESSOPEN
              Command  line   to   invoke   the   (optional)   input-
              preprocessor.
    
         LESSSECURE
              Runs less in "secure" mode.  See discussion under SECU-
              RITY.
    
         LESSSEPARATOR
              String to be appended to a directory name  in  filename
              completion.
    
         LINES
              Sets the number of lines on  the  screen.   Takes  pre-
              cedence  over the number of lines specified by the TERM
              variable.  (But if you have a  windowing  system  which
              supports  TIOCGWINSZ  or  WIOCGETD, the window system's
              idea of the screen size takes precedence over the LINES
              and COLUMNS environment variables.)
    
         PATH User's search path (used to find a lesskey file on  MS-
              DOS and OS/2 systems).
    
         SHELL
              The shell used to execute the ! command, as well as  to
              expand filenames.
    
         TERM The type of terminal on which less is being run.
    
         VISUAL
              The name of the editor (used for the v command).
    
    
    SEE ALSO
         lesskey(1)
    
    
    WARNINGS
         The = command and prompts (unless changed by -P) report  the
         line  number  of  the line at the top of the screen, but the
         byte and percent of the line at the bottom of the screen.
    
         If the :e command is used to name more than  one  file,  and
         one  of  the named files has been viewed previously, the new
         files may be entered into the list in an unexpected order.
    
         On certain older terminals  (the  so-called  "magic  cookie"
         terminals),  search  highlighting  will  cause  an erroneous
         display.  On such terminals, search highlighting is disabled
         by default to avoid possible problems.
    
         In certain cases, when search highlighting is enabled and  a
         search  pattern begins with a ^, more text than the matching
         string may be highlighted.  (This  problem  does  not  occur
         when  less  is  compiled to use the POSIX regular expression
         package.)
    
         On some systems, setlocale claims that  ASCII  characters  0
         thru  31  are  control characters rather than binary charac-
         ters.  This causes less to treat some binary files as  ordi-
         nary, non-binary files.  To workaround this problem, set the
         environment variable LESSCHARSET  to  "ascii"  (or  whatever
         character set is appropriate).
    
         The MS-DOS and Windows versions sometimes display  incorrect
         highlighting when lines are longer than the screen width.
    
         See http://www.flash.net/~marknu/less for the latest list of
         known bugs in this version of less.
    
    
    COPYRIGHT
         Copyright (C) 1999  Mark Nudelman
    
         less is part of the GNU project and is  free  software;  you
         can  redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the
         GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software
         Foundation;  either version 2, or (at your option) any later
         version.
    
         less is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,  but
         WITHOUT  ANY  WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
         MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A  PARTICULAR  PURPOSE.   See
         the GNU General Public License for more details.
    
         You should have received a copy of the  GNU  General  Public
         License  along  with  less;  see  the file COPYING.  If not,
         write to the Free  Software  Foundation,  59  Temple  Place,
         Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA.
    
    
    AUTHOR
         Mark Nudelman <marknu@flash.net>
         Send bug reports or comments to  the  above  address  or  to
         bug-less@gnu.org.
    
    
    
    


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