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Интерактивная система просмотра системных руководств (man-ов)

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ispell (1)
  • >> ispell (1) ( Solaris man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • ispell (1) ( Linux man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • ispell (4) ( Solaris man: Специальные файлы /dev/* )
  • ispell (4) ( Linux man: Специальные файлы /dev/* )
  • ispell (5) ( Linux man: Форматы файлов )
  • Ключ ispell обнаружен в базе ключевых слов.
         ispell, buildhash, munchlist, findaffix, tryaffix, icombine,
         ijoin - Interactive spelling checking
         ispell [common-flags] [-M|-N] [-Lcontext] [-V] files
         ispell [common-flags] -l
         ispell [common-flags] [-f file] [-s] {-a|-A}
         ispell [-d file] [-w chars] -c
         ispell [-d file] [-w chars] -e[e]
         ispell [-d file] -D
         ispell -v[v]
              [-t] [-n] [-b] [-x] [-B] [-C] [-P] [-m] [-S] [-d  file]
              [-p file] [-w chars] [-W n] [-T type]
         buildhash [-s] dict-file affix-file hash-file
         buildhash -s count affix-file
         munchlist [-l aff-file] [-c conv-file] [-T suffix]
                   [-s hash-file] [-D] [-v] [-w chars] [files]
         findaffix [-p|-s] [-f] [-c] [-m min] [-M max] [-e elim]
                   [-t tabchar] [-l low] [files]
         tryaffix [-p|-s] [-c] expanded-file affix[+addition]
         icombine [-T type] [aff-file]
         ijoin [-s|-u] join-options file1 file2
         Ispell is fashioned after the spell program from ITS (called
         ispell on Twenex systems.)  The most common usage is "ispell
         filename".  In this case,  ispell  will  display  each  word
         which  does  not  appear in the dictionary at the top of the
         screen and allow you to  change  it.   If  there  are  "near
         misses" in the dictionary (words which differ by only a sin-
         gle letter, a missing or extra letter, a pair of  transposed
         letters,  or  a missing space or hyphen), then they are also
         displayed on following lines.  As  well  as  "near  misses",
         ispell  may  display  other guesses at ways to make the word
         from a known root, with  each  guess  preceded  by  question
         marks.  Finally, the line containing the word and the previ-
         ous line are printed at the bottom of the screen.   If  your
         terminal  can  display  in reverse video, the word itself is
         highlighted.  You have the option of replacing the word com-
         pletely,  or  choosing one of the suggested words.  Commands
         are single characters as follows (case is ignored):
              R    Replace the misspelled word completely.
                   Accept the word this time only.
              A    Accept the word for the rest of this  ispell  ses-
              I    Accept the word, capitalized as it is in the file,
                   and update private dictionary.
              U    Accept the word, and add an  uncapitalized  (actu-
                   ally,  all lower-case) version to the private dic-
              0-n  Replace with one of the suggested words.
              L    Look up words in system dictionary (controlled  by
                   the WORDS compilation option).
              X    Write the rest of  this  file,  ignoring  misspel-
                   lings, and start next file.
              Q    Exit immediately and leave the file unchanged.
              !    Shell escape.
              ^L   Redraw screen.
              ^Z   Suspend ispell.
              ?    Give help screen.
         If the -M switch is specified, a one-line mini-menu  at  the
         bottom  of  the  screen  will summarize these options.  Con-
         versely, the -N switch may be used  to  suppress  the  mini-
         menu.   (The  minimenu is displayed by default if ispell was
         compiled with the MINIMENU option, but  these  two  switches
         will always override the default).
         If the -L flag is given, the specified number is used as the
         number  of lines of context to be shown at the bottom of the
         screen (The default is to calculate the amount of context as
         a  certain  percentage  of  the screen size).  The amount of
         context is subject to a system-imposed limit.
         If the -V flag is given, characters that are not in  the  7-
         bit ANSI printable character set will always be displayed in
         the style of "cat -v", even  if  ispell  thinks  that  these
         characters  are  legal  ISO Latin-1 on your system.  This is
         useful when working  with  older  terminals.   Without  this
         switch, ispell will display 8-bit characters "as is" if they
         have been defined as string characters for the  chosen  file
         "Normal" mode, as well as the -l, -a, and  -A  options  (see
         below) also accepts the following "common" flags on the com-
         mand line:
              -t   The input file is in TeX or LaTeX format.
              -n   The input file is in nroff/troff format.
              -b   Create a backup file by appending  ".bak"  to  the
                   name of the input file.
              -x   Don't create a backup file.
              -B   Report run-together words with missing  blanks  as
                   spelling errors.
              -C   Consider run-together words as legal compounds.
              -P   Don't generate extra root/affix combinations.
              -m   Make possible root/affix combinations that  aren't
                   in the dictionary.
              -S   Sort the list of guesses by probable correctness.
              -d file
                   Specify an alternate dictionary file.   For  exam-
                   ple,  use -d deutsch to choose a German dictionary
                   in a German installation.
              -p file
                   Specify an alternate personal dictionary.
              -w chars
                   Specify additional characters that can be part  of
                   a word.
              -W n Specify length of words that are always legal.
              -T type
                   Assume a given formatter type for all files.
         The  -n  and  -t  options  select  whether  ispell  runs  in
         nroff/troff (-n) or TeX/LaTeX (-t) input mode.  (The default
         is  controlled  by  the  DEFTEXFLAG  installation   option.)
         TeX/LaTeX  mode  is  also automatically selected if an input
         file has the extension ".tex", unless overridden by  the  -n
         switch.   In  TeX/LaTeX  mode, whenever a backslash ("\") is
         found, ispell will skip to the next whitespace or  TeX/LaTeX
         delimiter.   Certain commands contain arguments which should
         not be checked, such as labels and  reference  keys  as  are
         found  in  the  \cite command, since they contain arbitrary,
         non-word arguments.  Spell checking is also suppressed  when
         in math mode.  Thus, for example, given
              \chapter {This is a Ckapter} \cite{SCH86}
         ispell will find "Ckapter" but not  "SCH".   The  -t  option
         does  not  recognize  the TeX comment character "%", so com-
         ments are also spell-checked.  It also assumes correct LaTeX
         syntax.   Arguments  to  infrequently used commands and some
         optional arguments are sometimes checked unnecessarily.  The
         bibliography will not be checked if ispell was compiled with
         IGNOREBIB defined.   Otherwise,  the  bibliography  will  be
         checked but the reference key will not.
         References for the tib(1) bibliography system, that is, text
         between  a ``[.'' or ``<.'' and ``.]'' or ``.>'' will always
         be ignored in TeX/LaTeX mode.
         The -b and -x options control whether ispell leaves a backup
         (.bak) file for each input file.  The .bak file contains the
         pre-corrected text.  If there are  file  opening  /  writing
         errors, the .bak file may be left for recovery purposes even
         with the -x option.  The default for  this  option  is  con-
         trolled by the DEFNOBACKUPFLAG installation option.
         The -B and  -C  options  control  how  ispell  handles  run-
         together  words,  such  as "notthe" for "not the".  If -B is
         specified, such words will  be  considered  as  errors,  and
         ispell will list variations with an inserted blank or hyphen
         as possible replacements.  If -C is specified,  run-together
         words  will  be considered to be legal compounds, so long as
         both components are in the dictionary, and each component is
         at  least as long as a language-dependent minimum (3 charac-
         ters, by default).  This is useful  for  languages  such  as
         German  and  Norwegian, where many compound words are formed
         by concatenation.  (Note that compounds formed from three or
         more  root  words  will  still  be  considered errors).  The
         default for this option is language-dependent; in  a  multi-
         lingual installation the default may vary depending on which
         dictionary you choose.
         The -P and -m options control when ispell automatically gen-
         erates  suggested root/affix combinations for possible addi-
         tion to your personal dictionary.  (These are the entries in
         the  "guess" list which are preceded by question marks.)  If
         -P is specified, such guesses are displayed only  if  ispell
         cannot  generate  any  possibilities  that match the current
         dictionary.  If -m is specified,  such  guesses  are  always
         displayed.   This  can  be  useful  if  the dictionary has a
         limited word list, or a word list with few  suffixes.   How-
         ever,  you  should  be careful when using this option, as it
         can  generate  guesses  that  produce  illegal  words.   The
         default for this option is controlled by the dictionary file
         The -S option suppresses ispell's normal behavior of sorting
         the  list  of  possible  replacement words.  Some people may
         prefer this, since it somewhat enhances the probability that
         the correct word will be low-numbered.
         The -d option is used to specify an  alternate  hashed  dic-
         tionary  file, other than the default.  If the filename does
         not contain a "/", the library  directory  for  the  default
         dictionary  file  is  prefixed; thus, to use a dictionary in
         the local directory "-d ./xxx.hash" must be used.   This  is
         useful   to  allow  dictionaries  for  alternate  languages.
         Unlike  previous  versions  of  ispell,  a   dictionary   of
         /dev/null  is  illegal,  because the dictionary contains the
         affix table.  If you need an effectively  empty  dictionary,
         create  a  one-entry  list  with  an  unlikely string (e.g.,
         The -p option is used to specify an alternate personal  dic-
         tionary  file.   If  the  file name does not begin with "/",
         $HOME is prefixed.  Also, the shell variable WORDLIST may be
         set,  which  renames  the  personal  dictionary  in the same
         manner.  The command line overrides  any  WORDLIST  setting.
         If  neither the -p switch nor the WORDLIST environment vari-
         able is given, ispell will search for a personal  dictionary
         in  both  the  current  directory and $HOME, creating one in
         $HOME if none is found.  The preferred name  is  constructed
         by  appending  ".ispell_" to the base name of the hash file.
         For example, if you use the English  dictionary,  your  per-
         sonal dictionary would be named ".ispell_english".  However,
         if the file ".ispell_words" exists, it will be used  as  the
         personal  dictionary  regardless  of  the language hash file
         chosen.  This feature is included  primarily  for  backwards
         If the -p option is not specified, ispell will look for per-
         sonal  dictionaries  in  both  the current directory and the
         home directory.  If dictionaries exist in both places,  they
         will be merged.  If any words are added to the personal dic-
         tionary, they will be written to the current directory if  a
         dictionary  already  existed  in  that place; otherwise they
         will be written to the dictionary in the home directory.
         The -w option may be used to specify characters  other  than
         alphabetics  which  may also appear in words.  For instance,
         -w "&" will allow "AT&T" to be picked up.   Underscores  are
         useful  in many technical documents.  There is an admittedly
         crude provision in this option for 8-bit international char-
         acters.   Non-printing  characters  may  be specified in the
         usual way by inserting a backslash  followed  by  the  octal
         character  code;  e.g.,  "\014"  for  a form feed.  Alterna-
         tively, if "n" appears in the character string, the (up  to)
         three  characters  following are a DECIMAL code 0 - 255, for
         the character.  For example, to include bells and form feeds
         in  your  words (an admittedly silly thing to do, but aren't
         most pedagogical examples):
         Numeric digits other than the three following "n" are simply
         numeric  characters.  Use of "n" does not conflict with any-
         thing because actual alphabetics have no meaning - alphabet-
         ics  are  already  accepted.   Ispell will typically be used
         with input from a file, meaning that preserving  parity  for
         possible 8 bit characters from the input text is OK.  If you
         specify the -l option, and actually type text from the  ter-
         minal,  this  may  create  problems  if  your  stty settings
         preserve parity.
         The -W option may be used to change the length of words that
         ispell  always  accepts  as  legal.   Normally,  ispell will
         accept all 1-character words as legal, which  is  equivalent
         to specifying "-W 1."  (The default for this switch is actu-
         ally controlled by the MINWORD installation  option,  so  it
         may vary at your installation.)  If you want all words to be
         checked against the dictionary, regardless  of  length,  you
         might  want  to  specify "-W 0."  On the other hand, if your
         document specifies a lot of three-letter acronyms, you would
         specify "-W 3" to accept all words of three letters or less.
         Regardless of the setting of this option, ispell  will  only
         generate  words  that  are  in  the  dictionary as suggested
         replacements for words; this prevents the list from becoming
         too  long.   Obviously,  this  option can be very dangerous,
         since short misspellings may be missed.   If  you  use  this
         option  a  lot, you should probably make a last pass without
         it before you publish your  document,  to  protect  yourself
         against errors.
         The -T option is used to specify a  default  formatter  type
         for  use in generating string characters.  This switch over-
         rides the default type determined from the file  name.   The
         type  argument may be either one of the unique names defined
         in the language affix file (e.g., nroff) or  a  file  suffix
         including the dot (e.g., .tex).  If no -T option appears and
         no type can be determined from the file  name,  the  default
         string  character  type  declared in the language affix file
         will be used.
         The -l or "list" option to ispell is used to produce a  list
         of misspelled words from the standard input.
         The -a option is intended to be  used  from  other  programs
         through a pipe.  In this mode, ispell prints a one-line ver-
         sion identification message, and then begins  reading  lines
         of  input.  For each input line, a single line is written to
         the standard output for each word checked  for  spelling  on
         the  line.  If the word was found in the main dictionary, or
         your personal dictionary, then the line contains only a '*'.
         If  the  word was found through affix removal, then the line
         contains a '+', a space, and the root word. If the word  was
         found  through  compound  formation  (concatenation  of  two
         words, controlled by the -C option), then the line  contains
         only a '-'.
         If the word is not in the dictionary,  but  there  are  near
         misses,  then  the  line  contains  an  '&',  a  space,  the
         misspelled word, a space, the number  of  near  misses,  the
         number  of  characters between the beginning of the line and
         the beginning of  the  misspelled  word,  a  colon,  another
         space, and a list of the near misses separated by commas and
         spaces.  Following the near misses (and identified  only  by
         the  count  of  near misses), if the word could be formed by
         adding (illegal) affixes to a known root, is a list of  sug-
         gested  derivations,  again  separated by commas and spaces.
         If there are no near misses at all, the line format  is  the
         same,  except that the '&' is replaced by '?' (and the near-
         miss count is always zero).  The suggested derivations  fol-
         lowing the near misses are in the form:
              [prefix+] root [-prefix] [-suffix] [+suffix]
         (e.g., "re+fry-y+ies" to get "refries") where each  optional
         pfx  and  sfx is a string.  Also, each near miss or guess is
         capitalized the same as the input word unless such capitali-
         zation is illegal; in the latter case each near miss is cap-
         italized correctly according to the dictionary.
         Finally, if the word does not appear in the dictionary,  and
         there  are  no  near misses, then the line contains a '#', a
         space, the misspelled  word,  a  space,  and  the  character
         offset  from  the  beginning  of the line.  Each sentence of
         text input is terminated  with  an  additional  blank  line,
         indicating  that  ispell  has completed processing the input
         These output lines can be summarized as follows:
              OK:  *
                   + <root>
                   & <original>  <count>  <offset>:  <miss>,  <miss>,
                   ..., <guess>, ...
                   ? <original> 0 <offset>: <guess>, <guess>, ...
                   # <original> <offset>
         For example, a dummy dictionary containing the words "fray",
         "Frey",  "fry",  and  "refried"  might produce the following
         response to the command "echo 'frqy refries | ispell  -a  -m
         -d ./test.hash":
              (#) International Ispell Version 3.0.05 (beta), 08/10/91
              & frqy 3 0: fray, Frey, fry
              & refries 1 5: refried, re+fry-y+ies
         This mode is also suitable for interactive use when you want
         to figure out the spelling of a single word.
         The -A option works just like -a,  except  that  if  a  line
         begins  with  the  string  "&Include_File&", the rest of the
         line is taken as the name of a  file  to  read  for  further
         words.   Input returns to the original file when the include
         file is exhausted.  Inclusion may be nested up to five deep.
         The  key string may be changed with the environment variable
         INCLUDE_STRING (the ampersands, if any, must be included).
         When in the -a mode, ispell will also accept lines of single
         words  prefixed  with  any  of '*', '&', '@', '+', '-', '~',
         '#', '!', '%', or '^'.   A  line  starting  with  '*'  tells
         ispell  to insert the word into the user's dictionary (simi-
         lar to the I command).   A  line  starting  with  '&'  tells
         ispell  to  insert an all-lowercase version of the word into
         the user's dictionary (similar to the U  command).   A  line
         starting  with  '@' causes ispell to accept this word in the
         future (similar to the A command).   A  line  starting  with
         '+',  followed immediately by tex or nroff will cause ispell
         to parse future input according  the  syntax  of  that  for-
         matter.  A line consisting solely of a '+' will place ispell
         in TeX/LaTeX mode (similar to the -t option) and '-' returns
         ispell   to   nroff/troff   mode  (but  these  commands  are
         obsolete).  However, string character type is  not  changed;
         the  '~'  command  must be used to do this.  A line starting
         with '~' causes ispell to set internal parameters  (in  par-
         ticular,  the  default  string  character type) based on the
         filename given in the rest of the line.  (A file  suffix  is
         sufficient,  but  the period must be included.  Instead of a
         file name or  suffix,  a  unique  name,  as  listed  in  the
         language  affix  file, may be specified.)  However, the for-
         matter parsing is not changed;  the '+' command must be used
         to  change  the  formatter.   A  line prefixed with '#' will
         cause the personal dictionary to be saved.  A line  prefixed
         with  '!'  will  turn  on terse mode (see below), and a line
         prefixed with '%' will return ispell to  normal  (non-terse)
         mode.   Any  input following the prefix characters '+', '-',
         '#', '!', or '%' is ignored, as is any input  following  the
         filename  on  a  '~' line.  To allow spell-checking of lines
         beginning with these characters, a line  starting  with  '^'
         has  that  character  removed  before  it  is  passed to the
         spell-checking code.  It is  recommended  that  programmatic
         interfaces prefix every data line with an uparrow to protect
         themselves against future changes in ispell.
         To summarize these:
              *    Add to personal dictionary
              @    Accept word, but leave out of dictionary
              #    Save current personal dictionary
              ~    Set parameters based on filename
              +    Enter TeX mode
              -    Exit TeX mode
              !    Enter terse mode
              %    Exit terse mode
              ^    Spell-check rest of line
         In terse mode, ispell will not print  lines  beginning  with
         '*', '+', or '-', all of which indicate correct words.  This
         significantly improves running speed when the  driving  pro-
         gram is going to ignore correct words anyway.
         The -s option is only valid in conjunction with the -a or -A
         options,  and  only  on  BSD-derived systems.  If specified,
         ispell will stop itself with a  SIGTSTP  signal  after  each
         line  of  input.   It  will  not  read  more  input until it
         receives a SIGCONT signal.  This may be useful for handshak-
         ing with certain text editors.
         The -f option is only valid in conjunction with the -a or -A
         options.   If -f is specified, ispell will write its results
         to the given file, rather than to standard output.
         The -v option causes ispell to  print  its  current  version
         identification  on  the  standard  output  and exit.  If the
         switch is doubled, ispell will also print the  options  that
         it was compiled with.
         The -c, -e[1-4], and -D options  of  ispell,  are  primarily
         intended  for  use  by  the  munchlist shell script.  The -c
         switch causes a list of words to be read from  the  standard
         input.   For  each  word,  a list of possible root words and
         affixes will be written to the standard output.  Some of the
         root  words  will  be  illegal and must be filtered from the
         output by other means; the munchlist script does  this.   As
         an example, the command:
              echo BOTHER | ispell -c
              BOTHER BOTHE/R BOTH/R
         The -e switch is the reverse of -c; it expands  affix  flags
         to produce a list of words.  For example, the command:
              echo BOTH/R | ispell -e
              BOTH BOTHER
         An optional expansion level can also be specified.  A  level
         of 1 (-e1) is the same as -e alone.  A level of 2 causes the
         original root/affix combination to be prepended to the line:
              BOTH/R BOTH BOTHER
         A level of 3 causes multiple lines to  be  output,  one  for
         each  generated  word, with the original root/affix combina-
         tion followed by the word it creates:
              BOTH/R BOTH
              BOTH/R BOTHER
         A level of 4 causes a floating-point number to  be  appended
         to  each  of the level-3 lines, giving the ratio between the
         length of the root and the total  length  of  all  generated
         words including the root:
              BOTH/R BOTH 2.500000
              BOTH/R BOTHER 2.500000
         Finally, the -D flag causes the affix tables from  the  dic-
         tionary file to be dumped to standard output.
         Unless your system administrator has suppressed the  feature
         to  save  space,  ispell is aware of the correct capitaliza-
         tions of words in the dictionary and in your  personal  dic-
         tionary.  As well as recognizing words that must be capital-
         ized (e.g., George) and  words  that  must  be  all-capitals
         (e.g.,  NASA), it can also handle words with "unusual" capi-
         talization (e.g., "ITCorp" or "TeX").  If a word is capital-
         ized incorrectly, the list of possibilities will include all
         acceptable capitalizations.  (More than  one  capitalization
         may  be  acceptable;  for  example, my dictionary lists both
         "ITCorp" and "ITcorp".)
         Normally, this feature will not  cause  you  surprises,  but
         there  is  one circumstance you need to be aware of.  If you
         use "I" to add a word to your  dictionary  that  is  at  the
         beginning  of a sentence (e.g., the first word of this para-
         graph if "normally" were not in the dictionary), it will  be
         marked  as "capitalization required".  A subsequent usage of
         this word without capitalization (e.g., the quoted  word  in
         the  previous  sentence) will be considered a misspelling by
         ispell, and it will suggest the  capitalized  version.   You
         must then compare the actual spellings by eye, and then type
         "I" to add the uncapitalized variant to your  personal  dic-
         tionary.  You can avoid this problem by using "U" to add the
         original word, rather than "I".
         The rules for capitalization are as follows:
         (1)  Any word may appear in all capitals, as in headings.
         (2)  Any word that is in  the  dictionary  in  all-lowercase
              form  may appear either in lowercase or capitalized (as
              at the beginning of a sentence).
         (3)  Any word that has "funny" capitalization (i.e., it con-
              tains  both  cases  and there is an uppercase character
              besides the first) must appear exactly as in  the  dic-
              tionary,  except as permitted by rule (1).  If the word
              is acceptable in all-lowercase, it must appear thus  in
              a dictionary entry.
         The buildhash program builds  hashed  dictionary  files  for
         later use by ispell. The raw word list (with affix flags) is
         given in dict-file, and the the affix flags are  defined  by
         affix-file.  The hashed output is written to hash-file.  The
         formats of the two input files are described  in  ispell(4).
         The  -s (silent) option suppresses the usual status messages
         that are written to the standard error device.
         The munchlist shell script is used to  reduce  the  size  of
         dictionary  files,  primarily personal dictionary files.  It
         is also  capable  of  combining  dictionaries  from  various
         sources.   The  given  files  are read (standard input if no
         arguments are given), reduced to a minimal set of roots  and
         affixes  that will match the same list of words, and written
         to standard output.
         Input for munchlist contains of raw  words  (e.g  from  your
         personal  dictionary  files)  or root and affix combinations
         (probably generated in earlier munchlist runs).   Each  word
         or root/affix combination must be on a separate line.
         The -D (debug) option leaves temporary  files  around  under
         standard  names instead of deleting them, so that the script
         can be debugged.  Warning:  this option can eat up an  enor-
         mous amount of temporary file space.
         The -v (verbose)  option  causes  progress  messages  to  be
         reported  to  stderr so you won't get nervous that munchlist
         has hung.
         If the -s (strip) option is specified, words that are in the
         specified  hash-file  are  removed from the word list.  This
         can be useful with personal dictionaries.
         The -l option can be used to specify an alternate affix-file
         for munching dictionaries in languages other than English.
         The -c option can be used to convert dictionaries that  were
         built with an older affix file, without risk of accidentally
         introducing unintended affix combinations into the  diction-
         The -T option allows  dictionaries  to  be  converted  to  a
         canonical  string-character format.  The suffix specified is
         looked up in the affix file (-l  switch)  to  determine  the
         string-character  format used for the input file; the output
         always uses  the  canonical  string-character  format.   For
         example,  a dictionary collected from TeX source files might
         be converted to canonical format by specifying -T tex.
         The -w option is passed on to ispell.
         The findaffix shell script is  an  aid  to  writers  of  new
         language  descriptions  in choosing affixes.  The given dic-
         tionary files (standard input if none are given)  are  exam-
         ined  for  possible  prefixes  (-p  switch)  or suffixes (-s
         switch, the  default).   Each  commonly-occurring  affix  is
         presented  along  with  a  count  of  the number of times it
         appears and an estimate of the number of bytes that would be
         saved  in  a  dictionary  hash  file if it were added to the
         language table.  Only  affixes  that  generate  legal  roots
         (found in the original input) are listed.
         If the "-c" option is not given, the output lines are in the
         following format:
         where strip is the string that should  be  stripped  from  a
         root  word  before  adding the affix, add is the affix to be
         added, count is a count of the number  of  times  that  this
         strip/add  combination  appears, and bytes is an estimate of
         the number of bytes that might be saved in the raw  diction-
         ary  file  if  this  combination is added to the affix file.
         The field separator in the output will be the tab  character
         specified by the -t switch;  the default is a slash ("/").
         If the -c ("clean output") option is given,  the  appearance
         of  the output is made visually cleaner (but harder to post-
         process) by changing it to:
         where strip, add, count, and bytes are as before, and  <tab>
         represents the ASCII tab character.
         The method used to generate possible affixes will also  gen-
         erate  longer affixes which have common headers or trailers.
         For example, the two words "moth" and "mother" will generate
         not  only  the  obvious substitution "+er" but also "-h+her"
         and "-th+ther" (and possibly even longer ones, depending  on
         the  value  of  min).  To prevent cluttering the output with
         such affixes, any affix pair that  shares  a  common  header
         (or,  for prefixes, trailer) string longer than elim charac-
         ters (default 1) will be suppressed.  You may  want  to  set
         "elim" to a value greater than 1 if your language has string
         characters; usually the need for this parameter will  become
         obvious when you examine the output of your findaffix run.
         Normally, the affixes are sorted according to  the  estimate
         of  bytes  saved.   The  -f  switch may be used to cause the
         affixes to be sorted by frequency of appearance.
         To save output file space, affixes which occur fewer than 10
         times  are eliminated; this limit may be changed with the -l
         switch.  The -M switch  specifies  a  maximum  affix  length
         (default 8).  Affixes longer than this will not be reported.
         (This saves on temporary disk space and makes the script run
         Affixes which generate stems shorter than 3  characters  are
         suppressed.   (A stem is the word after the strip string has
         been removed, and before the add  string  has  been  added.)
         This  reduces both the running time and the size of the out-
         put file.  This limit may be changed  with  the  -m  switch.
         The  minimum stem length should only be set to 1 if you have
         a lot of free time and disk space (in the range of many days
         and hundreds of megabytes).
         The findaffix script requires  a  non-blank  field-separator
         character  for  internal use.  Normally, this character is a
         slash ("/"), but if the slash appears as a character in  the
         input word list, a different character can be specified with
         the -t switch.
         Ispell dictionaries should be expanded before being  fed  to
         findaffix;  in  addition,  characters  that  are  not in the
         English alphabet (if any) should be translated to lowercase.
         The tryaffix shell script is used to estimate the effective-
         ness  of a proposed prefix (-p switch) or suffix (-s switch,
         the default) with a given expanded-file.  Only one affix can
         be  tried with each execution of tryaffix, although multiple
         arguments can be used to describe varying forms of the  same
         affix flag (e.g., the D flag for English can add either D or
         ED depending on whether a trailing E  is  already  present).
         Each  word  in the expanded dictionary that ends (or begins)
         with the chosen suffix (or prefix) has that suffix  (prefix)
         removed; the dictionary is then searched for root words that
         match the stripped word.  Normally, all matching  roots  are
         written  to  standard  output, but if the -c (count) flag is
         given, only a statistical summary of the results is written.
         The  statistics  given are a count of words the affix poten-
         tially applies to and an estimate of the number of  diction-
         ary bytes that a flag using the affix would save.  The esti-
         mate will be high if  the  flag  generates  words  that  are
         currently  generated by other affix flags (e.g., in English,
         bathers can be generated by either bath/X or bather/S).
         The dictionary file, expanded-file, must already be expanded
         (using  the -e switch of ispell) and sorted, and things will
         usually work best if uppercase has been folded to lower with
         The affix arguments are things to be stripped from the  dic-
         tionary file to produce trial roots:  for English, con (pre-
         fix) and ing (suffix) are examples.  The addition  parts  of
         the  argument  are letters that would have been stripped off
         the root before adding the affix.  For example,  in  English
         the  affix  ing  normally  strips e for words ending in that
         letter (e.g., like becomes liking) so we might run:
              tryaffix ing ing+e
         to cover both cases.
         All of the shell scripts contain documentation as commentary
         at  the  beginning;  sometimes these comments contain useful
         information beyond the scope of this manual page.
         It is possible to install ispell in such a way  as  to  only
         support ASCII range text if desired.
         The icombine program is a helper for munchlist.  It reads  a
         list  of  words in dictionary format (roots plus flags) from
         the standard input, and produces a reduced list on  standard
         output   which  combines  common  roots  found  on  adjacent
         entries.  Identical roots which have  differing  flags  will
         have  their  flags  combined, and roots which have differing
         capitalizations  will  be  combined  in  a  way  which  only
         preserves   important   capitalization   information.    The
         optional aff-file specifies a language  file  which  defines
         the  character  sets  used  and  the meanings of the various
         flags.  The -T switch can be used to select  among  alterna-
         tive  string  character  types by giving a dummy suffix that
         can be found in an altstringtype statement.
         The ijoin program is a re-implementation  of  join(1)  which
         handles  long  lines and 8-bit characters correctly.  The -s
         switch specifies that the sort(1) program  used  to  prepare
         the  input to ijoin uses signed comparisons on 8-bit charac-
         ters; the -u switch specifies  that  sort(1)  uses  unsigned
         comparisons.  All other options and behaviors of join(1) are
         duplicated as exactly as possible based on the manual  page,
         except that ijoin will not handle newline as a field separa-
         tor.  See the join(1) manual page for more information.
              Default dictionary to use, if no -d flag is given.
              Personal dictionary file name
              Code for file inclusion under the -A option
              Directory used for some of munchlist's temporary files
              Hashed dictionary (may be found  in  some  other  local
              directory, depending on the system).
              Affix-definition file for munchlist
         /usr/dict/web2 or /usr/dict/words
              For the Lookup function (depending on the WORDS  compi-
              lation option).
              User's private dictionary
              Directory-specific private dictionary
         spell(1),  egrep(1),  look(1),  join(1),  sort(1),   sq(1L),
         tib(1L), ispell(4L), english(4L)
         It takes several to many seconds for ispell to read  in  the
         hash table, depending on size.
         When all  options  are  enabled,  ispell  may  take  several
         seconds  to  generate  all  the guesses at corrections for a
         misspelled word; on slower machines this time is long enough
         to be annoying.
         The hash table is stored as a quarter-megabyte  (or  larger)
         array, so a PDP-11 or 286 version does not seem likely.
         Ispell should understand more troff syntax,  and  deal  more
         intelligently with contractions.
         Although small personal dictionaries are sorted before  they
         are  written  out,  the order of capitalizations of the same
         word is somewhat random.
         When the -x flag is specified, ispell will unlink any exist-
         ing .bak file.
         There are too many flags, and many of them have non-mnemonic
         Munchlist does not deal very  gracefully  with  dictionaries
         which  contain "non-word" characters.  Such characters ought
         to be deleted from the dictionary with a warning message.
         Findaffix and munchlist require tremendous amounts  of  tem-
         porary  file  space for large dictionaries.  They do respect
         the TMPDIR  environment  variable,  so  this  space  can  be
         redirected.  However, a lot of the temporary space needed is
         for sorting, so TMPDIR is only a  partial  help  on  systems
         with an uncooperative sort(1).  ("Cooperative" is defined as
         accepting the undocumented -T switch).  At its  peak  usage,
         munchlist  takes  10  to  40 times the original dictionary's
         size in Kb.  (The larger  ratio  is  for  dictionaries  that
         already  have  heavy  affix use, such as the one distributed
         with ispell).  Munchlist  is  also  very  slow;  munching  a
         normal-sized  dictionary  (15K  roots,  45K  expanded words)
         takes around an hour on a small workstation.  (Most of  this
         time  is spent in sort(1), and munchlist can run much faster
         on machines that have a more modern sort that  makes  better
         use  of  the  memory  available  to  it.)  Findaffix is even
         worse; the smallest English dictionary cannot  be  processed
         with  this  script  in  a  mere 50Kb of free space, and even
         after specifying switches  to  reduce  the  temporary  space
         required,  the  script will run for over 24 hours on a small
         Pace Willisson (pace@mit-vax), 1983,  based  on  the  PDP-10
         assembly  version.   That version was written by R. E. Gorin
         in 1971, and later revised by W. E. Matson (1974) and W.  B.
         Ackerman (1978).
         Collected, revised, and enhanced  for  the  Usenet  by  Walt
         Buehring, 1987.
         Table-driven multi-lingual version by Geoff Kuenning,  1987-
         Large dictionaries provided by Bob Devine (vianet!devine).
         A complete list of contributors is too large to  list  here,
         but is distributed with the ispell sources in the file "Con-
         The version of ispell  described  by  this  manual  page  is
         International Ispell Version 3.1.00, 10/08/93.

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