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gs (1)
  • >> gs (1) ( Solaris man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
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    NAME
         gs - Ghostscript (PostScript and  PDF  language  interpreter
         and previewer)
    
    SYNOPSIS
         gs [ options ] [ files ] ... (Unix, VMS)
         gswin32 [ options ] [ files ] ... (MS Windows)
         gswin32c [ options ] [ files ] ... (MS Windows)
         gs386 [ options ] [ files ] ... (DOS for PC)
         gsos2 [ options ] [ files ] ... (OS/2)
    
    DESCRIPTION
         The gs (gswin32, gswin32c,  gs386,  gsos2)  command  invokes
         Ghostscript, an interpreter of Adobe Systems' PostScript(tm)
         and Portable Document  Format  (PDF)  languages.   gs  reads
         "files"  in  sequence  and executes them as Ghostscript pro-
         grams.  After doing this, it reads further  input  from  the
         standard  input stream (normally the keyboard), interpreting
         each line separately.  The interpreter quits gracefully when
         it  encounters  the "quit" command (either in a file or from
         the keyboard), at end-of-file, or  at  an  interrupt  signal
         (such as Control-C at the keyboard).
    
         The interpreter recognizes several switches described below,
         which  may  appear anywhere in the command line and apply to
         all files thereafter.  Invoking Ghostscript with the  -h  or
         -?  switch  produces  a  message  which shows several useful
         switches, all the devices known to that executable, and  the
         search path for fonts; on Unix it also shows the location of
         detailed documentation.
    
         Ghostscript may be built able to use many  different  output
         devices.   To see which devices your executable can use, run
         "gs  -h".   Unless  you   specify   a   particular   device,
         Ghostscript  normally  opens  the  first  one  of  those and
         directs output to it, so if the first one in the list is the
         one you want to use, just issue the command
    
              gs myfile.ps
    
         You can also check the set of available devices from  within
         Ghostscript:  invoke Ghostscript and type
    
              devicenames ==
    
         but the first device on the resulting list may  not  be  the
         default  device  you  determine  with  "gs  -h".  To specify
         "AbcXyz" as the initial output device, include the switch
    
              -sDEVICE=AbcXyz
    
    
         For example, for output to an Epson printer  you  might  use
         the command
    
              gs -sDEVICE=epson myfile.ps
    
         The "-sDEVICE=" switch must precede the first mention  of  a
         file  to  print,  and  only  the  switch's first use has any
         effect.  Alternatively, in Ghostscript you can type
    
              (epson) selectdevice
              (myfile.ps) run
    
         All output then goes to the printer until you select another
         device  with  the "selectdevice" procedure in the PostScript
         program stream, for example
    
              (vga) selectdevice
         or
              (x11) selectdevice
    
         Finally, you can specify a default device in the environment
         variable  GS_DEVICE.   The  order  of  precedence  for these
         alternatives from highest to lowest  (Ghostscript  uses  the
         device defined highest in the list) is:
    
              selectdevice
              (command line)
              GS_DEVICE
              (first device in build list)
    
         Some printers can print  at  different  resolutions  (densi-
         ties).  To specify the resolution on such a printer, use the
         "-r" switch:
    
              gs -sDEVICE=<device> -r<xres>x<yres>
    
         For example, on a 9-pin Epson-compatible  printer,  you  get
         the lowest-density (fastest) mode with
    
              gs -sDEVICE=epson -r60x72
    
         and the highest-density (best output quality) mode with
    
              gs -sDEVICE=epson -r240x72.
    
         If you select a printer as the  output  device,  Ghostscript
         also allows you to choose where Ghostscript sends the output
         -- on Unix systems, usually to a temporary  file.   To  send
         the output to a file "foo.xyz", use the switch
    
              -sOutputFile=foo.xyz
    
         You might want to print each page separately.  To  do  this,
         send  the  output  to a series of files "foo1.xyz, foo2.xyz,
         ..."  using  the  "-sOutputFile="  switch  with  "%d"  in  a
         filename template:
    
              -sOutputFile=foo%d.xyz
    
         Each resulting file receives one page  of  output,  and  the
         files  are  numbered  in  sequence.  "%d" is a printf format
         specification; you can also use a variant like "%02d".
    
         On Unix systems you can also send output  to  a  pipe.   For
         example, to pipe output to the "lpr" command (which, on many
         Unix systems, directs it to a printer), use the switch
    
              -sOutputFile=\|lpr
    
         You can also send output to standard output for piping  with
         the switch
    
              -sOutputFile=-
    
         In this case you must also use the  -q  switch,  to  prevent
         Ghostscript from writing messages to standard output.
    
         To select a specific paper size, use the command line switch
    
              -sPAPERSIZE=a_known_paper_size
    
         for instance
    
              -sPAPERSIZE=a4
         or
              -sPAPERSIZE=legal
    
         At this time, the known paper sizes, defined in the initial-
         ization file "gs_statd.ps", are:  tab(>); l l l l l.
    
         PAPERSIZE>X     inches>Y     inches>X     cm>Y     cm      _
         a0>33.0556>46.7778>83.9611>118.816
         a1>23.3889>33.0556>59.4078>83.9611
         a2>16.5278>23.3889>41.9806>59.4078
         a3>11.6944>16.5278>29.7039>41.9806
         a4>8.26389>11.6944>20.9903>29.7039
         a5>5.84722>8.26389>14.8519>20.9903
         a6>4.125>5.84722>10.4775>14.8519
         a7>2.91667>4.125>7.40833>10.4775
         a8>2.05556>2.91667>5.22111>7.40833
         a9>1.45833>2.05556>3.70417>5.22111
         a10>1.02778>1.45833>2.61056>3.70417
         b0>39.3889>55.6667>100.048>141.393
         b1>27.8333>39.3889>70.6967>100.048
         b2>19.6944>27.8333>50.0239>70.6967
         b3>13.9167>19.6944>35.3483>50.0239
         b4>9.84722>13.9167>25.0119>35.3483
         b5>6.95833>9.84722>17.6742>25.0119    archA>9>12>22.86>30.48
         archB>12>18>30.48>45.72              archC>18>24>45.72>60.96
         archD>24>36>60.96>91.44             archE>36>48>91.44>121.92
         flsa>8.5>13>21.59>33.02     flse>8.5>13>21.59>33.02     hal-
         fletter>5.5>8.5>13.97>21.59           note>7.5>10>19.05>25.4
         letter>8.5>11>21.59>27.94           legal>8.5>14>21.59>35.56
         11x17>11>17>27.94>43.18 ledger>17>11>43.18>27.94
    
         Note that the B paper sizes are ISO sizes:  for  information
         about using JIS B sizes, see Use.htm.
    
         Ghostscript can do many things  other  than  print  or  view
         PostScript  and PDF files.  For example, if you want to know
         the bounding box of a PostScript (or EPS) file,  Ghostscript
         provides a special "device" that just prints out this infor-
         mation:
    
              gs -sDEVICE=bbox myfile.ps
    
         For example, using one of the example files distributed with
         Ghostscript,
    
              gs -sDEVICE=bbox golfer.ps
    
         prints out
    
              %%BoundingBox: 0 25 583 732
              %%HiResBoundingBox: 0.808497 25.009496 582.994503 731.809445
    
    INITIALIZATION FILES
         When looking for the  initialization  files  "gs_*.ps",  the
         files  related to fonts, or the file for the "run" operator,
         Ghostscript first tries to open the file with  the  name  as
         given,  using  the current working directory if no directory
         is specified.  If this fails,  and  the  file  name  doesn't
         specify  an  explicit  directory  or  drive  (for  instance,
         doesn't contain "/" on Unix systems or "\" on DOS  systems),
         Ghostscript tries directories in this order:
    
         1.  the directories specified by the -I switches in the com-
             mand line (see below), if any;
    
         2.  the directories  specified  by  the  GS_LIB  environment
             variable, if any;
    
         3.  the directories specified by the GS_LIB_DEFAULT macro in
             the  Ghostscript makefile when the executable was built.
             When gs is built  on  Unix,  GS_LIB_DEFAULT  is  usually
             "/usr/local/share/ghostscript/#.##:/usr/local/share/ghostscript/fonts"
             where "#.##" represents the Ghostscript version number.
    
         Each of these (GS_LIB_DEFAULT, GS_LIB, and -I parameter) may
         be  either  a  single  directory  or  a  list of directories
         separated by ":".
    
    X RESOURCES
         Ghostscript looks for the following resources under the pro-
         gram name "Ghostscript":
    
         borderWidth
              The border width in pixels (default = 1).
    
         borderColor
              The name of the border color (default = black).
    
         geometry
              The window size  and  placement,  WxH+X+Y  (default  is
              NULL).
    
         xResolution
              The number of x pixels per inch  (default  is  computed
              from WidthOfScreen and WidthMMOfScreen).
    
         yResolution
              The number of y pixels per inch  (default  is  computed
              from HeightOfScreen and HeightMMOfScreen).
    
         useBackingPixmap
              Determines whether backing store is to be used for sav-
              ing display window (default = true).
    
         See  the  usage  document  for  a  more  complete  list   of
         resources.   To  set  these resources on Unix, put them in a
         file such as "~/.Xresources" in the following form:
    
              Ghostscript*geometry:     612x792-0+0
              Ghostscript*xResolution: 72
              Ghostscript*yResolution: 72
    
         Then merge these resources  into  the  X  server's  resource
         database:
    
              % xrdb -merge ~/.Xresources
    
    SWITCHES
         -- filename arg1 ...
              Takes the next argument as a file name  as  usual,  but
              takes  all  remaining  arguments (even if they have the
              syntactic form of switches) and defines the name "ARGU-
              MENTS"  in "userdict" (not "systemdict") as an array of
              those  strings,  before   running   the   file.    When
              Ghostscript  finishes executing the file, it exits back
              to the shell.
    
         -Dname=token
         -dname=token
              Define a name in "systemdict" with  the  given  defini-
              tion.   The token must be exactly one token (as defined
              by the "token" operator) and may contain no whitespace.
    
         -Dname
         -dname
              Define a name in "systemdict" with value=null.
    
         -Sname=string
         -sname=string
              Define a name in "systemdict" with a  given  string  as
              value.   This  is  different  from  -d.   For  example,
              -dname=35 is equivalent to the program fragment
                   /name 35 def
              whereas -sname=35 is equivalent to
                   /name (35) def
    
         -q   Quiet startup: suppress normal  startup  messages,  and
              also do the equivalent of -dQUIET.
    
         -gnumber1xnumber2
              Equivalent      to      -dDEVICEWIDTH=number1       and
              -dDEVICEHEIGHT=number2.   This  is  for  the benefit of
              devices (such as X11 windows) that require  (or  allow)
              width and height to be specified.
    
         -rnumber
         -rnumber1xnumber2
              Equivalent    to    -dDEVICEXRESOLUTION=number1     and
              -dDEVICEYRESOLUTION=number2.   This  is for the benefit
              of devices such as printers that support multiple X and
              Y resolutions.  If only one number is given, it is used
              for both X and Y resolutions.
    
         -Idirectories
              Adds the designated list of directories at the head  of
              the search path for library files.
    
         -    This  is  not  really  a  switch,  but   indicates   to
              Ghostscript  that  standard input is coming from a file
              or a pipe and not interactively from the command  line.
              Ghostscript  reads from standard input until it reaches
              end-of-file, executing it like any other file, and then
              continues  with  processing the command line.  When the
              command line has been entirely  processed,  Ghostscript
              exits rather than going into its interactive mode.
    
         Note that the normal initialization file "gs_init.ps"  makes
         "systemdict"  read-only, so the values of names defined with
         -D, -d, -S, or -s cannot be changed  (although,  of  course,
         they can be superseded by definitions in "userdict" or other
         dictionaries.)
    
    SPECIAL NAMES
         -dDISKFONTS
              Causes individual character outlines to be loaded  from
              the  disk  the  first time they are encountered.  (Nor-
              mally Ghostscript loads all the character outlines when
              it  loads  a  font.)  This may allow loading more fonts
              into RAM, at the expense of slower rendering.
    
         -dNOCACHE
              Disables character caching.  Useful only for debugging.
    
         -dNOBIND
              Disables the "bind" operator.  Useful only  for  debug-
              ging.
    
         -dNODISPLAY
              Suppresses the normal initialization of the output dev-
              ice.  This may be useful when debugging.
    
         -dNOPAUSE
              Disables the prompt and pause at the end of each  page.
              This  may  be  desirable for applications where another
              program is driving Ghostscript.
    
         -dNOPLATFONTS
              Disables the use of fonts supplied  by  the  underlying
              platform  (for instance X Windows).  This may be needed
              if the platform fonts look undesirably  different  from
              the scalable fonts.
    
         -dSAFER
              Disables the "deletefile"  and  "renamefile"  operators
              and  the  ability  to open files in any mode other than
              read-only.  This may be desirable for spoolers or other
              sensitive  environments  where a badly written or mali-
              cious PostScript program must be prevented from  chang-
              ing important files.
    
         -dWRITESYSTEMDICT
              Leaves "systemdict" writable.  This is  necessary  when
              running  special  utility  programs  such as font2c and
              pcharstr, which must bypass  normal  PostScript  access
              protection.
    
         -sDEVICE=device
              Selects  an  alternate  initial   output   device,   as
              described above.
    
         -sOutputFile=filename
              Selects an alternate output file (or pipe) for the ini-
              tial output device, as described above.
    
    FILES
         The locations of many Ghostscript run-time  files  are  com-
         piled  into  the executable when it is built.  On Unix these
         are typically based in /usr/local, but this may be different
         on  your  system.   Under  DOS  they  are typically based in
         C:\GS, but may  be  elsewhere,  especially  if  you  install
         Ghostscript  with  GSview.  Run "gs -h" to find the location
         of Ghostscript documentation on your system, from which  you
         can get more details.
    
         /usr/local/share/ghostscript/#.##/*
              Startup files, utilities, and basic font definitions
    
         /usr/local/share/ghostscript/fonts/*
              More font definitions
    
         /usr/local/share/ghostscript/#.##/examples/*
              Ghostscript demonstration files
    
         /usr/local/share/ghostscript/#.##/doc/*
              Diverse document files
    
    ENVIRONMENT
         GS_OPTIONS
              String of options to be processed  before  the  command
              line options
    
         GS_DEVICE
              Used to specify an output device
    
         GS_FONTPATH
              Path names used to search for fonts
    
         GS_LIB
              Path names for initialization files and fonts
    
         TEMP Where temporary files are made
    
    SEE ALSO
         The various Ghostscript document files  (above),  especially
         Use.htm.
    
    BUGS
         See the Usenet news group comp.lang.postscript.
    
    
    VERSION
         This document was last revised for Ghostscript version 6.0.
    
    AUTHOR
         L. Peter Deutsch <ghost@aladdin.com> is the principal author
         of  Ghostscript.   Russell  J. Lang <rjl@aladdin.com> is the
         author of most of the MS Windows code in Ghostscript.
    
    
    
    


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