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gdb (1)
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    NAME
         gdb - The GNU Debugger
    
    SYNOPSIS
         gdb  [-help] [-nx] [-q] [-batch] [-cd=dir] [-f] [-b bps]
              [-tty=dev] [-s symfile] [-e prog] [-se prog] [-c core]
              [-x cmds] [-d dir] [prog[core|procID]]
    
    DESCRIPTION
         The purpose of a debugger such as GDB is to allow you to see
         what  is  going  on  ``inside''  another  program  while  it
         executes-or what another program was doing at the moment  it
         crashed.
    
         GDB can do four main kinds of things (plus other  things  in
         support of these) to help you catch bugs in the act:
    
    
            o Start your  program,  specifying  anything  that  might
              affect its behavior.
    
    
            o Make your program stop on specified conditions.
    
    
            o Examine  what  has  happened,  when  your  program  has
              stopped.
    
    
            o Change things in your program, so  you  can  experiment
              with  correcting  the  effects  of one bug and go on to
              learn about another.
    
         You can use GDB to debug programs written  in  C,  C++,  and
         Modula-2.   Fortran support will be added when a GNU Fortran
         compiler is ready.
    
         GDB is invoked with the shell command gdb.  Once started, it
         reads  commands  from the terminal until you tell it to exit
         with the GDB command quit.  You can get online help from gdb
         itself by using the command help.
    
         You can run gdb with no arguments or options; but  the  most
         usual way to start GDB is with one argument or two, specify-
         ing an executable program as the argument:
    
         gdb program
    
    
         You can also start with both an  executable  program  and  a
         core file specified:
    
         gdb program core
    
    
         You can, instead, specify a process ID as a second argument,
         if you want to debug a running process:
    
         gdb program 1234
    
    
         would attach GDB to process 1234 (unless  you  also  have  a
         file named `1234'; GDB does check for a core file first).
    
         Here are some of the most frequently needed GDB commands:
    
         break [file:]function
               Set a breakpoint at function (in file).
    
         run [arglist]
              Start your program (with arglist, if specified).
    
         bt   Backtrace: display the program stack.
    
         print expr
               Display the value of an expression.
    
         c    Continue running your program (after stopping, e.g.  at
              a breakpoint).
    
         next Execute next program line (after stopping);  step  over
              any function calls in the line.
    
         step Execute next program line (after stopping);  step  into
              any function calls in the line.
    
         help [name]
              Show information about GDB  command  name,  or  general
              information about using GDB.
    
         quit Exit from GDB.
    
         For full details on GDB, see Using GDB: A Guide to  the  GNU
         Source-Level  Debugger, by Richard M. Stallman and Roland H.
         Pesch.  The same text is available online as the  gdb  entry
         in the info program.
    
    OPTIONS
         Any arguments other than options specify an executable  file
         and  core  file (or process ID); that is, the first argument
         encountered with no associated option flag is equivalent  to
         a  `-se'  option, and the second, if any, is equivalent to a
         `-c' option if it's the name of a file.  Many  options  have
         both  long  and  short forms; both are shown here.  The long
         forms are also recognized if you truncate them, so  long  as
         enough  of the option is present to be unambiguous.  (If you
         prefer, you can flag option arguments with `+'  rather  than
         `-', though we illustrate the more usual convention.)
    
         All the options and command line arguments you give are pro-
         cessed  in  sequential  order.  The order makes a difference
         when the `-x' option is used.
    
    
         -help
    
         -h   List all options, with brief explanations.
    
    
         -symbols=file
    
         -s file
               Read symbol table from file file.
    
    
         -write
              Enable writing into executable and core files.
    
    
         -exec=file
    
         -e file
               Use file file as the executable file to  execute  when
              appropriate, and for examining pure data in conjunction
              with a core dump.
    
    
         -se=file
               Read symbol table from file file and  use  it  as  the
              executable file.
    
    
         -core=file
    
         -c file
               Use file file as a core dump to examine.
    
    
         -command=file
    
         -x file
               Execute GDB commands from file file.
    
    
         -directory=directory
    
         -d directory
               Add directory to the path to search for source files.
    
         -nx
    
         -n   Do not execute commands from any `.gdbinit' initializa-
              tion  files.  Normally, the commands in these files are
              executed after all the command  options  and  arguments
              have been processed.
    
    
    
         -quiet
    
         -q   ``Quiet''.  Do not print the introductory and copyright
              messages.   These messages are also suppressed in batch
              mode.
    
    
         -batch
              Run in batch mode.  Exit with status 0 after processing
              all   the   command  files  specified  with  `-x'  (and
              `.gdbinit',  if  not  inhibited).   Exit  with  nonzero
              status if an error occurs in executing the GDB commands
              in the command files.
    
              Batch mode may be useful for running GDB as  a  filter,
              for  example  to  download and run a program on another
              computer; in order to make this more useful,  the  mes-
              sage
    
              Program exited normally.
    
    
              (which is ordinarily issued whenever a program  running
              under  GDB  control terminates) is not issued when run-
              ning in batch mode.
    
    
         -cd=directory
               Run GDB using  directory  as  its  working  directory,
              instead of the current directory.
    
    
         -fullname
    
         -f   Emacs sets this option when it runs GDB  as  a  subpro-
              cess.   It  tells  GDB to output the full file name and
              line number in a standard,  recognizable  fashion  each
              time  a  stack  frame is displayed (which includes each
              time the  program  stops).   This  recognizable  format
              looks  like  two ` 32' characters, followed by the file
              name, line number and character position  separated  by
              colons, and a newline.  The Emacs-to-GDB interface pro-
              gram uses the two  ` 32'  characters  as  a  signal  to
              display the source code for the frame.
    
    
         -b bps
               Set the line speed (baud rate or bits per  second)  of
              any serial interface used by GDB for remote debugging.
    
    
         -tty=device
               Run using device for your program's standard input and
              output.
    
    SEE ALSO
         `gdb' entry in info; Using GDB: A Guide to the  GNU  Source-
         Level  Debugger,  Richard  M.  Stallman and Roland H. Pesch,
         July 1991.
    
    COPYING
         Copyright (c) 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
    
         Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies
         of  this  manual provided the copyright notice and this per-
         mission notice are preserved on all copies.
    
         Permission is granted to copy and distribute  modified  ver-
         sions of this manual under the conditions for verbatim copy-
         ing, provided that the entire resulting derived work is dis-
         tributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to
         this one.
    
         Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of
         this  manual  into  another language, under the above condi-
         tions for modified versions,  except  that  this  permission
         notice  may be included in translations approved by the Free
         Software Foundation instead of in the original English.
    
    
    
    


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