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Mail (1)
  • >> Mail (1) ( FreeBSD man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • Mail (4) ( Solaris man: Специальные файлы /dev/* )

  • BSD mandoc
     

    NAME

    
    
    mail
    
     
    Mail
    
     
    mailx
    
     - send and receive mail
    
     
    

    SYNOPSIS

    [-dEiInv ] [-s subject ] [-c cc-addr ] [-b bcc-addr ] [-F ] to-addr ... [-sendmail-option ... ]
    [-dEHiInNv [-F ] ] -f [name ]
    [-dEHiInNv [-F ] ] [-u user ]
    [-d ] -e [-f name ]  

    INTRODUCTION

    The utility is an intelligent mail processing system, which has a command syntax reminiscent of ed(1) with lines replaced by messages.

    The following options are available:

    -v
    Verbose mode. The details of delivery are displayed on the user's terminal.
    -d
    Debugging mode. See the debug mail option for details.
    -e
    Test for the presence of mail in the (by default, system) mailbox. An exit status of 0 is returned if it has mail; otherwise, an exit status of 1 is returned.
    -H
    Write a header summary only, then exit.
    -E
    Do not send messages with an empty body. This is useful for piping errors from cron(8) scripts.
    -i
    Ignore tty interrupt signals. This is particularly useful when using on noisy phone lines.
    -I
    Force to run in interactive mode even when input is not a terminal. In particular, the `~' special character when sending mail is only active in interactive mode.
    -n
    Inhibit reading the system-wide mail.rc files upon startup.
    -N
    Inhibit the initial display of message headers when reading mail or editing a mail folder.
    -s subject
    Specify subject on command line. (Only the first argument after the -s flag is used as a subject; be careful to quote subjects containing spaces.)
    -c cc-addr
    Send carbon copies to cc-addr list of users. The cc-addr argument should be a comma-separated list of names.
    -b bcc-addr
    Send blind carbon copies to bcc-addr list of users. The bcc-addr argument should be a comma-separated list of names.
    -f [mbox ]
    Read in the contents of your mbox (or the specified file) for processing; when you quit writes undeleted messages back to this file.
    -F
    Record the message in a file named after the first recipient. The name is the login-name portion of the address found first on the ``To: '' line in the mail header. Overrides the record variable, if set.
    -u
    Is equivalent to:

    "mail -f /var/mail/user"

     

    Startup Actions

    At startup time will execute commands in the system command files /usr/share/misc/mail.rc /usr/local/etc/mail.rc and /etc/mail.rc in order, unless explicitly told not to by the use of the -n option. Next, the commands in the user's personal command file ~/.mailrc are executed. The utility then examines its command line options to determine whether a new message is to be sent, or whether an existing mailbox is to be read.  

    Sending Mail

    To send a message to one or more people, can be invoked with arguments which are the names of people to whom the mail will be sent. You are then expected to type in your message, followed by a Aq Li control-D at the beginning of a line. The section below Sx Replying To or Originating Mail , describes some features of available to help you compose your letter.  

    Reading Mail

    In normal usage is given no arguments and checks your mail out of the post office, then prints out a one line header of each message found. The current message is initially the first message (numbered 1) and can be printed using the print command (which can be abbreviated p ) You can move among the messages much as you move between lines in ed(1), with the commands + and - moving backwards and forwards, and simple numbers.  

    Disposing of Mail

    After examining a message you can delete (d ) the message or reply (r ) to it. Deletion causes the program to forget about the message. This is not irreversible; the message can be undeleted (u ) by giving its number, or the session can be aborted by giving the exit (x ) command. Deleted messages will, however, usually disappear never to be seen again.  

    Specifying Messages

    Commands such as print and delete can be given a list of message numbers as arguments to apply to a number of messages at once. Thus ``delete 1 2 '' deletes messages 1 and 2, while ``delete 1-5 '' deletes messages 1 through 5. The special name `*' addresses all messages, and `$' addresses the last message; thus the command top which prints the first few lines of a message could be used in ``top * '' to print the first few lines of all messages.  

    Replying To or Originating Mail

    You can use the reply command to set up a response to a message, sending it back to the person who it was from. Text you then type in, up to an end-of-file, defines the contents of the message. While you are composing a message, treats lines beginning with the character `~' specially. For instance, typing ~m (alone on a line) will place a copy of the current message into the response right shifting it by a tabstop (see indentprefix variable, below). Other escapes will set up subject fields, add and delete recipients to the message and allow you to escape to an editor to revise the message or to a shell to run some commands. (These options are given in the summary below.)  

    Ending a Mail Processing Session

    You can end a session with the quit (q ) command. Messages which have been examined go to your mbox file unless they have been deleted in which case they are discarded. Unexamined messages go back to the post office. (See the -f option above).  

    Personal and System Wide Distribution Lists

    It is also possible to create a personal distribution lists so that, for instance, you can send mail to ``cohorts '' and have it go to a group of people. Such lists can be defined by placing a line like

    "alias cohorts bill ozalp jkf mark kridle@ucbcory"

    in the file .mailrc in your home directory. The current list of such aliases can be displayed with the alias command in . System wide distribution lists can be created by editing /etc/mail/aliases see aliases(5) and sendmail(8); these are kept in a different syntax. In mail you send, personal aliases will be expanded in mail sent to others so that they will be able to reply to the recipients. System wide aliases are not expanded when the mail is sent, but any reply returned to the machine will have the system wide alias expanded as all mail goes through sendmail(8).  

    Network Mail (ARPA, UUCP, Berknet)

    See mailaddr(7) for a description of network addresses.

    The utility has a number of options which can be set in the .mailrc file to alter its behavior; thus ``set askcc '' enables the askcc feature. (These options are summarized below.)  

    SUMMARY

    (Adapted from the "Mail Reference Manual" . )

    Each command is typed on a line by itself, and may take arguments following the command word. The command need not be typed in its entirety --- the first command which matches the typed prefix is used. For commands which take message lists as arguments, if no message list is given, then the next message forward which satisfies the command's requirements is used. If there are no messages forward of the current message, the search proceeds backwards, and if there are no good messages at all, types ``applicable messages '' and aborts the command.

    -
    Print out the preceding message. If given a numeric argument n goes to the n 'th previous message and prints it.
    #
    ignore the remainder of the line as a comment.
    ?
    Prints a brief summary of commands.
    !
    Executes the shell (see sh(1) and csh(1)) command which follows.
    Print
    (P ) Like print but also prints out ignored header fields. See also print , ignore and retain
    Reply
    (R ) Reply to originator. Does not reply to other recipients of the original message.
    Type
    (T ) Identical to the Print command.
    alias
    (a ) With no arguments, prints out all currently-defined aliases. With one argument, prints out that alias. With more than one argument, creates a new alias or changes an old one.
    alternates
    (alt ) The alternates command is useful if you have accounts on several machines. It can be used to inform that the listed addresses are really you. When you reply to messages, will not send a copy of the message to any of the addresses listed on the alternates list. If the alternates command is given with no argument, the current set of alternative names is displayed.
    chdir
    (c ) Changes the user's working directory to that specified, if given. If no directory is given, then changes to the user's login directory.
    copy
    (co ) The copy command does the same thing that save does, except that it does not mark the messages it is used on for deletion when you quit
    delete
    (d ) Takes a list of messages as argument and marks them all as deleted. Deleted messages will not be saved in mbox nor will they be available for most other commands.
    dp
    (also dt Deletes the current message and prints the next message. If there is no next message, says ``at EOF ''
    edit
    (e ) Takes a list of messages and points the text editor at each one in turn. On return from the editor, the message is read back in.
    exit
    ( ex or x Effects an immediate return to the shell without modifying the user's system mailbox, his mbox file, or his edit file in -f
    file
    (fi ) The same as folder
    folders
    List the names of the folders in your folder directory.
    folder
    (fo ) The folder command switches to a new mail file or folder. With no arguments, it tells you which file you are currently reading. If you give it an argument, it will write out changes (such as deletions) you have made in the current file and read in the new file. Some special conventions are recognized for the name. `#' means the previous file, `%' means your system mailbox, ``% user '' means user's system mailbox, `&' means your mbox file, and ``+ folder '' means a file in your folder directory.
    from
    (f ) Takes a list of messages and prints their message headers.
    headers
    (h ) Lists the current range of headers, which is an 18-message group. If a `+' argument is given, then the next 18-message group is printed, and if a `-' argument is given, the previous 18-message group is printed.
    help
    A synonym for ?
    hold
    ( ho also preserve Takes a message list and marks each message therein to be saved in the user's system mailbox instead of in mbox Does not override the delete command.
    ignore
    Add the list of header fields named to the ignored list Header fields in the ignore list are not printed on your terminal when you print a message. This command is very handy for suppression of certain machine-generated header fields. The Type and Print commands can be used to print a message in its entirety, including ignored fields. If ignore is executed with no arguments, it lists the current set of ignored fields.
    inc
    Incorporate any new messages that have arrived while mail is being read. The new messages are added to the end of the message list, and the current message is reset to be the first new mail message. This does not renumber the existing message list, nor does it cause any changes made so far to be saved.
    mail
    (m ) Takes as argument login names and distribution group names and sends mail to those people.
    mbox
    Indicate that a list of messages be sent to mbox in your home directory when you quit. This is the default action for messages if you do not have the hold option set.
    more
    (mo ) Takes a list of messages and invokes the pager on that list.
    next
    ( n like + or CR Goes to the next message in sequence and types it. With an argument list, types the next matching message.
    preserve
    (pre ) A synonym for hold
    print
    (p ) Takes a message list and types out each message on the user's terminal.
    quit
    (q ) Terminates the session, saving all undeleted, unsaved messages in the user's mbox file in his login directory, preserving all messages marked with hold or preserve or never referenced in his system mailbox, and removing all other messages from his system mailbox. If new mail has arrived during the session, the message ``You have new mail '' is given. If given while editing a mailbox file with the -f flag, then the edit file is rewritten. A return to the shell is effected, unless the rewrite of edit file fails, in which case the user can escape with the exit command.
    reply
    (r ) Takes a message list and sends mail to the sender and all recipients of the specified message. The default message must not be deleted.
    respond
    A synonym for reply
    retain
    Add the list of header fields named to the retained list Only the header fields in the retained list are shown on your terminal when you print a message. All other header fields are suppressed. The type and print commands can be used to print a message in its entirety. If retain is executed with no arguments, it lists the current set of retained fields.
    save
    (s ) Takes a message list and a filename and appends each message in turn to the end of the file. The filename in quotes, followed by the line count and character count is echoed on the user's terminal.
    set
    (se ) With no arguments, prints all variable values. Otherwise, sets option. Arguments are of the form option = value (no space before or after `=' ) or option Quotation marks may be placed around any part of the assignment statement to quote blanks or tabs, i.e. ``set indentprefix=-> ''
    saveignore
    Saveignore is to save what ignore is to print and type Header fields thus marked are filtered out when saving a message by save or when automatically saving to mbox
    saveretain
    Saveretain is to save what retain is to print and type Header fields thus marked are the only ones saved with a message when saving by save or when automatically saving to mbox Saveretain overrides saveignore
    shell
    (sh ) Invokes an interactive version of the shell.
    size
    Takes a message list and prints out the size in characters of each message.
    source
    The source command reads commands from a file.
    top
    Takes a message list and prints the top few lines of each. The number of lines printed is controlled by the variable toplines and defaults to 5.
    type
    (t ) A synonym for print
    unalias
    Takes a list of names defined by alias commands and discards the remembered groups of users. The group names no longer have any significance.
    undelete
    (u ) Takes a message list and marks each message as not being deleted.
    unread
    (U ) Takes a message list and marks each message as not having been read.
    unset
    Takes a list of option names and discards their remembered values; the inverse of set
    visual
    (v ) Takes a message list and invokes the display editor on each message.
    write
    (w ) Similar to save except that only the message body ( without the header) is saved. Extremely useful for such tasks as sending and receiving source program text over the message system.
    xit
    (x ) A synonym for exit
    z
    The utility presents message headers in windowfuls as described under the headers command. You can move 's attention forward to the next window with the z command. Also, you can move to the previous window by using z-

     

    Tilde/Escapes

    Here is a summary of the tilde escapes, which are used when composing messages to perform special functions. Tilde escapes are only recognized at the beginning of lines. The name ``tilde escape'' is somewhat of a misnomer since the actual escape character can be set by the option escape

    ~a
    Inserts the autograph string from the sign= option into the message.
    ~A
    Inserts the autograph string from the Sign= option into the message.
    ~b name ...
    Add the given names to the list of carbon copy recipients but do not make the names visible in the Cc: line ``( blind'' carbon copy).
    ~c name ...
    Add the given names to the list of carbon copy recipients.
    ~d
    Read the file dead.letter from your home directory into the message.
    ~e
    Invoke the text editor on the message collected so far. After the editing session is finished, you may continue appending text to the message.
    ~f messages
    Read the named messages into the message being sent. If no messages are specified, read in the current message. Message headers currently being ignored (by the ignore or retain command) are not included.
    ~F messages
    Identical to ~f except all message headers are included.
    ~h
    Edit the message header fields by typing each one in turn and allowing the user to append text to the end or modify the field by using the current terminal erase and kill characters.
    ~i string
    Inserts the value of the named option into the text of the message.
    ~m messages
    Read the named messages into the message being sent, indented by a tab or by the value of indentprefix If no messages are specified, read the current message. Message headers currently being ignored (by the ignore or retain command) are not included.
    ~M messages
    Identical to ~m except all message headers are included.
    ~p
    Print out the message collected so far, prefaced by the message header fields.
    ~q
    Abort the message being sent, copying the message to dead.letter in your home directory if save is set.
    ~r filename , ~r ! command
    ~< filename , ~< ! command
    Read the named file into the message. If the argument begins with a `!' , the rest of the string is taken as an arbitrary system command and is executed, with the standard output inserted into the message.
    ~R string
    Use string as the Reply-To field.
    ~s string
    Cause the named string to become the current subject field.
    ~t name ...
    Add the given names to the direct recipient list.
    ~v
    Invoke an alternative editor (defined by the VISUAL environment variable) on the message collected so far. Usually, the alternative editor will be a screen editor. After you quit the editor, you may resume appending text to the end of your message.
    ~w filename
    Write the message onto the named file.
    ~x
    Exits as with ~q except the message is not saved in dead.letter
    ~! command
    Execute the indicated shell command, then return to the message.
    ~| command , ~^ command
    Pipe the message through the command as a filter. If the command gives no output or terminates abnormally, retain the original text of the message. The command fmt(1) is often used as command to rejustify the message.
    ~: mail-command , ~_ mail-command
    Execute the given command. Not all commands, however, are allowed.
    ~.
    Simulate end-of-file on input.
    ~?
    Print a summary of the available command escapes.
    ~~ string
    Insert the string of text in the message prefaced by a single `~' If you have changed the escape character, then you should double that character in order to send it.

     

    Mail Options

    Options can be set with the set command and can be disabled with the unset or set no name commands. Options may be either binary, in which case it is only significant to see whether they are set or not; or string, in which case the actual value is of interest. If an option is not set, will look for an environment variable of the same name. The available options include the following:

    append
    Causes messages saved in mbox to be appended to the end rather than prepended. This should always be set (preferably in one of the system-wide mail.rc files). Default is noappend
    ask , asksub
    Causes to prompt you for the subject of each message you send. If you respond with simply a newline, no subject field will be sent. Default is asksub
    askbcc
    Causes you to be prompted for additional blind carbon copy recipients at the end of each message. Responding with a newline indicates your satisfaction with the current list. Default is noaskbcc
    askcc
    Causes you to be prompted for additional carbon copy recipients at the end of each message. Responding with a newline indicates your satisfaction with the current list. Default is noaskcc
    autoinc
    Causes new mail to be automatically incorporated when it arrives. Setting this is similar to issuing the inc command at each prompt, except that the current message is not reset when new mail arrives. Default is noautoinc
    autoprint
    Causes the delete command to behave like dp thus, after deleting a message, the next one will be typed automatically. Default is noautoprint
    crt
    The valued option crt is used as a threshold to determine how long a message must be before PAGER is used to read it. If crt is set without a value, then the height of the terminal screen stored in the system is used to compute the threshold (see stty(1)). Default is nocrt
    debug
    Setting the binary option debug is the same as specifying -d on the command line and causes to output all sorts of information useful for debugging .    #include <case>
    is invoked in this mode to send mail, all preparations will be performed and reported about, but the mail will not be actually sent. Default is nodebug
    dot
    The binary option dot causes to interpret a period alone on a line as the terminator of a message you are sending. Default is nodot
    escape
    If defined, the first character of this option gives the character to use in place of `~' to denote escapes.
    flipr
    Reverses the sense of reply and Reply commands. Default is noflipr
    folder
    The name of the directory to use for storing folders of messages. If this name begins with a `/' , considers it to be an absolute pathname; otherwise, the folder directory is found relative to your home directory.
    header
    If defined, initially display message headers when reading mail or editing a mail folder. Default is header This option can be disabled by giving the -N flag on the command line.
    hold
    This option is used to hold messages in the system mailbox by default. Default is nohold
    ignore
    Causes interrupt signals from your terminal to be ignored and echoed as @ 's. Default is noignore
    ignoreeof
    An option related to dot is ignoreeof which makes refuse to accept a Aq Li control-D as the end of a message. Ignoreeof also applies to command mode. Default is noignoreeof
    indentprefix
    String used by the ~m tilde escape for indenting messages, in place of the normal tab character (^I ) Be sure to quote the value if it contains spaces or tabs.
    metoo
    Usually, when a group is expanded that contains the sender, the sender is removed from the expansion. Setting this option causes the sender to be included in the group. Default is nometoo
    quiet
    Suppresses the printing of the version when first invoked. Default is noquiet
    record
    If defined, gives the pathname of the file used to record all outgoing mail. If not defined, outgoing mail is not saved. Default is norecord
    Replyall
    Reverses the sense of reply and Reply commands. Default is noReplyall
    save
    If this option is set, and you abort a message with two RUBOUT (erase or delete), will copy the partial letter to the file dead.letter in your home directory. Default is save
    searchheaders
    If this option is set, then a message-list specifier in the form ``/ x : y '' will expand to all messages containing the substring y in the header field x The string search is case insensitive. If x is omitted, it will default to the ``Subject '' header field. The form ``/to: y '' is a special case, and will expand to all messages containing the substring y in the ``To , '' ``Cc or '' ``Bcc '' header fields. The check for Qq Li to is case sensitive, so that ``/To: y '' can be used to limit the search for y to just the ``To: '' field. Default is nosearchheaders
    toplines
    If defined, gives the number of lines of a message to be printed out with the top command; normally, the first five lines are printed.
    verbose
    Setting the option verbose is the same as using the -v flag on the command line. When runs in verbose mode, the actual delivery of messages is displayed on the user's terminal. Default is noverbose

     

    ENVIRONMENT

    DEAD
    Pathname of the file to save partial messages to in case of interrupts or delivery errors. Default is ~/dead.letter
    EDITOR
    Pathname of the text editor to use in the edit command and ~e escape. If not defined, then a default editor is used.
    HOME
    Pathname of the user's home directory.
    LISTER
    Pathname of the directory lister to use in the folders command. Default is /bin/ls
    MAIL
    Location of the user's mailbox. Default is /var/mail
    MAILRC
    Pathname of file containing initial commands. Default is ~/.mailrc
    MBOX
    The name of the mailbox file. It can be the name of a folder. The default is mbox in the user's home directory.
    PAGER
    Pathname of the program to use in the more command or when crt variable is set. The default paginator more(1) is used if this option is not defined.
    REPLYTO
    If set, will be used to initialize the Reply-To field for outgoing messages.
    SHELL
    Pathname of the shell to use in the ! command and the ~! escape. A default shell is used if this option is not defined.
    TMPDIR
    Pathname of the directory used for creating temporary files.
    VISUAL
    Pathname of the text editor to use in the visual command and ~v escape.
    USER
    Login name of the user executing mail.

     

    FILES

    /var/mail/*
    Post office.
    ~/mbox
    User's old mail.
    ~/.mailrc
    File giving initial commands. This can be overridden by setting the MAILRC environment variable.
    /tmp/R*
    Temporary files.
    /usr/share/misc/mail.*help
    Help files.

    /usr/share/misc/mail.rc
    /usr/local/etc/mail.rc
    /etc/mail.rc
    System-wide initialization files. Each file will be sourced, in order, if it exists.

     

    SEE ALSO

    fmt(1), newaliases(1), vacation(1), aliases(5), mailaddr(7), sendmail(8)
    "The Mail Reference Manual"
     

    HISTORY

    A command appeared in AT&T System v1 . This man page is derived from "The Mail Reference Manual" originally written by An Kurt Shoens .  

    BUGS

    There are some flags that are not documented here. Most are not useful to the general user.

    Usually, is just a link to Mail and mailx which can be confusing.

    The name of the alternates list is incorrect English (it should be ``alternatives )'' but is retained for compatibility.


     

    Index

    NAME
    SYNOPSIS
    INTRODUCTION
    Startup Actions
    Sending Mail
    Reading Mail
    Disposing of Mail
    Specifying Messages
    Replying To or Originating Mail
    Ending a Mail Processing Session
    Personal and System Wide Distribution Lists
    Network Mail (ARPA, UUCP, Berknet)
    SUMMARY
    Tilde/Escapes
    Mail Options
    ENVIRONMENT
    FILES
    SEE ALSO
    HISTORY
    BUGS


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